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D1 Installation

Installation Requirements

BS EN 60079-14:2003

Cables

Junction
Field Box Certified
Apparatus Interface Uncertified
Safe Area Apparatus
D2 Subject Area Overview

 The Selection Process


 Useful Information and Definitions
 Ingress Protection to IEC529
 Creepage and Clearance
 Segregation
Typical installation
 Status of Codes of Practice
/ IEC60079-14 / BS EN 60079-14 / PD60079-14 / BS5345 Part 4
General requirements of IEC60079:14
Specific requirements for Ex i circuits
 Installations summary sections
Safe area apparatus, Interfaces, Cables, Junction Boxes and
Hazardous Area Apparatus
D3 Selection Process

Select a Field Mounted


Start Instrument:
Choice based on: Do you require
Accuracy Integrity Explosion
Protection No
Reliability Servicability
Cost Delivery (Ex) on system?

Yes

What is None Use it


available? BUT
O.Y.O.H.B.I.
Ex i

a b
Ex d Ex n Ex e
Interface
Method?
Yes
Manufacturer’s
Associated
Equipment Does
Choice
Assess No
Barriers Restrict
Advantages v. Disadvantages Use?
of each method
Isolators

Multiplexers Check
Certification
Check and
Certification installation
requirements
Go for it!
D4 Ingress Protection Code EN60529
0 : No protection against ingress of solid foreign 0 : No protection
bodies

1 : Protection against inadvertent contact with 1 : Protection against drops of


live or moving parts by the human body condensed water

2 : Protection against contact by fingers 2 : Protection against drops of liquid

3 : Protection against contact by objects of 3 : Protection against rain


thickness greater than 2.5 mm

4 : Protection against contact by objects of 4 : Protection against splashing liquid


thickness greater than 1 mm

5 : Complete protection against contact with live 5 : Protection against water jets
or moving parts plus harmful deposits of
dust
6 : Protection against conditions on
6 : Complete protection against contact and ships decks
ingress of dust
7 : Protection against immersion in
water

8 : Protection against indefinite


immersion in water
D5 Creepage and Clearance

Creepage Clearance

Distance across surface of insulating material Distance in air

"The clearance between two terminals of different Ex i


circuits shall be at least 6mm" [EN50020 Clause 5.4.1]

(Terminals should be at least IP20)


D6 Segregation

“Terminals for Ex i circuits shall be at least 50mm from terminals or


un-insulated conductors of any non-Ex i circuits”
EN50020 Clause 5.4.1]

50mm
Example:-
D7 Typical Installation

Field
Field Junction Box
device

Hazardous
area
trunking

PLC
D8 User Standards
 BS5345 Series
 “The Code of Practice for the selection, installation and
maintenance of electrical equipment in potentially
explosive atmospheres” BS5345
Withdrawn 1st Dec 1999. Parts 1&4
Can still be used for existing installations 1989
BS EN
60079-
 IEC60079:14 adopted as BS EN 60079-14:1998 14:2003
Standard for
Lacked guidance given in BS5345 electrical
BS5345 required updating installations in
hazardous
areas
 The new Published Document PD 60079-14: 2000
 provides additional guidance that was lacking in IEC60079:14

 IEC 60079-14:2002 includes most of the additions


contained within the PD
CENELEC has voted in parallel to the IEC document
BS EN 60079-14:2003
D9 Installation Requirements

Manufacturer Apparatus
Equipment: Approval
Construction
Standard
Certification
Designed and
certified to:

and is
Technical File
(Explosion Protection Document)
Installed and
Code of
maintained to: Practice

Installation Systems
Standard
Descriptive
Systems
Owner / User EN50039 Document
D10 Installations: CoP and Standards

 IEC60079
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres

 Part 14
Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines)

 “Codes of Practice”
BS5345 Part 1 General requirements and Part 4 for Ex i
DIN VDE 0165/2.91
NFPA 70 NEC Article 500
CEC-Appendix F

 PD 60079-14 (in UK)


Published Document
“Guide to the Application of BS EN 60079-14”
GEL/31/11
D11 BS EN 60079-14:2000
 Sections of the Installations Standard
 1 Scope
 2 Normative references
 3 Definitions
 4 General requirements
 5 Selection
 6 Protection from dangerous sparking
 7 Electrical protection
 8 Emergency switch-off and isolation
 9 Wiring systems

 10 Additional requirements for type of protection ‘d’


 11 Additional requirements for type of protection ‘e’
 12 Additional requirements for type of protection ‘i’
 13 Additional requirements for type of protection ‘p’
 14 Zone 2 requirements

 15 Special Applications
D12 What it contains
 Scope and Object
specific requirements for the design, selection and erection of
electrical installations

applies to all electrical equipment and installations in hazardous


areas whether permanent, temporary, portable, transportable or
hand-held

All voltages

 Exclusions
 Mining
 Dusts and fibres
 Explosives
 Covered by their own standards

 Definitions
 General requirements…… to follow
D13 General Requirements (a)

 Electrical installations in hazardous areas shall also


comply with the appropriate requirements for
installations in non-hazardous areas

 Importance of selection of correct electrical ratings

 Area Classification into Zones (using BS EN 60079-10)

 Location of electrical apparatus in safe area if possible

 Compliance with all general conditions (Clauses 5 to 9)


and specific conditions for method of protection
chosen. (Ex i: Clause 12)

 Installation of apparatus must be performed according


to its documentation
4.1
D14 General Requirements (b)

 Installations designed to provide ease of access for


inspection and maintenance (see IEC 60079-17)

 Non-compliance with code is acceptable under certain


controlled conditions
 Laboratories, pilot plants, R&D

 Comply with appropriate requirements for Safe Areas


Electrical and other risk assessment

 Electrical apparatus should, as far as is reasonably


practicable, be located in non-hazardous areas. Where it
is not possible to do this, it should be located in the
least hazardous area practicable

4.1
D15 General Requirements (c)

 Special conditions for exceptional circumstances


 research, development, pilot plant and other new project work
 need not meet the requirements of clauses 5 to 9 provided that
 the installation is in use for limited periods only
 is under the supervision of specially trained personnel
 and measures are taken to ensure
 an explosive atmosphere does not occur; or
 apparatus is disconnected on the occurrence of an explosive
atmosphere; or
 persons and the environment are not endangered by fires or
explosions in the experimental plant.

