Presentation on earthquake resistant structures.

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Presentation on earthquake resistant structures.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Contoh Explanation Text About Earthquake
- Baluchistan [Quetta] EQ May 31 1935
- Home Owner's Guide to Earthquake Retrofit
- Application of Geophysical Exploration for Environmental Earth.pdf
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- XIV. Earthquakes
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- Natural Disaster
- Feb1 2012 Magnitude 2
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- Earthquake
- ayothiraman2012.pdf
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STRUCTURES

Module I

INTERIOR OF THE EARTH

TECTONIC PLATES

FAULT

HYPOCENTRE

SEISMOGRAPH

SEISMOGRAM

P AND S WAVES

LOVE WAVES

RAYLEIGH WAVES

HOW TO READ SEISMOGRAM

• When you look at a seismogram, there will be wiggly lines all across it. These are

all the seismic waves that the seismograph has recorded. Most of these waves were

so small that nobody felt them. These tiny microseisms can be caused by heavy

traffic near the seismograph, waves hitting a beach, the wind, and any number of

other ordinary things that cause some shaking of the seismograph. There may also

be some little dots or marks evenly spaced along the paper. These are marks for

every minute that the drum of the seismograph has been turning. How far apart

these minute marks are will depend on what kind of seismograph you have.

• So which wiggles are the earthquake? The P wave will be the first wiggle that is

bigger than the rest of the little ones (the microseisms). Because P waves are the

fastest seismic waves, they will usually be the first ones that your seismograph

records. The next set of seismic waves on your seismogram will be the S waves.

These are usually bigger than the P waves.

• The surface waves (Love and Rayleigh waves) are the other, often larger, waves

marked on the seismogram. They have a lower frequency, which means that waves

(the lines; the ups-and-downs) are more spread out. Surface waves travel a little

slower than S waves (which, in turn, are slower than P waves) so they tend to arrive

at the seismograph just after the S waves. For shallow earthquakes (earthquakes

with a focus near the surface of the earth), the surface waves may be the largest

waves recorded by the seismograph. Often they are the only waves recorded a long

distance from medium-sized earthquakes.

SHADOW ZONES OF EARTH

MAGNITUDE AND INTENSITY

• Magnitude measures the energy released at

the source of the earthquake. Magnitude is

determined from measurements on

seismographs.

• Intensity measures the strength of shaking

produced by the earthquake at a certain

location. Intensity is determined from effects

on people, human structures, and the natural

environment.

MODIFIED MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE

Abbreviated Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale

I. Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable conditions.

II. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings.

III. Felt quite noticeably by persons indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings. Many people

do not recognize it as an earthquake. Standing motor cars may rock slightly. Vibrations similar to

the passing of a truck. Duration estimated.

IV. Felt indoors by many, outdoors by few during the day. At night, some awakened. Dishes,

windows, doors disturbed; walls make cracking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking

building. Standing motor cars rocked noticeably.

V. Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened. Some dishes, windows broken. Unstable objects

overturned. Pendulum clocks may stop.

VI. Felt by all, many frightened. Some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster.

Damage slight.

VII. Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction; slight to moderate in well-

built ordinary structures; considerable damage in poorly built or badly designed structures; some

chimneys broken.

VIII. Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable damage in ordinary substantial

buildings with partial collapse. Damage great in poorly built structures. Fall of chimneys, factory

stacks, columns, monuments, walls. Heavy furniture overturned.

IX. Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures thrown

out of plumb. Damage great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off

foundations.

X. Some well-built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and frame structures destroyed

with foundations. Rails bent.

XI. Few, if any (masonry) structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Rails bent greatly.

XII. Damage total. Lines of sight and level are distorted. Objects thrown into the air.

ISOSEISMAL MAP

CORRELATION BETWEEN MAGNITUDE

AND INTENSITY

Typical Maximum

Magnitude

Modified Mercalli Intensity

1.0 - 3.0 I

4.0 - 4.9 IV - V

RICHTER MAGNITUDE

In 1935, Charles Richter used a Wood-Anderson

seismometer to define a magnitude scale for shallow,

local (epicentral distances less than about 600 km (375

miles) earthquakes in southern California (Richter, 1935).

Richter defied what is now known as the local magnitude

as the logarithm (base 10) of the maximum trace

amplitude (in micrometers) recorded on a Wood-

Anderson seismometer located 100 km (62 miles) from

the epicenter of the earthquake. The Richter local

magnitude (ML) is the best known magnitude scale, but is

is not always the most appropriate scale for description of

earthquake size.

