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SPRING 2019

Books

1. Engineering Electromagnetics by William Hayt and John A. Buck

2. Electromagnetic Concepts & Applications by G.G. Skitek, S.V. Marshall

3. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics by F.T. Ulaby

4. Field and wave electromagnetics by David K Cheng

5. Vector Analysis by Murray Spiegel

CLO’s

CLO1 : To use vector calculus and the fundamental laws of physics to describe the electromagnetic

phenomena

CLO2 : To analyze and solve problems in electrostatic, magneto -static, and electromagnetic fields

CLO3 : To discriminate between basic integral and differential forms of the Maxwell’s Equations for

electrostatics and electrodynamics and solve Maxwell’s equations for simple electromagnetic

problems.

MAPPING

CLOs Level of Related PLOs Teaching Methods CLO attainment checked in

learning

CLO2 Cog-4 2 Lectures, tutorials First Mid, Second mid, Final Exam

Topics

No. Quizzes

OBE introduction, Course introduction, Vector

01-02

Basics

03-04 Unit Vector, Dot and cross product of vectors CLO1

05-06

Vector differentiation (Full, Partial), Space curves

07-08 Gradient, Divergence and Curl CLO1

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetics is the study of the effect of charges at rest and charges in

motion.

Some special cases of electromagnetics:

◦ Electrostatics: charges at rest

◦ Magnetostatics: charges in steady motion (DC)

◦ Electromagnetic waves: waves excited by charges in time-varying motion

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

are connected by a “field.”

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

When an event in one place has an effect on something at a different location, we

talk about the events as being connected by a “field”.

A field is a spatial distribution of a quantity; in general, it can be either scalar or

vector in nature.

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

Electric and magnetic fields:

◦ Are vector fields with three spatial components.

◦ Vary as a function of position in 3D space as well as time.

◦ Are governed by partial differential equations derived from

Maxwell’s equations.

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

A scalar is a quantity having only an amplitude

(and possibly phase).

Examples: voltage, current, charge, energy, temperature

to amplitude (and possibly phase).

Examples: velocity, acceleration, force, lift, weight, momentum, drag

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

Relationships involving the universal constants:

1 𝜇0

𝑐= 𝜂0 =

𝜇0 𝜀0 𝜀0

In free space:

𝐵 = 𝜇0 𝐻

𝐷 = 𝜀0 𝐸

Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

Universal constants in electromagnetics:

◦ Velocity of an electromagnetic wave (e.g., light) in free space (perfect

vacuum) 𝑐 ≈ 3 × 108 m/s

𝜇0 = 4𝜋 × 10−7 H/m

𝜀0 ≈ 8.854 × 10−12 F/m

𝜂0 ≈ 120𝜋 Ω

Coulomb’s Law and electric field

intensity

(SECOND CHAPTER)

Coulomb's law states that the force between two very small objects

(point charges) separated in a vacuum or free space by a distance, which

is large enough compared to their size and is directly proportional to the

magnitude of their charge and inversely proportional to the square of the

distance between them.

Point charge is an electric charge with no dimension or when the distance

between two charges is much bigger then the size of the charges.

elaborate series of experiments using a delicate Torsion balance to

determine the quantitively the force exerted between two objects, each

having a static charge of electricity.

Torsion Balance

Coulomb’s Law

Charge

Electrons and protons are characterized by a property by virtue of which

they exert force of attraction or repulsion on one another. This property

is called charge.

OR

It is the fundamental property of subatomic particle (electron, proton,

neutron), that they attract or repel each other.

Law of conservation of charge states that charge can neither be created Positive and negative charge

or destroyed but transferred.

