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SENTENCE, PUNCTUATION, AND TYPES OF

SENTENCES

GROUP 4:
1. Nadhira Nurfitriani
2. Rini Mardiana
3. Tegar Putra Wibawa
A. SENTENCE
Sentence :
1. Group of words
2. Contains subject and verb
3. Expresses a complete though
 Start with capital letter
 Ends with a period/question mark/exclamation mark

Examples :
◦ I love Civil Engineering.
◦ What are you doing at workshop?
◦ You have to stop!
B. PUNCTUATION
There are 14 Punctuation in english grammar: The common punctuation we used more often in
1. Period (.) sentence :
2. Comma (,) 1. Period
3. Ellipsis ( ... ) 2. Comma
4. Colon (:) 3. Question mark
5. Semicolon (;)
4. Exclamation mark
6. Question mark (?)
7. Exclamation mark (!)
8. Quotation mark (“)
9. Hyphen (-)
10. Slash (/)
11. Parentheses ( () )
12. Apostrophe (‘)
1. PERIOD
Definition : Period is a punctuation mark that used as sentence endings
Function : Used as sentences endings.

Examples :
1. We waited for the yellow bus.
2. I want to kick some ball.
3. She looks so perfect.
2. Comma
Definition : A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause in a sentence or
separates items in a list.
Function : Used before the words "and" or "but" to join two independent clauses.

Examples:
1. The pet store has cats, dogs, hamsters, fish, and turtles.
2. I really wanted cereal this morning, but I didn’t have any milk.
3. Well, if you really want pancakes, I guess I can make them.
Basic Rules for Commas
1. Use a comma any time you combine two independent clauses with any of the seven coordinating
conjunctions (and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet):
1) I can’t go to the dance, but you should go without me.
2) I need to buy a dress, so I am going to the mall.

2. In most cases, don’t use a comma between an independent clause and a dependent clause:
1) Correct: I lost my cellphone while I was at the dance.
2) Incorrect: I lost my cellphone, while I was at the dance.

3) Correct: The dance was fun once my boyfriend arrived.


4) Incorrect: The dance was fun, once my boyfriend arrived.
Basic Rules for Commas
3. Use a comma when a dependent clause is followed by an independent clause:
1) If you go to the dance, don’t forget to bring your cellphone.
2) When you are walking to the dance, be careful not to break your high heels!
4. Use a comma when you start a sentence with a word or phrase that introduces it, like this:
1) After the dance, we should go out to a late-night diner
2) Yesterday afternoon, I went to the mall to buy a dress for the dance.
5. Use two commas in the middle of sentence to separate out information that isn’t essential to
sentence’s meaning, but only provides extra details. One comma goes after the first part, and one
goes after the second, like this:
1) The dance, held in the school gym, ended at midnight.
2) My dress, which was handmade, was perfect for the dance.
Basic Rules for Commas
6. Use commas when you are listing three or more things (words, phrases or clauses). Look at these
sentences:
1) Correct: I drove to the dance with Sally, Sam, and Tom. (Correct comma use)
2) Incorrect: I drove to the dance with Sally Sam and Tom. (Missing commas)
7. Don’t use commas when you are listing less than three things:
1) Correct: I drove to the dance with Sally and Sam. (No commas necessary)
2) Incorrect: I drove to the dance with Sally, and Sam. (Incorrect comma use)
8. Use commas when you have more than one adjective in a row describing something:
1) Correct: My dress was blue, sparkly, and long.
2) Incorrect: My dress was blue sparkly and long.
Basic Rules for Commas
◦ i) Don’t use commas in “that” clauses; restrictive clauses with word combinations like “_____ that
_______.”
◦ Correct: The dress that Sally bought for the dance is blue.
◦ Incorrect: The dress, that Sally bought for the dance, is blue

◦ Correct: The girl that wins prom queen will get a gold crown.
◦ Incorrect: The girl, that wins prom queen, will get a gold crown.
◦ j) Finally, you should use commas when you simply need a pause in a sentence:
◦ Hello, how are you?
◦ Sally, don’t forget to bring your cellphone to the dance.

3. Question mark 4. Exclamation mark

Definition: Definition
A punctuation mark placed at the end A punctuation mark that usually used
of a sentence or phrase to indicate a after an exclamation or interjection.
direct question. And can be used to ◦
express doubt or uncertainty about
something. ◦ Examples:

Examples: ◦ Please, let me be free!

◦ Are you happy to be a civil engineer? ◦ You looks so great!

◦ Kiki, do you love me?


C. SIMPLE SENTENCE
Simple sentence
1. Consist one independent clause
• Group of words
• Contains subject and verb
• Expresses a complete though

Examples:
1. Ibnu is sleeping.
2. Mersi came late today.
3. Rahma waited for the train.
4. Fajri reads a journal of Self Compacting Concrete.
5. Mr. Afrizal’s students completed their homework.
TYPES OF SIMPLE SENTENCES
1. Compound Verbs and Compound Subjects
• have a single subject and two or more verbs.
• have a single verb and two or more subjects.
Examples:
1) Ricu goes to canteen and eat fried chicken. (Compound verb)
2) Jack and Jill reads a book (Compund noun)

2. Single subject and a Single verb
• has only one subject and one verb.
Examples:
1) The staff performed well.
2) A white shirt always looks sharp.
D. COMPOUND SENTECE
Compound sentence:
1) Consist at least two independent clauses
2) Include coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).

Examples:
1. She did not cheat on the test, for it was the wrong thing to do.
2. They got there early, and they got really good seats.
3. I am counting my calories, yet I really want dessert.
4. Achmad walked to class, but Fajri ran.
5. He ran out of money, so he had to stop buy unimportant things.
TYPES OF COMPOUND SENTENCES
1. When one subject does more than one thing: Example 2:
Example 1: ◦ Every morning, Shelly eats breakfast.
◦ The boy ran to the park. ◦ After breakfast, Shelly works in her garden.
Have the same subject, but
◦ The boy ate a hotdog there. have two verbs

◦ Every morning, Shelly eats breakfast, and then she


◦ The boy ran to the park, and he ate a hotdog there works in her garden.
(We have two complete sentences joined by a (We have two complete sentences joined by a
coordinating conjunction, so we use a comma.) coordinating conjunction, so we use a comma.)
We can also say:
◦ The boy ran to the park and ate a hotdog there. ◦ Every morning, Shelly eats breakfast and then works in
her garden.
(Ate a hotdog is only a verb phrase, so we don’t need a (We have two complete verb phrases, so we don’t use a
comma.) comma.)
2. When multiple subjects do the same thing: 3. When multiple subjects do multiple things:
Example 1: Example 1:
◦ Yesterday the lion went to the candy store. ◦ The girl ate cake at the party. Subject “girl,”
◦ The zebra also went to the candy store yesterday verb “ate”
◦ The cat drank soda at the party. Subject “cat,”
verb “drank”
◦ Yesterday, the lion went to the candy store, and the They both share the phrase “at the party
zebra went, too
.
*You should know that in contrast, combining the
subjects makes a compound subject, but NOT a ◦ At the party, the girl ate cake but the cat drank soda.
compound sentence
◦ The lion went to the candy store, and the zebra
went too. (Compound sentence)
◦ The lion and the zebra went to the candy store.
(Compound subject)
 THANKYOU 