 In addition, the measures are laid down in writing by persons who:

 shall be familiar with relevant standards and codes of practice

 have access to all information necessary to carry out the assessment

4.1
D16 General Requirements (d)

 All electrical apparatus and wiring in hazardous areas


shall be selected in accordance with clauses 5 to 9
inclusive and the additional requirements for the
particular type of protection (clauses 10 to 14).

 Apparatus shall be installed in accordance with its


documentation.
Note replaceable items are of the correct type and rating
On completion of the erection an initial inspection of the
apparatus and installation is required (in accordance with IEC
79-17)

 Installations should be designed and apparatus and


materials installed with a view to providing ease of
access for inspection and maintenance (see IEC 60079-
17)
4.1
D17 Documentation (a)

 Documentation / Information required by Installer:


 area classification documents (see IEC 79-10);
 instructions for erection and connection;
 documents for electrical apparatus with any “conditions”
 documents covering any “special conditions”, “…/X”;
 was …./B for earlier standards
 and component certified apparatus, “…/U”;
 for apparatus with type of protection "s”
 descriptive system document for the Ex i system (see 12.2.5); -
manufacturer's/qualified person's declaration.

 Provision made for the use of uncertified apparatus by a


manufacturer's / qualified person's declaration

4.2
D18 Documentation (b)

 The following additional documentation should be


provided:

I) all necessary information to ensure correct installation of the


apparatus should be provided in a suitable form to the
personnel responsible for this activity;

2) location drawings (floor plans) identifying the position of


each item of electrical apparatus and lists of electrical
apparatus for inspection (see IEC 60079-17);

3) details of any relevant calculation, e.g. for purging rates for
instruments or analyser houses;

4) information necessary for the repair of the electrical


apparatus (see IEC 60079-19).

4.2
D19 Certification (a)

 4.3 Certification (additional clause)


In zones 0 and I (as defined in IEC60079-10), certified apparatus
(except simple apparatus) is generally used as an aid to
satisfying statutory requirements such as the Electricity at Work
I Regulations.

In zone 2 (as defined in IEC 60079-10), certification of-the


apparatus is optional.

In exceptional circumstances, e.g. research, development. pilot


plant and other new project work where suitable certified
apparatus is not obtainable. other apparatus may be used in
zone 0 and zone I. The users of such apparatus should obtain a
document of conformity.

4.3
D20 Certification (b)

NOTE I - Simple apparatus used within an Ex i circuit does not


need to be certified.

NOTE 2 - A document of conformity shows that the apparatus


has been examined and, where necessary, tested by a
competent body and has been found to conform to the
requirements of the appropriate standard for the particular type
of protection. Such apparatus would not, however. bear the
mark of a notified body.

NOTE 3 - The competent body uses techniques and facilities


similar to those normally used by a notified body for the type of
protection concerned.

NOTE 4- Equipment group II, Category 1G is suitable for zones


0, I and 2; equipment group II, Category 2G is suitable for zones
I and 2; equipment group II. Category 3G is suitable for zone 2.

4.3
D21 Certification (c)

 4.3.2 Acceptability of certification of apparatus for use


within the UK
 a) Certification to a European Standard by a European
Community National Certifying Authority or notified body
 b) Certification to a European Standard by a European
Economic Area National Certifying Authority or notified body
 c) Certification to a British Standard by a British National
Certifying Authority
 d) IEC Ex certification

e) Other certification


 Apparatus certified to standards other than those given in a) to d)
above may be used but in order to ensure correct application and
installation, reference should be made to the relevant national
code of practice that deals with these aspects. In cases where
there is doubt about the application or installation of such
apparatus, expert advice should be sought.

4.3
D22 Selection of Apparatus (a)

 Information required

 Area classification

T class

Apparatus Group and Subgroup

External influences and ambient temperature

5
D23 Selection of Apparatus (b)

 What may be used in Zone 0

 Ex ia certified apparatus to IEC 60079-11

 Equipment to BS EN 50284

 ATEX Group II, Category 1G


If used in accordance with manufacturers instructions

5.2
D24 Selection of Apparatus (c)

 What may be used in Zone 1

 Suitability of apparatus protection method for Zone 1


Flameproof enclosure “d” according to IEC 60079-1
Pressurised apparatus “p” according to IEC 60079-2
Powder filling “q” according to IEC 60079-5
Oil immersion “o” according to IEC 60079-6
Increased safety “e” according to IEC 60079-7
Intrinsic safety “i” according to IEC 60079-11
Encapsulation “m” according to IEC 60079-18

 if installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer's


instructions

 ATEX Group II, Category 2G


If used in accordance with manufacturers instructions

5.2.2
D25 Selection of Apparatus (d)

 What may be used in Zone 2


a) Electrical apparatus for Zone 0 or Zone 1

b) Electrical apparatus designed specifically for Zone 2


 Ex “n”
 or
c) Electrical apparatus complying with the requirements of a
recognised standard for industrial electrical apparatus which
does not, in normal operation, have ignition-capable hot
surfaces and
 1) does not, in normal operation, produce arcs or sparks, or
 2) in normal operation produces arcs or sparks (…..below Ex i levels!)

d) Meets Non IEC Standards

e) ATEX Group II, Category 3G


 If used in accordance with manufacturers instructions

5.2.3
D26 Selection of Apparatus (e)
C) of Previous Slide

This electrical apparatus shall be in an enclosure with a degree of


protection and mechanical strength at least suitable for non-
hazardous areas with a similar environment. It requires no special
marking, but it shall be clearly identified, either on the apparatus or
in the documentation, that it has been assessed by a person who
shall
 be familiar with the requirements of any relevant standards and codes
of practice and their current interpretations;
 have access to all information necessary to carry out the assessment;
 where necessary, utilise similar test apparatus and test procedures to
those used by national authorities.

d) of Previous Slide

apparatus in accordance with 5.2.4 … see next slide

5.2.3
D27 Selection of Apparatus (f)

 Non-IEC Standard Apparatus Compliance

 Selection of apparatus not available in accordance with


IEC standards
 In order to ensure the correct selection and installation of such
apparatus (for example equipment marked "s" and identified
with the zone of use in accordance with IEC 79-0), reference
should be made to the relevant national standard or code of
practice that deals with these aspects.

