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THE RESEARCH PROCESS

• Formulating the Research problem


• Choice of Research Design
• Determining Sources of Data
• Designing Data Collection Forms
• Determining sampling design and sampling size
• Organizing and conducting the field survey
• Processing and analyzing the collected data
• Preparing the Research Report
Steps of Research Process
• Steps Identify & Formulate the problem

Chose the Research Design

Determine the information Needs

Design Data Collection Forms

Determine sample design & sample size

Organize and conduct field survey

Analysis & Interpret the data

Prepare the Research report


A problem well defined is half solved
In order to identify the
research problem three
categories of situations
arise
• Overt Difficulties
• Latent Difficulties
• Unnoticed
Opportunities
Formulation implies a clear statement
definition of problem
• Should specify
• sample and sampling unit
• Time and space boundaries
• Product features and consumer preferences
• Specific environmental conditions
Taking all these identify who, when,where and what of the research.
Example-”Women’s Dress Buyers in Delhi stores on January 30,1990”
“Women living in delhimetroploitan area who are shopping for one or
more dresses in January 1990”
Hypothesis Development
• A hypothesis is a proposition which the researchers want to verify!
• Not necessary every market research has a hypothesis.
Research Design
• Exploratory Research-discovery
of ideas based on secondary
data
• Descriptive Research-
charcterstics of certain group
• Casual Research-cause and
effective
Research Design
• Exploratory – a.Literature Search
b.Experience Survey
c.Focus Groups
d.Analysis of selected cases.
• Descriptive studies-
a.Longitudinal(True panel, Omnibus panel)
b.Cross sectional(sample survey)
• Casual Studies-
a.Natural Experiments (Time series & Trend design,Cross-
sectional design, combination of these),
b.Controlled experiments(Several types)
Determining Source of data
• Choosing primary or secondary data
• Primary data collect by investigator for his particular purpose
• Secondary data collected by someone else or third party for other
purpose but can be used by investigator for his /her study.
Designing Data Collection forms
• Observational Method
• Survey method
i.Personal
ii-Telephonic
iii.by email
iv-Diary
Determining sampling design and sampling
size
• Census survey vs sample survey
• Probability sampling & Non-probability sampling
• Ad-hoc/practical approach Vs Statistical approach(well defined
principle)
Organizing and conducting the field survey

• Interviewing
• Supervision of field work
Processing and analysing of collected data
• Aggregate the data in meaningful results
• Number of table prepared
• Framework for processing and analysing data
• To get meaning results from statistical tables researcher uses below
four steps.
Processing data
• Calculate measure of central tendency as also dispersion
• Cross-tabulate data for ,meaningful relations
• Calculate correlation coefficient and regression analysis
• Multivariate analysis
Preparing the Research Report
• Findings of research study and recommendations
• Objectivity, coherence,clarity,charts & diagrams
Errors in Research Process
• Sampling error
• Non-sampling errors- occur at any stage ( problem wrong, designing questionnaires, non-response, analysis and interpretation)
• Types of Non-Sampling errors
• Defective problem definition
• Defective population Definition
• Frame Error(list of all units from which sampling to be drawn)
• Surrogate Information error(Information sought by researcher different than information needed to solve the problem)
• Non-Response error
• Measurement error
• Experimental error
• Poor Questionnaire design
• Interviewer bias (emphasizing on certain word repeatedly,fiillling on behalf of customer by own)
• Data Processing error (recording ,coding ,encode
• Data analysis error
• Data interpretation error