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1. Explain How learning occurs.
2. Enumerate various metacognition
and studying techniques and
3. Identify the metacognitive techniques that
you find most appropriate for yourself.
In the school setting, your knowledge of
yourself should at least enable you to become
a better student.
We are “Homo sapiens or the wise man.
Being called wise, not only do we think but we
are also capable to think about thinking , like
how we think of things and why we think in a
certain way about things.
It is like your brain thinks about itself then
thinks about how it thinks about itself.
In the context of learning ,studies show that
when you are able to think about :
 how you think
 How you process the information and
 How you utilize techniques while you are
You have a higher chance of improving your
learning process than those who do not reflect on
their methods. The idea falls under the concept of
What is Metacognition?
Metacognition is commonly defined as:
 Thinking about thinking .
(Living Ston 1997; Papaleon Louca 2003).
 It is the awareness of the scope and limitations of
your current knowledge and skills .
(Meichenbaum 1985 in American Institute of Research 2010).
It is also not limited to the thinking process of
the individual.
It also includes keeping one’s emotions and
motivations while learning in check.
Some people learn better when they like the
subject, some when they are challenged by the topic ,
and others if they have reward system each time they
finish the task.
It is your personal reflection on your
knowledge and capabilities .


It is the mental process you employ using
what you have in planning and adapting to
successfully learn or accomplish a certain task.
3 Variables that affect how you know or assess
yourself as a thinker:

1. Personal Variable – evaluation of your

Strength and weaknesses in learning.
2. Task Variable – What you know or what you
think about the nature of the task , as well as
what the strategies the task requires.
3. Strategy Variable – refers to what strategies
or skills you already have in dealing with
certain tasks.

(American Institute of Research 2010)

In order to make self-appraisal and self-
management work, you MUST have an accurate
Self-assessment …you must be honest about
what you know and capable of in order to find
ways to utilize your strengths and improve on
your weaknesses.
(Schoenfield 1987 in Papaleon Louca 2003)
The Following are the other skills that can help in
exercising metacognition.
1.Knowing Your limits
looks at the scope and limitations of your
resources so that you can work with what you have
at the moment and look for ways to cope with
other necessities.
2. Modifying your Approach
It begins with the recognition that your
strategy is not appropriate with the task and or
you do not comprehend the learning experience
3. Skimming
basically browsing over a material and
keeping an eye on keywords, phrases and
4. Rehearsing
trying to make a personal interpretation or
summary of the learning experience . And one of
the fun ways to do this is by imagining yourself
being interviewed about your task.
As you try to convey what you have learned from
the resources, you also insert your opinions or
other personal take on the matter.
5. Self Test
as the name implies this is trying to test your
comprehension of your learning experience or the
skills you have required.
You can make an essay questions or definition
of terms test while you are reading or watching a
material . You can challenge yourself in completing a
task successfully.
Self Test does not only focus on what you have
learned but also on how you learned it.
Ask the questions like:
What strategies did I use?
How successful were my learning strategies?
How can I further improve my learning skills?
Other Strategies you need to develop is
having a Self-reflection , finding a mentor or
support group if necessary thinking out loud and
welcoming errors.
For clarification , welcoming errors does
not mean seeking them or consciously making
them. It means that when you commit a mistake
you do not dismiss it as insignificant or you do
not try to avoid responsibility of the results. By
having a positive attitude toward mistakes you
will also have the courage to venture into new
and unknown learning experiences that may one
day interest you.
1. TACIT learners
unaware of their metacognitive processes
although they know the extent of their
2. Aware learners
know some of their metacognitive
strategies but they do not plan on how to use
these techniques.
3. Strategic learners
as the name implies, strategize and plan
their course of action toward a learning

4. Reflective learners
reflect on their thinking while they are
using the strategies and adapt metacognitive
skills depending on their situation.
Tips that you can use in studying are the ff.

1. Make an outline of the things you want to learn ,

the things you are reading or doing and/or the
things you remember.

2. Break down the task in smaller and more

manageable details.

3. Integrate variation in your schedule and learning

Change reading material every hour and do not put
similar topics together.
4. Try to incubate your ideas.
During incubation you suddenly have ideas
coming to you . Review what you have written
when the incubation period is done.

5.Revise,Summarize and Take down notes

then re-read them to help you minimize
cramming in the last minute. Especially when
you are weak in memorizing facts and data.
6. Engage what you have learned.
Do something about it . Use your knowledge
during discussions – just do something about it.