 This clause permits other Standards for Apparatus to be


used

 “Reference” to be made in Plant Safety Documentation


ATEX: Explosion Protection Document

5.2.4
D28 Selection of Apparatus (g)
 Ignition Temperature
The electrical apparatus shall be so selected that its maximum surface
temperature will not reach the ignition temperature of any gas or
vapour which may be present

 Marking

T1 450C
T2 300C
T3 200C
T4 135C
T5 100C
T6 85C

 T(amb) not marked?

 the apparatus shall be used only within the temperature range


from -20C to +40C

5.3
D29 Selection of Apparatus (h)

 Simple apparatus: ignition temperature

Simple apparatus used within an Ex i circuit can be assumed to


have a temperature classification of T4, provided that Po does
not exceed 1,3W.

Junction boxes and switches in Ex i circuits, however, can be


assumed to have a temperature classification of T6 because, by
their nature, they do not contain heat dissipating components.

5.3
D30 Selection of Apparatus (i)

 Selection according to apparatus grouping


 Electrical apparatus of types of protection "e", "m", "o",
"p" and "q" shall be of apparatus group II
 No energy dissipation

 Electrical apparatus of types of protection "d" and "i"


shall be of apparatus group IIA IIB or IIC and selected in
accordance with table 2.
Electrical apparatus of type of protection "n" shall normally be
of apparatus group II but, if it contains enclosed-break devices,
non-incendive components or energy-limited apparatus or
circuits, then the apparatus shall be group IIA, IIB or IIC and
selected appropriately:
 Gas/vapour subdivision Apparatus Subgroup
 IIA IIA, IIB or IIC
 IIB IIB or IIC
 IIC IIC
5.4
D31 Selection of Apparatus (j)

 Electrical apparatus shall be selected and installed so


that it is protected against external influences
 (for example chemical, mechanical, vibrational, thermal,
electrical, humidity) …..which could adversely affect the
explosion protection
The integrity of electrical apparatus may be affected if it is
operated under temperature or pressure conditions outside
those for which the apparatus has been constructed. In these
circumstances, further advice should be sought
 Ingress of process fluids
 Subjection to process pressures
Preferably such apparatus should be designed so that process
fluid containment is in a separate enclosure from the electrical
apparatus. Where this is not possible, apparatus designed to be
vented is acceptable. Failing this, a special sealing joint should
be used or a length of mineral-insulated metal sheathed cable or
an epoxy joint should be introduced into the cable run
 Light metals and Frictional Sparking
5.5/5.6
D32 Selection of Apparatus (k)

 Portable apparatus and test equipment

used in hazardous areas only when cannot reasonably be


avoided.

Portable apparatus protection appropriate to the zone(s) of use

Apparatus group and temperature classification should be


appropriate for all the gases and vapours in which the
apparatus may be used.

Ordinary industrial portable apparatus requires a controlled


procedure (“gas-free” certificate: absence of hazard)

5.7
D33 Selection of Apparatus (l)

 Testing

Electrical testing, for example continuity testing, is necessary to


facilitate the installation of hazardous area electrical apparatus,
care should be taken to ensure that the testing operation is safe
for the hazardous area

This may be achieved in various ways, including the appropriate


use of test equipment which is certified for hazardous area use.
Alternately, a "gas-free" certificate or a "hot work" permit which
allows the use of uncertified test equipment for a specific use
may be obtained from the appropriate responsible authority.

5.7
D34 Protection against Incendive Sparking

 .1 Contact with bare live parts prevented on all methods


except Ex i

 .2 Correct earthing of Extraneous Conductive parts


motor frames, cabinets, instrument housings, etc

 .3 Potential equalisation
Discussed in Earthing section

 .4 Static

 .5 Lightening Protection
Apply BS 6651

 .6 Cathodic Protection:
Proceed with caution!
Apply BS 7361
6.
D35 Electrical Protection

 This does not apply to Ex i

 All electrical circuits must be properly sized and


overload / short circuit protected
Auto-reclosers not permitted
Consider plant safety or other risks of automatic disconnection

 Emergency Switch Off


From outside the Hazardous Area
Emergency equipment required to continue to operate must be
on separate circuit

 Electrical Isolation
Required for safe working
Suitable Isolating device
Must includes the Neutral
Requirement for labelling of Isolators
7/8
D36 Typical System Block Diagram

Hazardous Area Safe Area


MTL 682 Loop powered IS indicator

kg
CONFIG mA o% 100%ENTER

Made in Luton, England

+
4/20mA
11
I 2
4/20mA I/P
+ 12
I 1
Vs-
20to35Vd.c. 13
Vs+ 14

Approved
FM
28V, 300 , 93mA
Max. amb.60°C Ex ( EN50020)
UM=250V BASEEFANo.Ex95C2289 [EExia]IIC
MTL5045fIsoolaItingdrivr

Cables
(*Chapter 13)

Uncertified
Junction Safe Area Apparatus
Box Certified (*Chapter 14)
(*Chapter 13) Interface
Field
Apparatus
(*Chapter 12) * MTL Application Note AN9003 cross-reference
to old BS5345 Part 4
D37 The Certified Interface

Hazardous Area Safe Area

Zone 1 or 2 use Ex ib
(12.2)

Field Junction Uncertified


Certified Safe Area
Apparatus Box Interface Apparatus

IP20
(12.2)
Locate in Safe Area: [EEx ia/b]
(12.2)

(12.2) indicates relevent section of BS EN 60079-14:2003 on subsequent slides


D38 Safe Area equipment

Application in
Zone 1 & 2:-
Uncertified instrument UM = 250V rms Max
( DCS, PLC or Computer etc.) 1500A (12.2)

L
Instrument Power
Application in
Electronics supply Zone 0:-
N Suitably fused,
double-wound
X E mains
transformer (12.3)

Recommendation:-
If using Barriers, Check separation!
Anchor 0V to IS
Busbar
D39 The Certified Interface

 All apparatus forming part of an Ex i system should,


where reasonably practicable, be identifiable as being
part of an Ex i system. This recommendation may be
met by conformity with 12.2.2.6. (Cable marking)

Hazardous Area Safe Area

Uncertified
Field Junction Certified Safe Area
Apparatus Box Interface Apparatus

(12.2.1)
D40 Power supplies Recommendations

 Passive Barriers:
 Best specification:-
 Rectified, Smoothed, Regulated, with Overvoltage clamping,
and…... adjustable?