Coulomb’s Law

- 𝐹 ∝ 𝑞1 𝑞2

1Τ F 12 F 21

-𝐹 ∝ (also known as inverse square law) Q1 Q2

𝑟2

𝑟12

Ƹ r 𝑟21

Ƹ

𝑞1𝑞2

-𝐹 ∝ ൗ𝑟 2

𝑞1𝑞2

𝐹Ԧ12 = 𝐾 2

𝑟12

Ƹ

𝑞1𝑞2 𝑟

𝐹=𝑘 ൗ𝑟 2

1

Where 𝑘 =

4𝜋𝜀𝑜

Coulomb’s Law

Where k is the constant of proportionality and its value depends on the medium between

the charges.

𝜀0 ≈ 8.854 × 10−12 F/m

Permittivity is the measure of how electric field affects or affected by dielectric medium.

If we place any medium between two charges, then force will become

1 𝑞1𝑞2 1 𝐹 𝐹

𝐹Ԧ12

′

= 𝐹Ԧ12

′

= 𝜀𝑟 = ′

4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2 𝜀𝑟 𝜀𝑟 𝐹Ԧ12

Electric Field Intensity

Electric field intensity is the force per unit

charge.

According to faraday, it is intrinsic (natural) 𝐹Ԧ = 𝑞𝑜 𝐸

property that an electric field is exists in

spacearound the charge. qo

Q1

𝐹Ԧ

𝐸=

𝑞𝑜

1 𝑞1 𝑞𝑜 1

𝐸= 2 𝑟Ƹ

4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 𝑞𝑜

1 𝑞

𝐸= 2 𝑟Ƹ

4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟

Example 1

A test charge Q = 2 micro coulomb is placed halfway between a charge Q1 = 6 micro coulomb

and a charge Q2 = 4 micro coulomb, which are 10 cm apart. Find the force on the test charge

and its direction.

Answer

F1 = 43.2 N

F2 = 28.8 N

F = F1-F2 = 14.4 N away from Q1

Example 2

If two equal charges, each of 1 C, were separated in air by distance of 1 km, what would be the

force between them?

Answer ?

Example 3

Three 20 micro coulomb charge are placed along a straight line, successive charges being 2 m

apart. Calculate the force on the right most charge.

Answer?

Electric Field Due to Charge Distribution

𝑞 𝑐

Volume charge density = 𝜌 = ( ) , 𝑞 = 𝜌𝑣

𝑣 𝑚3

- Number of charges in per unit area

𝑑𝑞

𝜌= , 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑣

Now take a test charge at some distance, and to find

a force we take

1 𝑑𝑞

𝑑𝐸 = 𝑟Ƹ

4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2

1 𝜌𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝐸 = 𝑟Ƹ

4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2

1 𝜌𝑑𝑣

𝐸 = = 𝐸𝑑 2 𝑟Ƹ

4𝜋𝜀 𝑜 𝑟

Volume Charge Density in Cartesian

Coordinates

𝑑𝑞

𝜌= , 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑣

dv = dxdydz Total volume charge

𝑄 = න 𝜌 𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑣 𝑣

𝑠

𝑄 = 𝑧𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑥𝑑𝜌

𝑄 = න 𝜌𝑙 𝑑𝑙 Total line charge

𝐿

Example 4:

Find enclosed charge for given volume charge

𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑐

density 𝜌 = 𝜌𝑜 3

𝑎𝑏𝑐 𝑚

4th Chapter

Electric Field and Potential

The electric field intensity was defined as the force on a unit test charge at

that point where we wish to find the value of the electric field intensity.

1. Coulomb’s Law

2. Gauss’s Law

The electric field intensity, a vector field can be found directly from charge

distribution.

Three different integrations are needed, one for each component.

It could be desirable if we find some scalar function with a single integration

and then determine the electric field from that scalar.

This function is known as potential or potential field

Third method of finding electric field.

Potential Difference

Potential difference is defined as the work done in moving a unit test

charge from one point to another point.

Ohm’s law also states that a current through a conductor between two

points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage

across the two points.

OR

Potential difference is the work done per unit charge

To move the test charge against the electric field, we have to exert a Scalar Quantity

force equal and opposite in magnitude to that exerted by the field.

► We must expend energy or do work

To move the charge in the direction of the electric field, our energy

expenditure turns out to be negative.

