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PURE SUBSTANCES

AND PHYSICAL
MIXTURES
PURE SUBSTANCES
• All matter can be classified as either a pure substance or
a physical mixture (blend).
• PURE SUBSTANCES is a chemical combination of matter
in definite (fixed) proportions.
• Pure substances have a unique properties.
• All atoms, elements, elemental molecules, and compound
molecules are pure substances.
• Example of pure substances:
• Elements: oxygen, aluminum, gold, sodium
• Compounds: distilled water, ammonia, salt, aspirin
PHYSICAL MIXTURES
• PHYSICAL MIXTURES is a physical combination of
matter in any proportions.
• Most substances do not exist in a pure state.
• Example of physical mixtures, is air which are contains
nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
• Salt water is a physical mixture of salt and water in any
proportion.
• Moreover, most of the products cosmetologists used are
physical mixtures.
EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL MIXTURES
• Solutions, suspensions, and emulsions are all physical
mixtures..
• The differences between these three are determined by:
• The types of substances
• The size of the particles
• The solubility of the substances.
SOLUTION
• Solution is a stable physical mixture of two or more
substances.
• The solute is the substance that is dissolved into solution.
• The solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute and
makes the solution.
• Example: when salt is dissolved in water, SALT is the
SOLUTE and water is the SOLVENT.
LIQUIDS
• All liquid are either miscible or immiscible.
• Miscible liquid means that they can be mixed together to
form stable solutions.
• Example: mixture of water and alcohol.
• Immiscible liquid are not capable of being mixed together
to form stable solutions.
• Example: mixture of water and oil.
• These substances can be mixed together but they will
separate when left sitting still.
• When immiscible liquids are combine, they form
suspensions.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOLUTIONS,
SUSPENSIONS, AND EMULSIONS
SOLUTIONS SUSPENSIONS EMULSIONS
Miscible Slightly miscible Immiscible
No surfactant No surfactant Surfactant
Small particles Larger particles Largest particles
Stable mixture Unstable, temporary Limited stability through
mixture an emulsifier
Usually clear Usually cloudy Usually a solid color
Solution of nail primer Nail polish, glitter in nail Shampoos, conditioners,
polish hand lotions