 Beware overvoltage adjustment…. leading to:


 barrier leakage (possibly inaccuracy)
 barrier fuses being stressed and eventually ruptured

 Correct earth referencing

 Isolators and Active Barriers


 24Vdc common (check range!)
 Some are “loop-powered”
 But power is consumed....They dissipate heat…care with
cooling!
D41 Practice of interface installation
Use of Cable Trunking? (not shown) Issues:
Power dissipation/heating
Power distribution
Analogue accuracy effects

To Control
Field System
Cable Loops

0V common returns

Ex i Earth (12.2.4)
Field
terminations Structural Bond
(optional)
Power Supplies Mains Supply
Creepage & with Earth
Clearance!
Earthed separators used if 50mm separation is not possible
D42 Cabling for Ex i loops

 Requirements for conductors:-


 Adequately insulated; 500Vac (750Vdc) withstand
 Diameter minimum 0,1mm; single core or stranded (12.2.2.1)
 Protection of stranded ends (9.1.11)
 Earth or insulate unused cores (9.1.12)

 Requirements for cables:-


 Run so as to avoid:-
 Mechanical damage, Environmental attack or Chemical attack
 where unavoidable, protective measures shall be applied (9.1.2)

 Conform to the cable parameter requirements (12.2.2.2)

 Identified as carrying Ex i Circuits (12.2.2.6)


 Minimise influence from external Magnetic of electric fields

 Other points:-
 Mechanical Protection not necessary for safety purposes
 User may have own standards

BS5345 Part 4: Min 0.017sq mm copper


D43 Multicores

 Within overall sheath:-


 More than one Ex i circuit permitted
 Ex i and non-Ex i circuits are NOT permitted

 Conductor
 Minimum radial insulation thickness: 0,2mm

 Dielectric strength of Cable


 500Vac 750Vdc between bundle and armour and/or screen
 1000Vac 1500Vdc between bundles of conductors inside

 Faults considered between conductors


 Type A and B: NOT considered
 Other types must be considered with various faults applied
 Use of umbilical cables permitted as above

(12.2.2.8 &.9)
D44 Screen Earthing Overview

Barriers: Earth Screens at Busbar

SAFE
3 4

1 2
MTL

HAZ
Ex i 7728+

X Unused Cores: X
Earthed in safe area
(9.1.11)

Isolators: Earth Screens in Hazardous Area

(12.2.3.3)

Ex i
MTL5049

X PWR

X
…..screen should be connected to the equipotential bonding system
D45 Screens

(Screens: 12.2.2.3)
Junction Box
Individual isolated
terminals

Bus Bar
Earth

If conducting, enclosure to
be Earthed Ex i Earth
(General: 12.2.3)
D46 Multicore Cables

Armour

Ex i
Bus Bar

(12.2.2.4)
Structural Earth at both ends Ex i Earth
D47 Cable Parameters
(12.2.2.2)
Any cable stores energy:

L, C & R

Capacitance limit Inductance


determined by limit
Voltage determined
by Current
Energy = 1/2 CV2 = 1/2LI2

Resistance is determined by conductor properties and size

Likely worst case: Near Capacitance limit:


400 metres in IIC gases (Hydrogen) with 28V safety description
D48 Basic Cable Parameter Calculations
 Capacitance:
Suppose interface permits 0.13µF max
Transmitter Ci = 20nF
Available for Cable = 0.13µF - 20nF = 0.11µF
 so…...
at 200pF / metre
 max length = 0.11/0.0002 = 550metres

 Inductance:
Suppose interface permits 4.2mH max
Transmitter Ci = 10µH
Available for Cable = 4.2mH - 10µH = 4.19mH
 so……..
at 25µH / metre
 max length = 4.19/0.025 = 167.6metres

 If L is restrictive use L/R


Suppose interface permits 55µH/ max
Suppose cable is 25 µH/ :- This is acceptable
D49 L/R Ratio Explanation

A cable of zero length has no inductance

A cable of infinite length has infinite resistance, so no current flows

At some finite length, the stored energy reaches a maximum value

Finding and using this maximum value removes the need to consider
the cable length

20µJ L/R for cable


µJ must be

L/R for interface device


Length max.

See AN9003 sect 13.2


D50 Cable Parameters

Test Results for 10 metre length:


Cable Parameter Tests Arrangement: Capacitance O/C Inductance S/C

pF µH
Belden 9730: 3 pair
(each foil-screened with drain) core/core: 345 8.15
single core/screen: 770 4.8
parallel cores/screen: 1500 2.7

White
interleaved cores: 1147 2.7
Red
Green

interleaved cores 2345 2.7


& screen:
Cable arrangement
Manufacturers Quoted Cable Parameters:
0.61 sq mm @ 78.7 Ohms/loop Km all cores/screen: 4429 0.9
41 pF/m (between conductors)
22 pF/m (between 1 conductor & others to screen)
Inductance not quoted!

Likely worst case: Near Capacitance limit: between paired cores: 545 6.3
400 metres in IIC gases (Hydrogen) with 28V
safety description
tripled conductors: 946 3.6
D51 Practical Segregation of cables

50mm Segregation
Partitioned
minimum

Separate
Trays

Segregation not
required if cables
“mechanically”
protected
Armouring
Back on Non-Ex i
to
back

Normal practice
(12.2.5)
D52 Creepage and Clearance

Safe area
interfaces

SAFE
3 4

1 2
MTL

HAZ
7728+

SAFE
3 4

1 2
MTL

HAZ
7728+

SAFE
3 4

1 2
MTL

HAZ
7728+

Junction box
D53 Junction Boxes 1

Avoidance of inadvertent grounding


Other types of Ex circuits may
be included under certain or shorting of cores
conditions : Usually Ex e
Terminations must maintain
creepage and clearance distances,
6mm to other circuits and 3mm to
earth.
Minimum IP20 for Ex i purposes
(Application Function may require
greater protection)

Structural Earth
See AN9003 Page 46 Fig 13.1 for examples

(9.1.10: Jointing and 12.2.3: Termination)


D54 Junction Boxes 2

Clearance
6mm

Pair Screen

Clearance
3mm

Overall Screen

Gland
Plate M/C Structural
(12.2.3) Earth
D55 Hazardous Area Field Devices

 Install as specified by:


 System documentation
 Manufacturers’ instruction manuals
 Special conditions

 Typical conditions:
 500V insulation test*
 applies to both “simple” and “certified” apparatus
 Adequate structural earthing
 Undamaged
 Identifiable
 Traceable history
Ex Safety Instruction
Certificate Manuals
 Fail-safety
 Invasion prevented
 Installer to be
 Trained READ THESE
 Supervised
 and Competent CAREFULLY!
D56 Combined protection
I/O enclosure and contents:-
EEx emib[ia] Apparatus
Certification
Live working may be permitted
with Ex e:
Ex e Terminals must remain
shrouded
A “Special Condition” ( .../X)

Simple Apparatus Terminals

IP rating applies on this enclosure


D57 Interface Installation Requirements Summary

 To comply with system documentation and the


manufacturer's documentation
 Location of Interfaces should be permanently marked to show
the correct type of replacement in each position

 Interface designs and mounting must meet minimum of IP20

Barriers are normally mounted in the safe area at the nearest


convenient point to the hazardous/safe area boundary.