► We do not do the work, the field does

Energy Expanded in Moving a Point charge in an Electric Field

To move a charge Q a distance dL in an electric field E, the force on Q arising from the

electric field is or the charge Q experiences a force F in an electric field is defined as

F𝐸 = 𝑄E

Work is defined as force acting over a distance. The unit of work is joules (J)

Work done (W) = Force (F) . Displacment(D)

The component of this force in the direction dL is 𝐹𝐸𝐿 = F𝐸 ⋅ a𝐿 = 𝑄E ⋅ a𝐿

The force that we apply must be equal and opposite to the force exerted by the field (No

acceleration)

𝐹appl = −𝑄E ⋅ a𝐿

• If E and L are perpendicular, the differential work will be zero ( E.D cos Ɵ )

Energy Expanded in Moving a Point charge in an Electric Field

The work required to move the charge a finite distance is determined by integration

final

𝑊=න 𝑑𝑊

init

final

𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L

init

•The charge is assumed to be at rest at both initial and final positions

The Line Integral

The integral expression of previous equation is

an example of a line integral, taking the form of

integral along a prescribed path

to write final

𝑊 = −𝑄 න 𝐸𝐿 𝑑𝐿

init

The Line Integral

The work involved in moving a charge Q from B to A is approximately

E1 = E2 = ⋯ = E6 𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ (ΔL1 + ΔL2 + ⋯ + ΔL6 )

L𝐵𝐴

Therefore

By parallelogram law

𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ L𝐵𝐴 (uniform E) (vectors add with each other and the sum is

vector directed from intial to final point)

The Line Integral

Since the summation can be interpreted as a line integral, the exact result for the uniform field

can be obtained as

𝐴

𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L

𝐵

𝐴

𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ න 𝑑L (uniform E)

𝐵

• For the case of uniform E, W does not depend on the particular path selected along which

the charge is carried

Differential Length

𝑑L = 𝑑𝑥a𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦a𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 Rectangular

𝑑L = 𝑑𝑟a𝑟 + 𝑟𝑑𝜃a𝜃 + 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜑a𝜑 Spherical

Example

Given the non uniform field E = yax + xay +2az, determine the work

expended in carrying 2 C from B(1,0,1) to A(0.8,0.6,1) along the shorter

arc of the circle x2 + y2 = 1, z = 1

Example 4.1

𝑑L = 𝑑𝑥a𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦a𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 • Differential path, rectangularcoordinate

𝐴

𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L

𝐵

𝐴

= −𝑄 න (𝑦a𝑥 + 𝑥a𝑦 + 2a𝑧 ) ⋅ (𝑑𝑥a𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦a𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 )

𝐵

0.8 0.6 1

= −2 න 𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 2 න 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 2 න 2𝑑𝑧

1 0 1

• Circle equation: 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 = 1

𝑥= 1 − 𝑦2

𝑦= 1 − 𝑥2

Example 2.1

0.8 0.6 1

𝑊 = −2 න 1− 𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥 − 2න 1− 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 − 2 න 2𝑑𝑧

1 0 1

0.8 0.6

𝑥 2

1 −1 𝑦 2

1 −1

= −2 1 − 𝑥 + sin 𝑥 −2 1 − 𝑦 + sin 𝑦

2 2 1 2 2 0

𝑢 𝑎2 −1 𝑢

= −0.962 J න 𝑎2 − 𝑢2 𝑑𝑢 = 2 2

𝑎 − 𝑢 + sin

2 2 𝑎

Example 4.2

Redo the example, but use the straight-line path from B to A.

