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EDUCATION

AND
LITERACY
THE HISTORY OF
THE
PHILIPPINES
EDUCATION
 The education of Pre-Hispanic Filipinos was fit for
the needs of their times. There was no formal
schooling.
 Education was oral, practical and hands on.
 Parents trained their children informally.Mothers
educated their female children in housekeeping,
weaving, basket-making and other agriculture-
related activities. Fathers trained their male children
in hunting, carpentry, agriculture, shipbuilding and
mining.
ALIBATA- is an ancient writing system
that was used in what is now the
Philippines. Although it was all but
extinguished by Western colonization,
variants of it are still used in parts of
Mindoro and Palawan, and it is also
increasingly used by Filipino youth as a
way to express their identity.
 In fact, the Philippines was home to the first modern
public schooling system in Asia. It is also home to the
oldest universities, colleges, and vocational school.
 Children in the Philippines are educated in the primary
and secondary school systems for about thirteen to
fourteen years, depending on when they start after
which they complete the College Entrance
Examinations, that allow them to qualify for one of the
many institutions of higher learning.
 During the Pre-Spanish period, education was still
decentralized. Children were provided more
vocational training but lesser academics, which were
headed by their parents or by their tribal tutors. They
used a unique system of writing known as the
baybayin.
 BAYBAYIN- The Term Baybay literally means “To
Spell” in tagalog.
 It also known as the alibata, were in it is the ancient
writing system that we used before by the Filipinos.
TRIBAL TUTORS
 Education was informal and unstructured.
 Children were provide with vocational training
and less academics by parents and houses of
tribal tutors.
SPANISH MISSIONARIES
 Education was “Religion-centered”
 Education for the elite only.
 Spanish is compulsory
 Boys and girls school separated
 Inadequate, suppressed and controlled
When the Spanish first arrived in the Philippines, education of
the indigenous people was mainly viewed as the duty of
religious organizations. Parish friars put forth great effort to
teach the indigenous people to read believing that literacy was
the key to better lifestyles.

SPANISH
The Friars establish parochial
schools linked with Churches
to teach catechism to the
natives.
Education was manage,
supervised, and controlled by
the Friars.
Spanish education played a major role in that transformation.
The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the
first modern public education system in Asia were created
during the colonial period.
The focus of education during the Spanish Colonization of the
Philippines was mainly religious education.
The Catholic doctrine schools that were set up initially became
parochial schools which taught reading and writing along with
catechism.
 The Augustinians opened a school in cebu in 1565.
 Jesuits followed in 1581
 The Dominicans in 1587, which they started a school
in their first mission at bataan.
 The Franciscans, in 1577, immediately took to the
task of teaching improving literacy, aside from the
teaching of new industrial and agricultural
techniques.
 In 1863, an educational decree mandated the establishment
of free primary schools in each town, one for boys and one
for girls, with the precise number of schools depending on
the size of the population. There were 3 grades: entrada,
acenso, and termino. The curriculum required the study of
Christian doctrine, values and history as well as reading and
writing in Spanish, mathematics, agriculture, etiquette,
singing, world geography, and Spanish history. Girls were
also taught sewing.
 The decree also provided for a normal school run by the
Jesuits to educate male teachers in Manila. Normal schools
for women teachers were not established until 1875, in
Nueva Caceres.
 Despite the Decree of 1863, basic education in the
Philippines remained inadequate for the rest of the
Spanish period. Often, there were not enough schools
built. Teachers tended to use corporal punishment.
 After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the
schools established during the Spanish era were closed
down for a time by Emilio Aguinaldo’s government.
 The Malolos Constitution made elementary education
compulsory and provided for free schooling. The
Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, which provided courses
in law, medicine, surgery, pharmacy, and notarianship, was
established by Aguinaldo on 19 October 1898. He also set
up the Military Academy of Malolos and decreed that all
diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null
and void.
 Senior High School two years of specialized upper
secondary education choice of career track will define the
content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and
12 subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or specific
Tracks.
 Senior high school- CORE CURRICULUM 7 Learning
Areas under the Core Curriculum and these are: Languages
Literature Communication Mathematics Philosophy Natural
Science Social Sciences
 Senior high school-TRACKS Each student in Senior High
School can choose among 3 tracks: Academic Technical-
Vocational-Livelihood Sports and arts.
 The literacy rate (Percent of the population who can read
and write) is more than 90%. Elementary school lasts for
six years beginning at age seven. It is followed by four
years of high school. While almost of students attend
elementary school, less than two-thirds of all students go on
to high school, where there are fees.
 During the late 1980s, elementary schools enrolled about
9.2 million students. Secondary schools had some 3.4
million students enroll, while 1.1 million were attending the
162 colleges and universities, both public and private, found
in the Philippines. By the mid-90's. there were about
11.5 million students enrolled in elementary schools with
almost 5 million enrolled in secondary schools and about
1.8 million enrolled in universities and colleges.
 In the 1990s, about 13% of the population held an
academic degree
 The literacy rate in Philippines in now 89%, the
highest among Southeast Asian countries. Metro
manila has an even higher literacy rate of 96% with a
student population of 2.5million
-THE END