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Digital Image Processing

Chapter 1: Introduction

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology


Allahabad

Dr.Basant Kumar
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad
Digital Images in Early Era

1921 Telegraphing image

Printing industrial

Textile industrial

1922: image
from
Photographic
reproduction
Using punched
tape

These images are not computerized processed. (Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.
Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Digital Images in Early Era

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Digital Image Processing in Early Space Projects

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Energy Sources for Images

Acoustic, Ultrasonic and Electronic (in the form of electron beams)

Images based on radiation from the Electromagnetic Spectrum are


the most familiar

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Gamma Ray Imaging

Applications
Nuclear Medicine and astronomical observations
Principle – Inject a patient with a
radioactive isotope that emits gamma ray as it decays. Images are
produced from the emission collected by gamma ray detector
Positron Emission Tomography
Principle is same as X-ray tomography. Patient is given a radioactive
isotope that emits positrons as it decays. When a positron meets an
electron, both are annihilated and two gamma rays are given off.
These are detected and a tomographic image is created.

Cygnus loop- A star in the constellation of Cygnus exploded about


15000 years ago, generating a superheated stationary gas cloud
known as Cygnus loop.
Gamma Ray Imaging

Bone Scan
Gamma Ray Imaging

PET Image
Gamma Ray Imaging

Cygnus loop
X-Ray Imaging

X-ray are among the oldest sources of EM radiation used for


imaging

Applications- medical diagnostics, astronomy, industry

Principle-
-X-rays are generated using an X-ray tube, which is vacuum tube
with a cathode and anode. Cathode is heated causing release of free
electrons.
-High speed electrons when strike a nucleus, energy is released in
the form of X-ray radiation.
-Energy of X-ray is controlled by a current applied to the filament
in the cathode
Ultraviolet Imaging
Ultraviolet

Normal corn Smut corm

Fluorescence
phenomenon

Cygnus Loop (Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Visible Light and Infrared

Cholesterol

Taxol Microprocessor

Organic
Nickel oxide superconductor
Thin film

? (Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Visible Light and Infrared

Washington
D.C.

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Multispectral Imaging

Image is produced by
sensors that measure
reflected energy from
different sections of the
EM spectrum

Hurricane Andrew
(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.
Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Night time light of the world

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Nighttime light of the world (cont.)

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Automated Visual Inspection

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Automated Visual Inspection (cont.)

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Microwave

Spaceborne Radar image

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Magnetic

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Multispectral images

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Seismic imaging

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Ultrasound imaging

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Electron Microscope Images

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Synthesis Images

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
Contents in the book

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.
General Purpose Image Processing System

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E.


Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.