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# UNIT 8

BY
Mrs.P.SWATHI
Direct energy conversion
Definition

## Transformation of one type of energy (such as

sunlight) to another (such as electricity) without
passing through an intermediate stage (such as
steam to spin generator turbines).

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Carnot Cycle

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Thermo-electric generators
Thermoelectric generators (also called Seebeck
generators) are devices that convert heat (temperature
differences) directly into electrical energy, using a
phenomenon called the "Seebeck effect" (or "thermoelectric
effect"). Their typical efficiencies are around 5–8%. More
recent devices use semiconductor p–n junctions made
telluride(PbTe), calcium manganese oxide, or
combinations thereof, depending on temperature. These
are solid-state devices and unlike dynamos have no moving
parts, with the occasional exception of a fan or pump.
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Seebeck effect
The Seebeck effect is the conversion
of temperature differences directly into electricity
The Seebeck effect is a classic example of
an electromotive force (emf) and leads to measurable
currents or voltages in the same way as any other emf.

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Peltier effect

## The Peltier effect is

the presence of
heating or cooling at
an electrified junction
of two different
conductors

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Joule Thomson effects

## In many materials, the Seebeck coefficient is not constant

in temperature, and so a spatial gradient in temperature
can result in a gradient in the Seebeck coefficient. If a
current is driven through this gradient then a continuous
version of the Peltier effect will occur. This Thomson
effect was predicted and subsequently observed by Lord
Kelvin in 1851. It describes the heating or cooling of a
current-carrying conductor with a temperature gradient.

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MHD generator

## The MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator transforms

thermal energy and kinetic energy directly into electricity.
MHD was developed because the hot exhaust gas of an
MHD generator can heat the boilers of a steam power
plant, increasing overall efficiency.
Principle
The Lorentz Force Law describes the effects of a charged
particle moving in a constant magnetic field. The simplest
form of this law is given by the vector equation.
F=Q .(v x B)
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Hall Effect
The Hall effect is the production of a voltage
difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical
conductor, transverse to an electric current in the
conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the
current.
The Hall coefficient is defined as the ratio of the
induced electric field to the product of the current density
and the applied magnetic field. It is a characteristic of the
material from which the conductor is made, since its value
depends on the type, number, and properties of
the charge carriers that constitute the current.
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Magnetic flux
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic
flux (often denoted Φ or ΦB) through a surface is the
component of the magnetic B field passing through that
surface.
Magnetic flux is the product of the average magnetic
field times the perpendicular area that it penetrates.
In the case of an electric generator where the magnetic
field penetrates a rotating coil, the area used in defining
the flux is the projection of the coil area onto the plane
perpendicular to the magnetic field

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Fuel Cells

## A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy

from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction
with oxygen or another oxidizing agent
There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of
an anode (negative side), acathode (positive side) and
an electrolyte that allows charges to move between the
two sides of the fuel cell

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Fuel Cell Principle
A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce
electricity. At the negative anode, a fuel such as hydrogen
is being oxidized, while at the positive cathode, oxygen is
reduced. Ions are transported through the electrolyte from
one side to the other. The type of electrolyte determines the
temperature window of operation. This window of operation
in its turn determines the catalysts that can be used, and
the purity of the fuel to be used. The theoretical open circuit
voltage of a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell is 1.23 V at 298 K, in
practice it is around 1 V at open circuit. Under load
conditions, the cell voltage is between 0.5 and 0.8 V.
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Faraday's 1st Law of Electrolysis - The mass of a
substance altered at an electrode during electrolysis is
directly proportional to the quantity of
electricity transferred at that electrode. Quantity of
electricity refers to the quantity of electrical charge,
typically measured in coulomb.

## Faraday's 2nd Law of Electrolysis - For a given

quantity of D.C electricity (electric charge), the mass of
an elemental material altered at an electrode is directly
proportional to the element's equivalent weight.
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