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CSC6402CT-Linux Programming

History Of Linux
• OSS
• OS
• What is Linux?
• Layers of Linux
• Evolution of Unix
• Evolution of Linux
• Linux free distributions(distros)
OSS
• Open Source Software (OSS) generally refers
to software for which the source code is
available and which the licensing scheme
permits the user to modify it and redistribute
it in modified or unmodified form.
Operating System
• The operating system manages the resources
of the computing environment by providing a
hierarchical file system, process management,
and other housekeeping functions [so that the
user is not burdened with these tasks].
What is Linux?
• Multi-User-Several users can log in locally
and/or remotely to the Linux
workstation/server and work concurrently
• Multi-process / Multitasking -Allows for
running multiple applications using
preemptive multitasking at the O/S level
• Multi-Processor-The Linux kernel currently
supports running multiple concurrent CPU’s
on any given system.
Layers of Linux OS-Structure
• The kernel layer: This runs the hardware and allocates
resources, sharing them where necessary. The file
system is often a separate process, as are other parts of
the kernel and various service daemons.
• The shell and other basic utilities layer: When you type
in a command, it's to the shell at the command-line
interface (sometimes CLI). Some commands are built-in
to the shell (e.g., cd for change directory) some are
programs or filters (like grep, global regular expression
and print).
• The applications layer: Where programs like gcc and vi
will run, also using system calls to request services from
the kernel
OS Structure
Evolution of Unix
• Originated at Bell Labs of AT&T in Murray Hill, NJ
in 1964
• Multics project (MULTiplexed Information and
Computing Service)
• written first in PDP-7 assembler by Ken
Thompson
• When the Multics project was cancelled, he lost
his game machine for his space-travel simulation
which allowed the player to fly a spaceship
through the solar system;
• so he ported Space Travel to a PDP-7
• Became widely available to academic institutions
by the mid-70s after it was re-written in C (1973)
Evolution of Unix(contd..)
• 1977,the Berkeley Software
Distribution (BSD) by computer research
group of Berkeley developed their 6th edition
of Unix.(So AT & T filed a lawsuit)-this
operation was aborted.
• 1983-Richard stallman had an idea of
developing a free os.GNU GPL
• GNUGNU’s Not Unix
• GNUfailed to attract so the idea went
incomplete.
Updation of Processor and books
• In 1985, Intel released the 80386, the first x86
microprocessor with a 32-bit instruction set and
a memory management unit with paging.
• In 1986, Maurice J. Bach, of AT&T Bell Labs,
published The Design of the UNIX Operating
System.
• This definitive description principally covered
the System V Release 2 kernel, with some new
features from Release 3 and BSD.
Idea of Minix
• In 1987, MINIX, a Unix-like system intended
for academic use, was released by Andrew S.
Tanenbaum to exemplify the principles
conveyed in his textbook, Operating Systems:
Design and Implementation.
• While source code for the system was
available, modification and redistribution
were restricted.
Idea of Linux
• In 1991, a personal project
by Finnish student Linus Torvalds-to create a
new free operating system kernel.
• 1991,Linus Torvaldsdeveloped the Linux
first kernel along with some utilities from GNU
OS
• 1992as 2nd version of GNU GPLFirst Open
source OS Linux/GNU Linux
Foundation of Linux
• Since BSD and GNU were not successful, Linus
torvalds had a strong idea to proceed with the next
version of Linux that is feasible.
• In 1991, Linus Torvalds studying computer
science at University of Helsinki
• He wrote the program specifically for the hardware
he was using and independent of an operating
system because he wanted to use the functions of
his new PC with an 80386 processor.
• Development was done on MINIX using the GNU C
compiler. The GNU C Compiler is still the main
choice for compiling Linux today.
Usenet Post about Linux
• On 25 August 1991, he (at age 21) announced
in Usenet as "comp.os.minix.“
Name
• Linus torvalds named that OS as Freax
free+freak+X(similar to Unix)
• All files related to his OS he stored in Freax folder.
• He wanted to upload all files in a FTP server with the
help of FTP server administrator (Ari Lemmke Helsinki
University of Technology).
• This administrator with asking Linus he named and
stored as Linux in his server.
• Finally he informed linus about the change and it was
accepted.
• Liːnɵksaudio guide along with his OS to pronounce
Linux
Linux and GNU
• Shells,Compilers and libraries are done with GNU Software which is
not available for distribution.version 0.01
• Then came 0.12
• Linux and GNU combined to create a free an OS version
0.99(GNU GPL) in 1992
• Torvalds has stated, "making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best
thing I ever did.“
• In 1994,GNU’s bulletin”Free Unix Clone”
• After 2000,Linus removed the GPL clause in its name then after it is
called only “Linux”(GPLv2)
• In 2007,GPLv3after discussions Linus had adopted new license for
his Linux Kernel.
• 1n 1996Richard Stallman Emacs editor
• Distros
Official Mascot
• Torvalds announced in 1996 a mascot for Linux,
a penguin.
• Torvalds was bitten by a little penguin on a visit
to the National Zoo & Aquarium in Canberra,
Australia.
• Larry Ewing description of this mascot.
• Tux was suggested by James Hughes as
derivative of Torvalds' UniX, along with being
short for tuxedo, a type of suit with color
similar to that of a penguin
• 2011: Version 3.0 of the Linux kernel is
released.
• 2015: Version 4.0 of the Linux kernel is
released
Linux Distros