Example 4.2

𝑦𝐴 − 𝑦𝐵

• Line equation: 𝑦 − 𝑦𝐵 = (𝑥 − 𝑥𝐵 ) ⇒ 𝑦 = −3𝑥 + 3

𝑥𝐴 − 𝑥𝐵

0.8 0.6 1

𝑊 = −2 න 𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 2 න 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 2 න 2𝑑𝑧

1 0 1

0.8 0.6

𝑦

= −2 න (−3𝑥 + 3)𝑑𝑥 − 2 න (1 − )𝑑𝑦 − 0

1 0 3

= −0.962 J

Drill Problem 1

1

Given the electric field 𝐸 = 2 (8𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑥 2 𝑧𝑎𝑦 − 4𝑥 2 𝑦𝑎𝑧 ) v/m, find the differential amount

𝑍

of work done in moving a 6 nC charge a distance of 2µm, starting at p(2,-2,3) and proceeding in

7 3 2 6 3 2 3 6

the direction 𝑎𝐿 = 𝑎 − 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 𝑏 𝑎𝑥 − 𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧 𝑐 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦

6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Drill Problem 2

Calculate a work done in moving a 4 C charge from B(1,0,0) to A(0,2,0) along the path y = 2-2x, z

𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

= 0 in the field E = (a) 5𝑎𝑥 𝑏 5𝑥𝑎𝑥 𝑐 5𝑥𝑎𝑥 + 5𝑦𝑎𝑦 .

𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

𝜌𝐿

E = 𝐸𝜌 a𝜌 = a

2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌 𝜌

𝑑L = 𝑑𝜌a𝜌 + 𝜌𝑑𝜑a𝜑 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧

final

𝜌𝐿 final 𝜌

𝐿

𝑊 = −𝑄 න a𝜌 ⋅ 𝜌1 𝑑𝜑a𝜑 = −𝑄 න 𝑑𝜑a𝜌 ⋅ a𝜑

init 2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌1 init 2𝜋𝜀 0

=0

final 𝜌 𝑏

𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝑑𝜌

𝑊 = −𝑄 න a𝜌 ⋅ 𝑑𝜌a𝜌 = −𝑄 න

init 2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌 𝑎 2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌

𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑏

=− ln

2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎

Potential and Potential Difference

We already find the expression for the work W done by an external source in moving a charge

Q from one point to another in an electric field E

final

𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L

init

Potential difference V is defined as the work done by an external source in moving a unit

positive charge from one point to another in an electric field

final

Potential difference = 𝑉 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L

init

We shall now set an agreement on the direction of movement. VAB signifies the potential

difference between points A and B and is the work done in moving the unit charge from B (last

named) to A (first named)

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential difference is measured in joules per coulomb (J/C). However, volt (V) is

defined as a more common unit.

The potential difference between points A and B is:

𝐴

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L V

• VAB is positive if work is done in carrying the positive

𝐵 charge from B to A

From the line-charge example, we found that the work done in taking a charge Q

from ρ = a to ρ = b was:

𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑏

𝑊=− ln

2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎

Or, from ρ = b to ρ = a,

𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑎 𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑏

𝑊=− ln = ln

2𝜋𝜀0 𝑏 2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎

Thus, the potential difference between points at ρ = a to ρ = b is:

𝑊 𝜌𝐿 𝑏

𝑉𝑎𝑏 = = ln

𝑄 2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

For a point charge, we can find the potential difference between points A and B at

radial distance rA and rB, choosing an origin at Q:

𝑄

E = 𝐸𝑟 a𝑟 = a

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2 𝑟 𝑑L = 𝑑𝑟a𝑟

𝐴

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L

𝐵

𝑟𝐴

𝑄

= −න 𝑑𝑟

𝑟𝐵 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2

𝑄 1 1

= − • rB > rA VAB > 0, WAB > 0,

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 𝑟𝐵

Work expended by the external

𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝐸 source (us)

Depends upon the distance of point A and point B from charge • rB < rA VAB < 0, WAB < 0,

Q, rather than the path

Work done by the electric field

Closed Line integral of E is Zero

Definition of Potential Difference and Potential

It is often convenient to speak of potential, or absolute potential, of a point rather than the

potential difference between two points.

For this purpose, we must first specify the reference point which we consider to have zero

potential.

The most universal zero reference point is “ground”, which means the potential of the

surface region of the earth.

Another widely used reference point is “infinity.”

