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HEIRS OF JOHN SYCIP, et. al.

v. COURT OF APPEALS, et. al.


GR No. 76487, Nov. 9, 1990
FACTS

Melencio Yu and his wife Talinanap Matualaga


are native Muslims. Prior to 1952, Talinanap
bought a parcel of land of more or less 55 ha in
Makar, General Santos City using the money
given to her by her parents.

The said land was later subdivided and they


applied for the Free Patent of their respective
portions. An Original Certificate of Title was later
issued in their favor however, the owner’s copy
of the title of the land was not given to them
because it was issued to a certain John Sycip.

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FACTS

In 1958, Talinanap left her husband because of


jealousy. During their separation, a certain
Alfonso Non approached Melencio and told him
that someone wanted to buy their land with a
price of P200 per hectare. However, Melencio
told Alfonso that the land sought to be bought
was his wife’s paraphernal property. Alfonso
insisted that if Melencio would sign the
document, he would secure as well his wife’s
signature but if he fails to do so, the contract
between them would be null and void.

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FACTS

With such understanding, Melencio signed the


"Agreement of Transfer of Rights and Deed of
Sale" and the "Quitclaim Deed" without receiving
any consideration therefor.

It turned out that the deeds involved the sale of


the whole parcel of land consisting of more than
55 hectares in favor of John Sycip for a
consideration of P9,500.00.

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FACTS

Upon their reconciliation, Melencio asked


Talinanap if someone approached her and
asked for her signature regarding the selling of
her land. Talinanap denied the same.

With this, the spouses sought the assistance of


the Commission on National Integration of
Southern Mindanao Office which informed them
that their original certificate of titles were taken
and delivered to John Sycip by virtue of the
documents in question.

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FACTS

The spouses demanded the return of their land


to them and the nullification of the purported
documents.

The trial court upheld the right of the spouses to


be restored to the possession of the aforesaid
parcel of land by declaring null and void ab
initio or inexistent all documents of conveyance
of sale by the petitioners.

On appeal, the appellate court in its decision


dated October 2, 1978 affirmed in toto the
decision of the trial court
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ISSUE

Whether the signed documents


are null and void ab initio.

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RULING

Yes, the Supreme Court held the


nullity of the disputed contracts.

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In all contractual, property or other
relations, when one of the parties is at a
disadvantage on account of his moral
dependence, ignorance, indigence,
“ mental weakness, tender age or other
handicap, the courts must be vigilant
for his protection.
Article 24, Civil Code
Human Relations (Special Torts)

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LAW

Section 145 of the Revised Administrative Code


of Mindanao and Sulu provides that any
transaction involving real property with said
non-Christian tribes shall bear the approval of
the provincial governor wherein the same was
executed or of his representative duly
authorized in writing for such purpose, indorsed
upon it.

Section 146 of the same code considers every


contract or agreement made in violation of
Section 145 as null and void.

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LAW

Section 120 of the Public Land Act


(Commonwealth Act No. 141) provides that
conveyances and encumbrances made by
illiterate non-Christians shall not be valid unless
duly approved by the Commissioner of
Mindanao and Sulu.

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LAW

Republic Act No. 3872 provides that


conveyances and encumbrances made by
illiterate non-Christian or literate non-Christians
where the instrument of conveyance or
encumbrance is in a language not understood
by said literate non-Christians shall not be valid
unless duly approved by the Chairman of the
Commission on National Integration.

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RULING

It is not disputed that the private respondents


are Muslims who belong to the cultural minority
or non-Christian Filipinos as members of the
Maguindanao Tribe. Any transaction involving
real property with them is governed by the
provisions of the Revised Administrative Code of
Mindanao and Sulu, the Public Land Act
(Commonwealth Act No. 141), as amended, and
Republic Act No. 3872, further amending the
Public Land Act.

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All the documents were therefore
declared null and void or inexistent
and deemed falsified without
consideration and more importantly
without approval by any of the
following officials: the Provincial
Governor of Cotabato, Commissioner
of Mindanao and Sulu, or the
Chairman of the Commission on
National Integration and therefore
null and void.

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END

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