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A

Seminar
On
“Base Isolation and Seismic Consideration in Civil
Engineering”

APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT


S. V. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
SURAT – 395 007
Prepared By: ANKIT JAIN (U10CE078)
WHAT IS SEISMIC FORCE?

 Seismic Forces is generated due to


Earthquake.
 Earthquake is a natural disaster.
 It is a violent shaking of earth.
 It happens due to mass shifting in
bedrock.
 Because it is a natural disaster so
we can’t control it. Only we can Bhuj Earthquake, 2001
try that the damage should be
minimum.
Different Seismic Zones In India
MAGNITUDE AND INTENSITY
OF EARTHQUAKE
1. MAGNITUDE
 The Magnitude (M) is a quantitative measure of its strength in
terms of energy released .
2. INTENSITY
 The intensity of an earthquake is measured qualitatively in
terms of damages caused by it at a particular location.
 In general, larger the earthquake, greater is the intensity.

Magnitude of an earthquake is a measure of its size. While


intensity is an indicator of the severity of shaking generated
at a given location.
HAZARDS DUE TO EARTHQUAKE
a) Liquefaction of Soils
b) Ground Shaking
c) Surface Rupture
d) Landslides
e) Lateral Spreading
f) Shear Failure of Foundation
g) Settlements of Structures
h) Failure of Retaining Wall
i) Tsunamis And Seiches
LIQUEFACTION OF SOIL
 Liquefaction is a state of saturated cohesion less soil when its
shear strength is reduced to zero due to pore water pressure
caused by vibration during an earthquake. The soil starts
behaving like a liquid.

Soil Liquefaction During New Zealand Earthquake, 2011


PREVENTION OF LIQUEFACTION

a. Providing Deep Foundation


b. Compaction of Soil
c. Replacing the Liquefaction Soil
d. Grouting The Soil
e. Ground Water Pumping
f. Drainage of Soil
g. Providing Stone Columns
EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT DESIGN

 Objective of Earthquake-Resistant Design is to make such


buildings that can resist effect of ground motion and would
not collapse during the strong Earthquake.
 All the components of the structure and foundations are
designed to resist inertia forces in addition to the normal
forces.
 All the walls must be jointed properly, so that they can act
together against the earthquake shaking at the time of seismic
force transferring to the ground.
BASE ISOLATION METHOD
 The idea behind the Base Isolation is to detach (isolate) the
building from the ground in such a way that earthquake
motions are not transmitted up through the building, or at least
greatly reduced.

 If a building is rested on flexible pads that offer resistance


against lateral movements, then some effect of the ground
shaking will be transferred to the building above. If the
flexible pads are properly chosen, the forces induced by
ground shaking can be a few times smaller than that
experienced by the building built directly on ground.
EFFECT OF BASE ISOLATION METHOD
View of Basement in Bhuj Hospital Building

BASE ISOLATION METHOD


SEISMIC DAMPERS
 Seismic Dampers are fixed in place of structural elements as
diagonal braces.
 They absorb a part of seismic energy when it is transmitted
through them.

TYPES OF SEISMIC DAMPERS:


a. Viscous Dampers
Energy is absorbed by silicone-based
fluid passing between piston-cylinder
arrangement.
Viscous Damper

SEISMIC DAMPERS
SEISMIC DAMPERS
b. Friction Dampers
Energy is absorbed by surfaces with
friction between them rubbing against
each other

c. Yielding Dampers
Energy is absorbed by metallic
components.
Friction And Yielding Dampers

SEISMIC DAMPERS