For cylindrical coordinate, in discussing a coaxial cable, the outer conductor is selected

as the zero reference for potential.

If the potential at point A is VA and that at B is VB, then:

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵

The Potential Field of a Point Charge

In previous section we found an expression for the potential difference between two

points located at r = rA and r = rB in the field of a point charge Q placed at the origin:

𝑄 1 1

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 𝑟𝐵

𝑟𝐴

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − න 𝐸𝑟 𝑑𝑟 dl = -dr

𝑟𝐵

Where dl is the

distance towords

center

Any initial and final values of θ or Φ will not affect the answer. As long as the radial distance between rA and rB

is constant, any complicated path between two points will not change the results

This is because although dL has r, θ, and Φ components, the electric field E only has the radial r component.

The Potential Field of a Point Charge

The potential difference between two points in the field of a point charge depends only on

the distance of each point from the charge.

Thus, the simplest way to define a zero reference for potential in this case is to let V = 0

at infinity.

As the point r = rB recedes to infinity, the potential at rA becomes:

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵

𝑄 1 𝑄 1

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = −

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐵

𝑄 1 𝑄 1

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = −

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 4𝜋𝜀0 ∞

𝑄 1

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = = 𝑉𝐴

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Generally,

𝑄

𝑉=

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟

1 coulomb charge from infinity to any point in a distance of r meters from the charge Q.

𝑄

𝑉= + 𝐶1

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Equipotential Surface

Equipotential surface is a surface composed of all those points having the

same value of potential.

No work is involved in moving a charge around on an equipotential surface.

The equipotential surfaces in the potential field of a point charge are spheres centered at the

point charge.

The equipotential surfaces in the potential field of a line charge are cylindrical surfaces axed at

the line charge.

The equipotential surfaces in the potential field of a sheet of charge are surfaces parallel with the

sheet of charge.

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

We will now prove, that for a system of charges, the potential is also independent of the

path taken.

Continuing the discussion, the potential field at the point r due to a single point charge

Q1 located at r1 is given by:

𝑄1

𝑉(r) =

4𝜋𝜀0 r − r1

The field is linear with respect to charge so that superposition is applicable. Thus, the potential arising from

n point charges is:

𝑄1 𝑄2 𝑄𝑛

𝑉(r) = + + ⋯+

4𝜋𝜀0 r − r1 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r2 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r𝑛

𝑛

𝑄𝑚

𝑉(r) =

4𝜋𝜀0 r − r𝑚

𝑚=1

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

If each point charge is now represented as a small element of continuous volume charge

distribution ρvΔv, then:

𝑉(r) = + + ⋯+

4𝜋𝜀0 r − r1 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r2 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r𝑛

𝜌𝑣 (r′ )𝑑𝑣 ′

𝑉(r) = න ′

vol 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r

𝜌𝐿 (r ′ )𝑑𝐿′ 𝜌𝑆 (r ′ )𝑑𝑆 ′

𝑉(r) = න 𝑉(r) = න

4𝜋𝜀0 r − r ′ 𝑆 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r

′

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

With zero reference at ∞, the expression for potential can be taken generally as:

𝐴

𝑉𝐴 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L

∞

𝐴 • Potential conservation

𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L in a simple dc-circuit

𝐵

problem in the form of

Both expressions above are not dependent on the path Kirchhoff’s voltage law

chosen for the line integral, regardless of the source of the

E field.

For static fields, no work is done in carrying the unit charge around any closed path.

රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

We have discussed two methods of determining potential: directly from the

electric field intensity by means of a line integral, or from the basic charge

distribution itself by a volume integral.

equipotential surface, and the goal is to find the electric field intensity.