Enclosures required for protection from unauthorised


interference

Hazardous area mounting is permissible if the appropriate type


of protection is provided for interfaces and cabling:
 Zone 1 : Flameproof ( Ex d ) enclosure
 Zone 2 : Type N enclosure.

Note: No usable ‘Component Certification’ - Ex e / Ex n


D58 Summary of General Objectives
 Every electrical system must comply with existing standards
 covering protection from risk of fire & shock

 Ex i installations should also comply with IS Standards and


Codes of Practice
Comprehensive and specific documentation should be
available
Equipment should be fit for its purpose and adequately rated
Systems should be protected from unauthorised interference

 The Installer needs:


 Area Classification Documentation
 Instructions for erection and connection
 Documents showing ‘conditions’ (if ‘special’ then “/X”)
 Descriptive System Document for IS
 Manufacturer’s / Qualified person’s declaration
 After installation , systems should be inspected by competent
persons on a periodic basis
D59 Installation - Summary

Hazardous area circuits should withstand 500Vac test to earth


and to other circuits

Galvanically isolated interface is required for earthed sensors


(and in some countries for all Zone 0 circuits).

Cable Parameters should be matched

Installation should be in accordance with system


documentation and manufacturers' instructions

Creepage and clearance/segregation distances must be


maintained

IS circuits should be protected from invasion from other circuits


and from mechanical damage

Loops must be operationally correct (eg failsafe)


D60 "Systems" Certification

EN50 039 or BS5501: Pt 9: 1982


“Certified System” Arrangement or EN20 039 / IEC79-25

Could be
SYSTEMS
based on a
CERTIFICATE DESCRIPTIVE
Issued by Systems
SYSTEMS Certificate
National DOCUMENT
Certifying
Authority

APPARATUS INTERFACE
ASSOCIATED CERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE
APPARATUS
APPARATUS of of
CERTIFICATE
CERTIFICATE CONFORMITY CONFORMITY

USA + Canada calls this


Haz. Safe a “Control Drawing”!
Associated Area
Area
Apparatus Equipment
Equip
D61 BS EN 60079-14 / Sect 9

Wiring

Section 9
D62 BS EN60079-14 Section 9 : Wiring Systems

 The requirements for all wiring in Hazardous Areas


 Applies to all methods of protection

 But...

 The introduction to this section specifically excludes


clauses 9.1.2, 9.3.1/2/3 as irrelevant to Ex i

 Many other sections also state that parts are not


applicable to Ex i

 The complete document should be read before


performing installations!

 Some clauses assist with or consider Functional


Integrity
D63 9: Wiring systems: All Methods of Protection

9.1 General
9.1.1 Avoidance of damage
9.1.2 Non-sheathed single cores
9.1.3 Connections
9.1.4 Unused openings
9.1.5 Passage and collection of flammables
9.1.6 Circuits traversing a hazardous area
9.1.7 Fortuitous contact
9.1.8 Openings in walls
9.1.9 Jointing
9.1.10 Protection of stranded ends
9. 1.11 Unused cores (additional clause)
9.1.12 T class of wiring systems (additional clause)
9.2 Cable systems for zone 0
9.3 Cable systems for zones l and 2
9.3.1 Cable for fixed apparatus
9.3.2 Cable for portable and transportable apparatus
9.3.3 Flexible cables
9.3.4 Flame propagation
9.4 Conduit systems
D64 9: Wiring systems: Ex i Protection

9.1.1 Avoidance of damage


 Cable systems and accessories should be installed, so far as is
practicable, in positions that will prevent them being exposed to
mechanical damage and to corrosion or chemical influences (for
example solvents), and to the effects of heat (but see also 12.2.2.5
for Ex i circuits).
 Where exposure of this nature is unavoidable, protective
measures, such as installation in conduit, shall be taken or
appropriate cables selected (for example to minimise the risk of
mechanical damage, armoured, screened, seamless aluminium
sheathed, mineral insulated metal sheathed or semi-rigid sheathed
cables could be used)

 Where cable or conduit systems are subject to vibration, they shall


be designed to withstand that vibration without damage.

 NOTE - Precautions should be taken to prevent damage to the


sheathing or insulating materials of PVC cables when they are to
be installed at temperatures below -5C
D65 9: Wiring systems: Ex i Protection

9.1.3 Connections
 The connection of cables and conduits to the electrical apparatus
shall be made in accordance with the requirements of the relevant
type of protection. [Relaxed conditions for Ex i ]
 Beware Cold Flow
 The cable should be adequately clamped when the cable entry
device does not provide adequate clamping. Such cable entry
devices may be marked with the suffix "X".

9.1.4 Unused openings


 Blank any unused holes according to requirements of protection
method. Ex i only IP20

9.1.5 Passage and collection of flammables


 Provide adequate sealing between appropriate areas

9.1.6 Circuits traversing a hazardous area


 Protection must be appropriate to Zone
D66 9: Wiring systems: Ex i Protection

9.1.7 Fortuitous contact


 Fortuitous contact between the metallic armouring/sheathing of
cables and pipework or equipment containing flammable gases,
vapours or liquids shall be avoided
 The insulation provided by a non-metallic outer sheath on a cable
will usually be sufficient to avoid this.
 Excepting trace-heating

9.1.8 Openings in walls


 Openings in walls for cables and conduits between hazardous and
non-hazardous areas shall be adequately sealed, for example by
means of sand seals or mortar sealing.

