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DNA,

RNA
&
CHON SYNTHESIS
DNA
DNA
• Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like
chain of nucleotides that carries the genetic
instructions used in the growth, development,
functioning and reproduction of all known living
organisms and also in many viruses.
COMPONENTS OF DNA

HO-CH2 OH
O- N


-O P –O-
– +
+

=
O N

OH

CYCLIC AMINE
DEOXYRIBOSE
(a sugar)
PHOSPHATE (base)
THE FIVE BASES
• A = Adenine
• T = Thymine
• G = Guanine
• C = Cytosine

• RNA only:
• U = Uracil (replaces T)
STRUCTURES OF BASES
Pyrimidines O O NH2
CH3
N N N

N N N
T U C
NH2 O

N N
Purines N N

N N
N NH2 N
A G
N



-O P – O-CH2 N

=
O

Nucleotide DNA N



N -O P – O-CH2 N

=
O- O


-O P – O-CH2 N N
=

O O



-O P – O-CH2 N

=
OH O

O
DNA is coiled tightly to form structures we
call chromosomes. Each chromosome
contains a single DNA molecule. Humans
have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are
found inside the cell's nucleus.
DNA STRUCTURE

DNA is a double
helix formed by
base pairs
attached to a
sugar-phosphate
backbone.
CHARGAFF'S RULES
A, T, C, and G were not found in equal quantities.

The amounts of the bases varied among species, but not


between individuals of the same species.

The amount of A is always equalled the amount of T, and


the amount of C is always equalled the amount of G.
(A = T and G = C)
DNA REPLICATION

The 2 strands of DNA are complementary. (fit


together like puzzle pieces)
Each strand can serve as a pattern, to put together
the sequence of bases on the other half.
WHEN & WHY DOES DNA HAVE TO
REPLICATE?

• Replicates during Interphase inside of the


nucleus
• Replicates so that there will be enough genetic
information for the cell to divide
DNA Replication:
Step 1: Unwinding

DNA helicase unzips and unwinds the 2 strands by


breaking H-bonds.

*Where DNA separates, it makes a replication fork


DNA Replication:
Step 2: Base
Pairing

DNA polymerases start at replicaton forks,


adding new nucleotides and bases to the
exposed strands
DNA REPLICATION:
STEP 3: JOINING
• Sections where DNA replication is complete
finally join (bubbles fill in)
• Uses DNA Ligase to help seal the DNA
strands
RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is an
important molecule with long chains
of nucleotides.

A nucleotide contains a nitrogenous


base, a ribose sugar, and a
phosphate. Just like DNA, RNA is
vital for living beings.
DNA VS RNA
The four RNA bases bond together in
complementary pairs. Different bases
form bonds of different strengths.
Guanine-Cytosine form the strongest
bond, Adenine-Uracil form the next
strongest bond, and Uracil-Guanine
form the weakest bond.
(G=C and A=U)
TYPES OF RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
• Complementary to info in DNA strand
• Variable in length
• Contains specific structural info for the sequence of
amino acids
• Processed before using
MESSENGER RNA (MRNA)
• Carries coded instructions for protein synthesis
(translation)
• From the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
TYPES OF RNA

• Transfer RNA (tRNA)


• Multiple varieties, each specific for a specific amino
acid
• Relatively small, with a consistent 3-d shape
• Specificity for each amino acid is accomplished by a
triplet base-pairing relationship between codon on
mRNA and anti-codon on tRNA
TRANSFER RNA (TRNA)
• Brings amino acids to the ribosome so it can build proteins
• It has Anticodons
• 3 nucleotide sequence
complementary to the mRNA
codon
TYPES OF RNA

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

• form the ribosomes


• Ribosomes engage the mRNAs and form a catalytic domain
into which the tRNAs enter with their attached amino acids.
• The proteins of the ribosomes catalyze all of the functions of
polypeptide synthesis
MESSENGER, RIBOSOMAL, TRANSFER RNA
CHON SYNTHESIS

THE PROTEIN-MAKING PROCESS


•Proteins are composed of amino acids – there are
20 different amino acids
•Different proteins are made by combining these 20
amino acids in different combinations
•Function of proteins:
1. Help fight disease
2. Build new body tissue
3. Enzymes used for digestion and other chemical
reactions are proteins
(Enzymes speed up the rate of a reaction)
4. Component of all cell membranes
Protein Synthesis
TRANSCRIPTION
Transcription is the mechanism by which a template
strand of DNA is utilized by specific RNA polymerases to
generate one of the three different types of RNA.
Where does transcription take place?
Transcription
Why? DNA has the genetic code for the protein that needs to be made,
but proteins are made by the ribosomes—ribosomes are outside the
nucleus in the cytoplasm.
DNA is too large to leave the nucleus (double stranded), but RNA can
leave the nucleus (single stranded).
Transcription

Step 1: transcribing a primary RNA transcript


Step 2: modification of this transcript into
mRNA
TRANSCRIPTION
A) RNA polymerase
A.Initiation binds to promoter
& opens helix

B) De novo synthesis
B.Polymerisation using rNTPs as
substrate
Chain elongation in
5’-3’ direction
C) stops at
C. Termination termination signal
TRANSCRIPTION
 Through transcription,
the DNA code is
transferred to mRNA in
the nucleus.

 DNA is unzipped in the


nucleus and RNA
polymerase binds to a
specific section where a
mRNA will be synthesized
TRANSCRIPTION DOES NOT HAPPEN
ALL THE TIME
• Operon – the “switch” to
turn on/off transcription
• Promoter – DNA site that
promotes RNA polymerase
to bind
• Repressor – molecule that
binds to DNA to block
transcription
• Inducer – molecule that
takes repressor away
•mRNA then goes through the pores of the
nucleus with the DNA code and attaches to
the ribosome.
DNA→RNA→PROTEIN
• DNA is TRANSCRIBED to
messenger RNA (mRNA)
• mRNA carries the message
to tranfer RNA (tRNA)
• tRNA is TRANSLATED to
an amino acid chain,
which makes up proteins
Making a Protein—Translation
•Decoding of mRNA into a protein is called Translation.
•Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids from the
cytoplasm to the ribosome.
These amino acids come from the food we eat. Proteins we
eat are broken down into individual amino acids and then
simply rearranged into new proteins according to the needs
and directions of our DNA.
•A series of three adjacent bases in
an mRNA molecule codes for a
specific amino acid—called a
codon.
Amino acid
•Each tRNA has 3 nucleotides that
are complementary to the codon
in mRNA.

•Each tRNA codes for a different


amino acid. Anticodon
• mRNA carrying the DNA instructions and tRNA
carrying amino acids meet in the ribosomes.
• Amino acids are joined together to make a protein.

Polypeptide = Protein