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Abrajano, Jonathan
Andaya, Jemelou
Mondejar, Marianne
Rayos del Sol, Stephanie
Rubenecia, Ma. Bernadette
Toledana, Jacqueline
Vijar, Jenilyn
- A very broad definition is that it
includes all of the planned learning
experiences of an educational system.

-is the document that contains
all the portion of the concepts
Covered in the subject.
Grammatical Syllabuses
- is based on the structures of a language.

-it is also known as Structural Syllabus.

-is the most common and traditional syllabus
-it is a syllabus in which grammatical
structures form the central organizing
evidence from the field
of second language
the linear sequencing
acquisition showed
that learners did not
In grammatical syllabuses
necessarily acquire
did not represent the
language in the order
complexity of language.
specified bv the
grammatical svllabus.
The “Organic” Approach to Grammar

- the traditional linear syllabus is the notion that

learning is a process of mastering each item
perfectly one at a time.

-Language development is an organic process.

-Learners do not acquire each item perfectly,

one at a time, but numerous
items imperfectly. all at once.
Needs Analysis
- set of techniques and procedures, known as
needs analysis, to analyze the communicative
needs of the learner.

- was a crucial tool for those working in the

areas of English for Specific Purposes
(ESP) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

“Communicative needs processor”, developed by

Munby, helps the syllabus
designers collect information about
the learner.
Two types of Needs according to Brindley:

• Objective needs

• Subjective needs

Two types of Need Analyses

• Objective needs analyses

• Need-based course design

Goal and Objective Setting

Goals are broad, general purposes for

learning a language.
At the broadest level. Halliday (1985)
argues that individuals use language

• to obtain goods and services

• to socialize with others, and
• for entertainment and enjoyment.

3 Elements of
Formal Objectives

Task element Conditions Element

Standards element
Competence –Based
Language Teaching (CBLT)

CBLT first
emerged in the a major influence on
syllabuses focuses on what
United States in
in particular sectors learners should be
the 1970s of the able to do at the
educational systems end of a course of
The Standards Movement

-The most recent manifestation of performance-

based approaches to syllabus design, in the
United States at least, is the standards movement.

-in the United States at least, is the standards

movement. Throughout the 1990s, there was a
concerted push for national education
Notional-Functional Syllabus

- Wilkins (1976), who argued for syllabuses based on

notions and functions.

- Notions are general conceptual meanings such

as time, cause, and duration, while functions are
the communicative purposes that are achieved
Through language such as apologizing, advising,
and expressing preferences.
Content-based Syllabuses

-Language is not presented directly, but is

introduced via the content of other subjects.
In school settings, this content is typically the
regular subjects in the curriculum such as science,
geography, and mathematics.

-Learners acquire the target language in the

course of doing other things.

Information Hands-on
management Data gathering

Critical Analysis and

Thinking construction
Task-based Syllabuses

- Task-based syllabuses represent a particular

realization of Communicative Language Teaching

- A task-based syllabus is based on task-based

learning, an approach where learners carry out
tasks such as solving a problem or planning an
Types of Tasks

Reproductive Creative
Tasks Tasks