9.1.9 Jointing
 Use of mechanical clamps (Terminations). Solder not permitted
unless mechanically jointed first.
 [ Note - Tinning of conductors not recommended for clamping
terminals on Ex i circuits]
D67 9: Wiring systems: Ex i Protection

9.1.10 Protection of stranded ends


 If multi-stranded and, in particular, fine-stranded conductors are
employed, the ends shall be protected against separation of the
strands, for example by means of cable lugs or core end sleeves,
or by the type of terminal, but not by soldering alone.

 The creepage distances and clearances in accordance with the


type of protection of the apparatus shall not be reduced by the
method by which the conductors are connected to the terminals.

 Above applies to Ex i

9. 1.11 Unused cores (additional clause)


 Unused cores in multi-core cables should be terminated into
appropriate terminals. They should be bonded to earth at one
point, preferably in the non-hazardous area.

9.1.12 T class of wiring systems (additional clause)


 The surface temperatures of cables selected in accordance with
the cable manufacturer's recommendations should not exceed
temperature class T4 and are unlikely in practice to exceed T6
D68 9: Wiring systems: Ex i Protection

9.2 Cable systems for zone 0


 The requirements for cables in a type of protection "ia"
installation are defined in clause 12. The requirements of cables
used with other apparatus used in zone 0 (see 5.2.1) are subject to
approval at national level.

9.3 Cable systems for zones l and 2


 9.3.1 Cable for fixed apparatus
 9.3.2 Cable for portable and transportable apparatus
 9.3.3 Flexible cables
 [ above not applicable to Ex i ]
 9.3.4 Flame propagation
 Cables for fixed wiring shall have flame propagation
characteristics which enable them to withstand the tests according
to IEC 332-1, unless they are laid in earth, in sand-filled
trenches/ducts or are otherwise protected against flame
propagation.

9.4 Conduit systems


 Not generally applicable to Ex i
D69 BS EN 60079-14 / Sect 12

Specific
Requirements
for Ex i

Section 12
D70 Sect.12: Requirements for Ex i

 12.1 Introduction

 The Code recognises Ex i as unique:-

“A fundamentally different installation philosophy has to be


recognised in the installation of Ex i circuits

In comparison with all other types of installations, where care is


taken to confine electrical energy to the installed system as
designed so that a hazardous environment cannot be ignited,
the integrity of an Ex i circuit has to be protected from the
intrusion of energy from other electrical sources so that the safe
energy limitation in the circuit is not exceeded, even when
breaking, shorting or earthing of the circuit occurs

As a consequence of this principle the aim of the installation


rules for Ex i circuits is to maintain separation from other
circuits
D71 Ex i

 12.1 Introduction
 12.2 Requirements stated for Zones 1 and 2
12.2.1 Apparatus
12.2.2 Cables
 12.2.2.1 General
 12.2.2.2 Electrical parameters of cables
 12.2.2.3 Earthing of conducting Screens
 12.2.2.4 Cable armour bonding
 12.2.2.5 Installation of cabling:
 12.2.2.6 Marking of cables
 12.2.2.7 Multicore cables containing more than one Ex i circuit
 12.2.2.8 Fault considerations in multicore cables
12.2.3 Termination of Ex i circuits
12.2.4 Earthing of Ex i circuits
12.2.5 Verification of Ex i circuits
 12.2.5.1 Ex i circuits with only one associated apparatus
 12.2.5.2 Ex i circuits with more than one associated apparatus
12.2.6 Cable entry devices (additional clause)
 12.3 Installations for zone 0
D72 12.2 Zones 1 and 2

Apparatus to comply with IEC 60079-11, at least “ib”

Simple apparatus need not be marked


 shall comply with the requirements of IEC 60079-11 and IEC 79-0

Associated apparatus preferably located in the safe area


 If in Hazardous Area, appropriately protected by other type

Maximum supply to instruments


 connected to the non-Ex i terminals of an associated apparatus
shall be UM, i.e. 250Vrms
 from a supply with a prospective short-circuit current not greater
than 1500A.

The components and wiring of Ex i apparatus and associated


apparatus should normally be mounted in enclosures of IP20
 to protect against unauthorised interference and damage.
 Alternative methods of mounting may be used if they offer similar
integrity against interference and damage (e.g. mounted in racks in
a normally locked switch-room).
D73 12.2.2 Cabling

 12.2.2.1 General
 Only insulated cables whose conductor-earth, conductor-
screen and screen-earth test voltages are at least 500 V a.c.
shall be used in Ex i circuits
 NOTE - 750 V d.c. may be used as an alternative test voltage.

If multi-stranded conductors are used in the hazardous area, the


ends of the conductor shall be protected against separation of
individual strands, for example by means of core-end sleeves.

The diameter of individual conductors within the area subject to


explosion hazards shall be not less than 0.1 mm. This applies
also to the individual wires of a finely stranded conductor.
D74 12.2.2.2 Electrical parameters of cables

 The electrical parameters (CC and LC or (CC and LC/RC) should


be known, or the worst case values specified by the
manufacturer should be assumed, for all cables used (see
12.2.5).

The parameters of the cable used should be:


 a) the most onerous electrical parameters provided by the cable
manufacturer; or
 b) electrical parameters determined by measurement of a sample;
or
 NOTE - Annex D details a satisfactory method of determining the
relevant parameters.
 c) 200 pF/m and either 1H/m or 30H/Ohm where the
interconnection comprises two or three cores of a conventionally
constructed cable (with or without screen).
D75 12.2.2.3 Earthing of conducting screens

 Where a screen is required, except as in a) through c) below,


the screen shall be electrically connected to earth at one point
only; normally at the non-hazardous area end of the circuit loop.

 This requirement is to avoid the possibility of the screen


carrying a possibly incendive level of circulating current in the
event that there are local differences in earth potential between
one end of the circuit and the other.

If an earthed Ex i circuit is run in a screened cable, the screen


for that circuit should be earthed at the same point as the Ex i
circuit which it is screening.

