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Injury and Violence

Jonrifen Yosua Hutapea
Injuries are responsible for countless lost lives,
decreased quality of life, and substantial
health care costs.
While injuries afflict everyone, people of color
and low-income populations are particularly
Quality injury prevention is essential to closing
this health-equity gap and to improving
wellness outcomes for all.
There are two types of injuries:

• Unintentional

• Intentional/violence
Unintentional injuries include traffic-related
injuries, falls, burns, poisonings, and
Intentional injuries or violence include
homicides, rapes, suicides, abuse and assaults.

Intentional and unintentional injuries were first

clustered together as a single field because
both manifest as trauma.
Injuries and violence are widespread in society.

Many people accept them as “accidents,” “acts

of fate,” or as “part of life.” However, most
events resulting in injury, disability, or death
are predictable and preventable.

Numerous determinants (factors) can affect the

risk of unintentional injury and violence.
Individual behaviors
The choices people make about individual
behaviors, such as alcohol use or risk-taking,
can increase injuries.
Physical environment
The physical environment, both in the home and
community, can affect the rate of injuries
related to falls, fires and burns, road traffic
injuries, drowning, and violence.
Access to Services
Access to health services, such as systems
created for injury-related care, ranging from
prehospital and acute care to rehabilitation,
can reduce the consequences of injuries,
including death and long-term disability.
Social Environment
1) The social environment has a notable influence
on the risk for injury and violence through:
2) Individual social experiences (for example, social
norms, education, victimization history)
3) Social relationships (for example, parental
monitoring and supervision of youth, peer group
associations, family interactions)
4) Community environment (for example, cohesion
in schools, neighborhoods, and communities)
5) Societal-level factors (for example, cultural
beliefs, attitudes, incentives and disincentives,
laws and regulations)
Efforts to prevent unintentional injury may focus
• Modifications of the environment
• Improvements in product safety
• Legislation and enforcement
• Education and behavior change
• Technology and engineering
Efforts to prevent violence may focus on:
• Changing social norms about the acceptability
of violence
• Improving problem-solving skills (for example,
parenting, conflict resolution, coping)
• Changing policies to address the social and
economic conditions that often give rise to
For unintentional injuries, there is a need to better
understand the trends, causes, and prevention
strategies for:
 Motor vehicle crashes due to distracted driving
 Injuries related to recreational activities
In the area of violence, there is a need to better
understand the trends, causes, and prevention
strategies related to:
 Bullying, dating violence, and sexual violence
among youth
 Elder maltreatment, particularly with respect to
quantifying and understanding the problem