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PATHOLOGY

PRESENTATION
Our Group Members:
1. Suvrojit Sharma (ADTU/2018-21/BML/001)
2. Jabidur Rahman(ADTU/2018-21/BML/072)
3. Zubahair Ahmed(ADTU/2018-21/BML/074)
4. Tamal Paik(ADTU/2018-21/BML/075)
5. Jyotirmoy Adhikary(ADTU/2018-21/BML/085)
[BMLT 2nd Semester]
LEUKEMIA(BLOOD CANCER)
Leukemia(Blood Cancer)
◦ Leukemia is a cancer of the early blood-forming cells.Most
often,leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, but some
leukemia’s start in other blood cell types.A person who has leukemia
suffers from an abnormal production of blood cells, generally
leukocytes(WHITE BLOOD CELLS).WBCs are a vital part of your immune
system.They protect your body from invasion by bacteria, viruses , and
fungi, as well as form abnormal cells and other foreign substances.
There are two divisions if
leukemia:
◦ CHRONIC AND ACUTE LEUKEMIA:- There are several stages of
maturation in a white blood cells lifespan.
1. Acute leukemia is a rapidly progressing disease that results in the accumulation of immature, useless
cells in the marrow and blood. They are squeezed out of the bone marrow too early and are not
functional.
2. Chronic progresses more slowly and allows more mature, useful cells to be made.Acute leukemia
crowds out the good cells more quickly than chronic leukemia.
◦ LYMPHOCYTIC AND MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA:- Leukemiasare also subdivided into the type
of affected blood cells.
1. If the cancerous transformation occurs in the type of marrow that makes lymphocyte, the disease is
called lymphocytic leukemia. A lymphocyte is a kind of white blood ccells inside the vertebrae
immune system.
2. If the cancerous change occurs in the type of marrow cells that go on to produce red blood cells,
other types of white cells, and platelets, the disease is called myelogenous leukemia.
3. Rarely seen in children. About 15,000 new cases of CLL are diagnosed annually.
Symptoms of Leukemia:
◦ Excessive sweating, especially at night (called “night sweats”)
◦ Fatigue and weakness that don’t go away with rest
◦ Unintentional weight loss
◦ Bone pain and tenderness
◦ Painless, swollen lymph nodes (especially in the neck and armpits)
◦ Enlargement of the liver or spleen
◦ Red spots on the skin, called petechiae
◦ Bleeding and brushing easily
◦ Fever or chills
◦ Frequent infections
Symptoms of Leukemia:
Diagnosis of Leukemia:
The primary diagnosis of leukemia is done by looking at the family history and by doing physical
examination. Certain blood test, biopsy and imaging techniques are useful for the diagnosis.
◦ Blood tests :- A complete blood count which may determine the number of WBCs,RBCs, and
platelets in the blood. The blood is also seen under the microscope in case of certain cute
condition.
◦ Biopsy :- Tissue biopsy is done by taking one marrow or lymph nodes and looking for it under the
microscope.
◦ Other test can be done, which are:
1. Flow cytometry examinesthe DNA of the cancer cells and determines their growth rate.
2. Liver function tests show whether leukemia cells are affecting or invading the liver.
3. Lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a thin needle between the vertebrae of your lower
back.This allows the doctor to collect spinal fluid and determine if cancer has spread to the
central nervous system.
Imaging studies, such as X-rays, ultrasound, and CT scans, help doctors look for any damage to
other organs that’s caused by the leukemia.
Leukemia can be controlled if diagnosed in early stage. Certain tests should be done for diagnosis
as soon as a person starts to get early symptoms which may indicate leukemia.
Treatments of leukemia:
There are certain treatments which can be used for treating leukemia, this are:
◦ Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill leukemia cells.Depending on the type of leukemia,
patient may take either a single drug or a combination of different drugs.
◦ Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to damage leukemia cells and inhibit
their growth. Radiation can be applied to a specific area or the entire body.
◦ Stem cell transplantation replaces diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow,
either from other part of the body, or from a donor.This procedure is also called a bone
marrow transplant.
◦ Biological or immune therapy uses treatments that help the immune system recognise
attack cancer cell.
◦ Targeted therapy uses medications that take advantage of vulnerabilities in cancer
cells. For example, imatinib (Gleevec) is a targeted drug that is commonly used
against CML.
Causes of Leukemia:
◦ The exact cause of leukemia is not known, but it is
thought to involve a combination of genetic and
environmental factors.
◦ Leukemia cells have acquired mutationsin their DNA
that cause them to grow abnormally and lose functions
of typical white blood cells..
◦ It is not clear what causes these mutationsto occur.
One type of change in the cells’ DNA that is common in
leukemia’s is known as a chromosome translocation.
Persons affected by Leukemia:
◦ Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) :- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
can occur in children and adults. About 21,000 new cases of AML are
diagnosed annually. This is the most common form of leukemia.
◦ Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) :- Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
occurs mostly in children. About 6,000 new cases of ALL are diagnosed
annually.
◦ Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) :- Chronic myelogenous leukemia
(CML) affects mostly adults. About 7,000 new cases of CML are diagnosed
annually.
◦ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) :- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is
most likely to affect people over the age of 55. It’s very rarely seen in children.
About 15,000 new cases of CLL are diagnosed annually.
Risk factors of Leukemia:
Some of the risk factors may be :
◦ Artificial ionizing radiation.
◦ Virusses -– HTLV -1 (human T-lymphotropic virus) and HIV (human
immunodeficiency virus).
◦ Benzene and some petrochemicals.
◦ Alkylating chemotherapy agents used in previous cancers.
◦ Maternal fetal transmission (rare).
◦ Smoking.
◦ Twins may have a greater risk of having leukemia due to single gene or
multiple gene.
◦ People with Down syndrome have a significantly higher risk of
developing leukemia, compared with people who do not have Down
syndrome.
T H A N K Y O U…