If an Ex i circuit or sub-circuit which is isolated from earth is run


in a screened cable, the screen should be connected to the
equipotential bonding system at one point.
D76 12.2.2.3 Earthing of conducting screens

 Special cases:
 a) If there are special reasons (for example when the screen has
high resistance, or where the screening against inductive
interference is additionally required) for the screen to have
multiple electrical connections throughout its length, the
arrangement of figure 2 may be used, provided that

 the insulated earth conductor is of robust construction (normally at


least 4 mm2 but 16mm2 may be more appropriate for clamp type
connections);

 the arrangement of the insulated earth conductor plus the screen is


insulated to withstand a 500 V insulation test from all other conductors
in the cable and any cable armour;

 the insulated earth conductor and the screen are only connected to
earth at one point which shall be the same point for both the insulated
earth conductor and the screen, and would normally be at the
non-hazardous end of the cable;

– the insulated earth conductor complies with 9.1.1;


– the inductance/resistance ratio (L/R) of the cable installed together with the
insulated earth conductor shall be established and shown to conform to the
requirements of 12.2.5.
D77 12.2.2.3 Earthing of conducting screens

 Special cases (cont):


 b) If the installation is effected and maintained in such a manner
that there is a high level of assurance that potential equalisation
exists between each end of the circuit (that is between the
hazardous area and the non-hazardous area), then, if desired,
cable screens may be connected to earth at both ends of the cable
and, if required, at any interposing points.

 c) Multiple earthing through small capacitors (for example 1nF,


1500V ceramic) is acceptable provided that the total capacitance
does not exceed 10nF,
D78 Figure 2 cited in 12.2.2.3
Hazardous Area Non-hazardous Area
Cable sheath

Equipment Screen Control panel

Signal

Insulated
connections
Earthing system
Insulated earth conductor

Additional screen
earth if required
(see 12,2,2,3)
D79 12.2.2.4 Cable armour bonding

Armour should normally be bonded to the equipotential bonding


system via the cable entry devices or equivalent, at each end of the
cable run.
Where there are interposing junction boxes or other apparatus, the
armour will normally be similarly bonded to the equipotential
bonding system at these points.
In the event that armour is required not to be bonded to the
equipotential bonding system at any interposing point, care should
be taken to ensure that the electrical continuity of the armour from
end to end of the complete cable run is maintained.

Where bonding of the armour at a cable entry point is not practical,


or where design requirements make this not permissible, care
should be taken to avoid any potential difference which may arise
between the armour and the equipotential bonding system giving
rise to an incendive spark. In any event, there shall be at least one
electrical bonding connection of the armour to the equipotential
bonding system. The cable entry device for isolating the armour
from earth shall be installed in the non-hazardous area or zone 2.
D80 12.2.2.5 Installation of cables

 Installations with Ex i circuits shall be erected in such a way


that their intrinsic safety is not adversely affected by external
electric or magnetic fields such as from nearby overhead power
lines or heavy current-carrying single core cables. This can be
achieved, for example, by the use of screens and/or twisted
cores or by maintaining an adequate distance from the source
of the electric or magnetic field.

In addition to the cable requirements of 9.1.1, cables, in both the


hazardous and non-hazardous area, shall meet one of the
following requirements:
 a) Ex i circuit cables are separated from all non-Ex i circuit
cables, or

 b) Ex i circuit cables are so placed as to protect against the risk of


mechanical damage,
 or

 c) Ex i or non-Ex i circuit cables are armoured, metal sheathed or


screened.
D81 12.2.2.5 Installation of cables (Cont.)

Conductors of Ex i circuits and non-Ex i circuits shall not be


carried in the same cable.
 NOTE -For some special applications, such as the monitoring of
power cables, circuits using the principles of intrinsic safety are
included in the same cable as power circuits. Such installations
require a specific analysis of the risks involved

Conductors of Ex i circuits and non-Ex i circuits in the same


bundle or duct shall be separated by an intermediate layer of
insulating material or by an earthed metal partition. No
segregation is required if metal sheaths or screens are used for
the Ex i or non-Ex i circuits.

Unused cores in a multi-core cable should be terminated into


appropriate terminals. They should be bonded together and
connected to the earth point used to earth any Ex i circuits in
the same cable. Where the circuit(s) are isolated from earth, the
unused cores should be connected to the equipotential bonding
system at one point.
D82 12.2.2.6 Marking of cables

 Cables containing Ex i circuits shall be marked.


 to identify them as part of an intrinsically safe circuit.

 If sheaths or coverings are marked by a colour, the colour


used shall be light blue.

 Where Ex i circuits have been identified by the use of light


blue covered cable, light blue covered cable shall not be used
for other purposes in a manner or location which could lead
to confusion or detract from the effectiveness of the
identification of Ex i circuits.

 Cables marked in this way shall not be used for other


purposes.

 If Ex i or all non-Ex i cables are armoured, metal sheathed or


screened then marking of Ex i cables is not required.
 (Use of screens is contentious)
D83 12.2.2.6 Marking of cables (Cont.)

Alternative marking measures shall be taken inside measuring


and control cabinets, switchgear, distribution equipment, etc.

Here, there is a risk of confusion between cables of Ex i and


non-Ex i circuits, in the presence of a blue neutral conductor.

Such measures include


 combining the cores in a common light blue harness
 labelling
 clear arrangement and spatial separation
D84 12.2.2.7 Multi-core cables

 ….containing more than one Ex i circuit


 The requirements of this subclause are in addition to those of
12.2.2.1 to 12.2.2.6.

Multi-core cables may contain more than one Ex i circuit but Ex


i and non-Ex i circuits should not be carried in the same multi-
core.
 NOTE - For some special applications, such as monitoring power
cables, circuits using the principles of intrinsic safety are included
in the same cable as power circuits. Such installations require a
specific analysis of the risks involved.

The radial thickness of the conductor insulation shall be


appropriate to the conductor diameter and the nature of the
insulation. The minimum insulation thickness shall be 0,2 mm.
 The conductor insulation shall be such that it will be capable of
withstanding an r.m.s. a.c. test voltage of twice the nominal voltage
of the Ex i circuit with a minimum of 500 V
D85 12.2.2.7 Multi-core cables (Cont.)

 ….
 Multicore cables shall be of a type capable of withstanding an
r.m.s. a.c. dielectric test of at least:
 500 V applied between any armouring and/or screen(s) joined
together and all the cores joined together;

 1000 V applied between a bundle comprising one half of the cable


cores joined together and a bundle comprising the other half of the
cores joined together. This test is not applicable to multicore
cables with conducting screens for individual circuits.

 NOTE - 750Vd.c. and 1500Vd.c. may be used as alternative test


voltages to the 500Va.c. and 1000Va.c. respectively specified
above.