SURFACE WAVE MAGNITUDE

The Richter local magnitude does not distinguish between different types of

waves. Other magnitude scales that base the magnitude on the amplitude of a

particular wave have been developed. At large epicentral distances, body

waves have usually been attenuated and scattered sufficiently that the resulting

motion is dominated by surface waves. The surface wave magnitude

(Gutenberg and Richter, 1936) is a worldwide magnitude scale based on the

amplitude of Rayleigh waves a period of about 20 sec. the surface wave

magnitude is obtained from where A is the maximum ground displacement in

micrometers and is the epicentral distance of the seismometer measured in

degrees (360 corresponding to the circumference of the earth).

Note that the surface wave magnitude is based on the maximum ground

displacement amplitude (rather than the maximum trace amplitude of a

particular seismograph); therefore, it can be determined from any type of

seismograph. The surface wave magnitude is most commonly used to describe

the size of shallow (less than about 70 km (44 miles) focal depth), distant

(farther than about 1000 km 622 miles) moderate to large earthquakes.

BODY WAVE MAGNITUDE

For deep-focus earthquakes, surface waves are often too

small to permit reliable evaluation of the surface wave

magnitude. The body wave magnitude (Gutenberg, 1945)

is a worldwide magnitude scale based on the amplitude of

the first few cycles of p-waves which are not strongly

influenced by the focal depth (Bolt, 1989). The body wave

magnitude can be expressed as where A is the p-wave

amplitude in micrometers and T is the period of the p-

wave (usually about one sec). Body

wave magnitude cal also be estimated from the amplitude

of one-sec-oneperiod higher-mode Rayleigh waves

(Nuttli, 1973); the resulting magnitude, , is commonly

used to describe intraplate earthquakes.

MOMENT MAGNITUDE

It is important to realize that the previously described magnitude scales are

empirical quantities based on various instrumental measurements of ground

shaking characteristics. As the total amount of energy released during an

earthquake increases, however, the ground-shaking characteristics do not

necessarily increase at the same rate. For strong earthquakes, the measured

ground-shaking characteristics become less sensitive to the size of the

earthquake than for smaller earthquakes. This phenomenon is referred to as

saturation; the body wave and Richter local magnitudes saturate at magnitude

of 6 to 7 and the surface wave magnitude saturates at about . To describe the

size of very large earthquakes, a magnitude scale that does not depend on

ground-shaking levels, and consequently does not saturate, would be desirable.

The only magnitude scale that is not subject to saturations is the moment

magnitude (Kanamori,1977); Hanks and Kanamori, 1979) since it is based on

the seismic moment, which is direct measure of the factors that produce

rupture along the fault. The moment magnitude is given by where is the

seismic moment in dyne-cm.

FINDING EPICENTRE

• Measure the distance between the first P wave and the first S wave.

In this case, the first P and S waves are 24 seconds apart.

• Find the point for 24 seconds on the left side of the chart below and

mark that point. According to the chart, this earthquake's epicenter

was 215 kilometers away.

• Measure the amplitude of the strongest wave. The amplitude is the

height (on paper) of the strongest wave. On this seismogram, the

amplitude is 23 millimeters. Find 23 millimeters on the right side of

the chart and mark that point.

• Place a ruler (or straight edge) on the chart between the points you

marked for the distance to the epicenter and the amplitude. The

point where your ruler crosses the middle line on the chart marks

the magnitude (strength) of the earthquake. This earthquake had a

magnitude of 5.0.

RICHTER MAGNITUDE

FINDING EPICENTRE

• Check the scale on your map. It should look something like a piece of a

ruler. All maps are different. On your map, one centimeter could be equal

to 100 kilometers or something like that.

• Figure out how long the distance to the epicenter (in centimeters) is on

your map. For example, say your map has a scale where one centimeter is

equal to 100 kilometers. If the epicenter of the earthquake is 215

kilometers away, that equals 2.15 centimeters on the map.

• Using your compass, draw a circle with a radius equal to the number you

came up with in Step #2 (the radius is the distance from the center of a

circle to its edge). The center of the circle will be the location of your

seismograph. The epicenter of the earthquake is somewhere on the edge

of that circle.

• Do the same thing for the distance to the epicenter that the other

seismograms recorded (with the location of those seismographs at the

center of their circles). All of the circles should overlap. The point where

all of the circles overlap is the approximate epicenter of the earthquake.

FINDING EPICENTRE

RESPONSE HISTORY

RESPONSE SPECTRA N-S

RESPONSE SPECTRA E-W

DESIGN SPECTRA

BEHAVIOUR OF A BUILDING DURING

EARTHQUAKE

SHEAR WALLS

• Shear wall is a structural member

used to resist lateral forces

parallel to the plane of the wall.

• For slender walls where the

bending deformation is more,

Shear wall resists the loads due to

Cantilever Action.

• Lateral forces caused by wind,

earthquake, and uneven

settlement loads, in addition to

the weight of structure and

occupants, create powerful

twisting (torsional) forces. This

leads to the failure of the

structures by shear.

PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS

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