The voltage tests shall be carried out by a method specified in


an appropriate cable standard.
 Where no such method is available, a procedure is given here
D86 12.2.2.8 Fault considerations

 ….in multi-core cables


 The faults, if any, which shall be taken into consideration in
multi-core cables used in Ex i electrical systems depend upon
the type of cable used.
 Type A
 Cable complying with the requirements of 12.2.2.7 and, in addition,
with conducting screens providing individual protection for Ex i
circuits in order to prevent such circuits becoming connected to one
another - the coverage of those screens shall be at least 60% of the
surface area.
 No faults between circuits are taken into consideration.

 Type B
 Cable which is fixed, effectively protected against damage, complying
with the requirements of 12.2.2.7 and, in addition, no circuit contained
within the cable has a maximum voltage Uo exceeding 60 V.
 No faults between circuits are taken into consideration.

 Others: too complex to list here:- seek specialist advice


D87 12.2.3 Termination of Ex i circuits

 ….
 Reliably separated from the non-Ex i circuits
 (for example by a separating panel or a gap of at least 50mm).
 The terminals of the Ex i circuits shall be marked as such.
 All terminals and plugs and sockets shall satisfy the
requirements of 6.3.1 and 6.3.2 respectively of IEC 60079-11.

 BS EN 50020:1995, 6.3
 More up-to-date than IEC 60079-11.
 Separation between Ex i and non-Ex i circuits by either:-
 distance separation between terminals shall be at least 50 mm.
 insulating partition or earthed metal partition
 the partitions used shall extend to within 1,5mm of the walls of the
enclosure, or
 alternatively provide a minimum measurement of 50mm between the
terminals when taken in any direction around the partition.
D88 12.2.3 Termination of Ex i circuits (Cont.)

The minimum clearances:-


 3mm between bare conducting parts of the same circuit.
 6mm between the bare conducting parts of separate Ex i circuits

Plugs and sockets have particular requirements

For special applications, Ex i and non-Ex i circuits are


permitted in the same plug and socket assembly, provided that
it is of an acceptable design and that intrinsic safety is not
required when the other circuits are energised.
D89 12.2.4 Earthing of Ex i circuits

Ex i circuits may be either


 a) isolated from earth, or
 b) connected at one point to the equipotential bonding system if
this exists over the whole area in which the Ex i circuits are
installed.
The installation method shall be chosen with regard to the
functional requirements of the circuits and in accordance `with.
the manufacturer's instructions.

More than one earth connection is permitted on a circuit


provided that circuit is galvanically separated into subcircuits
each of which has only one earth point.

In Ex i circuits which are isolated from earth, attention shall be


paid to the danger of electrostatic charging. A connection to
earth across a resistance of between 0.2M and 1M, for
example for the dissipation of electrostatic charges, is not
deemed to be earthing.
D90 12.2.4 Earthing of Ex i circuits (Cont.)

 Ex i circuits shall be earthed if this is necessary for safety


reasons, for example in installations with safety barriers without
galvanic isolation. They may be earthed if necessary for
functional reasons, for example with welded thermocouples. If
Ex i apparatus does not withstand the electrical strength test
with at least 500 V to earth according to IEC 60079-11, a
connection to earth at the apparatus is to be assumed.

 Where the apparatus is earthed and a bonding conductor is used


between the apparatus and the point of earth connection of the
associated apparatus, conformity with a) or b) is not required.
Such situations should receive careful consideration by a
competent person and in any case should not be used for circuits
without galvanic isolation entering zone 0. If bonding conductors
are employed, they should be adequate for the situation, have a
copper cross-sectional area of no less than 4 mm2, be permanently
installed without the use of plugs and sockets, adequately
mechanically protected and have terminations which, with the
exception of the IP rating, conform to the requirements of type of
protection "e".
D91 12.2.4 Earthing of Ex i circuits (Cont.)

 In Ex i circuits, the earthing terminals of safety barriers without


galvanic isolation (for example Zener barriers) shall be
 1) connected to the equipotential bonding system by the shortest
practicable route, or
 2) for TN-S systems only, connected to a high-integrity earth point
in such a way as to ensure that the impedance from the point of
connection to the main power system earth point is less than 1
Ohm.
 This may be achieved by connection to a switch room earth bar or
by the use of separate earth rods. The conductor used shall be
insulated to prevent invasion of the earth by fault currents which
might flow in metallic parts with which the conductor could come
into contact (for example control panel frames). It shall also be
given mechanical protection in places where the risk of damage is
high.
The cross-section of the earth connection shall be either:
 at least two separate conductors each rated to carry the maximum
possible current, which can continuously flow, each with a
minimum of 1,5mm2 copper, or
 at least one conductor with a minimum of 4mm2 copper.
D92 12.2.4 Earthing of Ex i circuits (Cont.)

 NOTE - The provision of two earthing conductors should be


considered to facilitate testing.

 If the prospective short-circuit current of the supply


system connected to the barrier input terminals is such
that the earth connection is not capable of carrying
such current, then the cross-sectional area shall be
increased accordingly or additional conductors used.

 If the earth connection is achieved via junction boxes,


special care should be taken to ensure the continued
integrity of the connection.
D93 12.2.5 Verification of Ex i circuits

 12.2.5.1 Ex i circuits with only one associated


 12.2.5.2 Ex i circuits with more than one associated
apparatus

See Systems section

 A descriptive system document shall be prepared by the system


designer in which the items of electrical apparatus, the electrical
parameters of the system including those of interconnecting
wiring are specified.

 The form in which information in the descriptive system document


necessary to ensure safety should be kept is not stated precisely
and may be covered by a number of sources, such as drawings,
schedules, maintenance manuals or similar documents. The
documents should be prepared and maintained such that all the
information relevant to a particular installation can be easily
accessed.
D94 12.3 Installations for Zone 0
 As for 12.2 except where modified by the following:

 Must meet Ex ia

 Galvanic isolation interfaces preferred

 TN-S Earthing system required when using Barriers (Item 2 of 12.2.4)

 Mains-powered apparatus connected to the safe area terminals


 use double wound transformer
 suitable fuse of adequate breaking capacity.

 Single point earthing is permitted but must be adequately controlled

 Surge Protection may be necessary

 Risk of high potentials being developed in Zone 0 areas requires


consideration

 The surge protection device specification included (10 kA 8/20µs


impulse according to IEC 60060-1, 10 operations)

 Examples discussed in Systems Standard


D95
D96