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

The general line-integral relationship between V and E is:

𝑉 = − නE ⋅ 𝑑L

𝑑𝑉 = −E ⋅ 𝑑L

Δ𝑉 = −E ⋅ ΔL

Δ𝑉 = −𝐸Δ𝐿 cos 𝜃

Δ𝑉

= −𝐸 cos 𝜃

Δ𝐿

Assuming a conservative field, for a given reference and starting point, the result of the integration

is a function of the end point (x,y,z). We may pass to the limit and obtain:

𝑑𝑉

= −𝐸 cos 𝜃

𝑑𝐿

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

For the equipotential surfaces below, find the direction of E at P.

𝑑𝑉

ቤ ,

𝑑𝐿 max

𝜃 = 180°

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

Since the potential field information is more likely to be determined first, let us describe

the direction of ΔL (which leads to a maximum increase in potential) in term of potential

field.

Let aN be a unit vector normal to the equipotential surface and directed toward the

higher potential.

The electric field intensity is then expressed in terms of the potential as:

𝑑𝑉

E=− ቤ𝑁

𝑑𝐿 max

incremental length in aN direction,

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑉

ቤ

𝑑𝐿 𝑑𝑁max

𝑑𝑉

E=− a

𝑑𝑁 𝑁

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

The mathematical operation to find the rate of change in a certain

direction is called gradient.

Now, the gradient of a scalar field T is defined as:

𝑑𝑇

Gradient of 𝑇 = grad 𝑇 = a

𝑑𝑁 𝑁

𝑑𝑉

E=− a = −grad 𝑉

𝑑𝑁 𝑁

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

Since V is a function of x, y, and z, the total differential is:

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉

𝑑𝑉 = 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

But also,

𝑑𝑉 = −E ⋅ 𝑑L = −𝐸𝑥 𝑑𝑥 − 𝐸𝑦 𝑑𝑦 − 𝐸𝑧 𝑑𝑧

Both expression are true for any dx, dy, and dz. Thus:

𝜕𝑉

𝐸𝑥 = −

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉

E=− a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a𝑧

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝐸𝑦 = −

𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉

𝜕𝑉 grad 𝑉 = a + a + a

𝐸𝑧 = − 𝜕𝑥 𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕𝑧

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

Introducing the vector operator for gradient:

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

𝛻= a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a𝑧

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

We now can relate E and V as:

E = −𝛻𝑉

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 Rectangular

𝛻𝑉 = a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 Cylindrical

𝛻𝑉 = a𝜌 + a𝜑 + a

𝜕𝜌 𝜌 𝜕𝜑 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉

𝛻𝑉 =

𝜕𝑟

a𝑟 +

𝑟 𝜕𝜃

a𝜃 + a

𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜑 𝜑

Spherical

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient

Example

Given the potential field, V = 2x2y–5z, and a point P(–4,3,6), find

V, E, direction of E, D, and ρv.

= 66 V

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉

E = −𝛻𝑉 =− a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a = −4𝑥𝑦a𝑥 − 2𝑥 2 a𝑦 + 5a𝑧

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

V

m

E𝑃

a𝐸,𝑃 =

E𝑃

pC

D𝑃 = 𝜀0 E𝑃 = 425a𝑥 − 283.3a 𝑦 + 44.27a𝑧

m3

pC

m3

At 𝑃, 𝜌𝑣 = −35.42(3)

pC pC

m3 = −106.26

m3

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole

The dipole fields form the basis for the behavior of dielectric materials in electric field.

The dipole will be discussed now and will serve as an illustration about the importance

of the potential concept presented previously.

An electric dipole, or simply a dipole, is the name given to two point charges of equal

magnitude and opposite sign, separated by a distance which is small compared to the

distance to the point P at which we want to know the electric and potential fields.

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole

The distant point P is described by the spherical coordinates

r, θ, Φ = 90°.

The positive and negative point charges have separation d and described in rectangular

coordinates (0,0, 0.5d) and

(0,0,–0.5d).

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole

The total potential at P can be written as:

𝑄 1 1 𝑄 𝑅2 − 𝑅1

𝑉= − =

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅1 𝑅2 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅1 𝑅2

The potential there is zero (as also all points at ∞).

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole

For a distant point, R1 ≈ R2 ≈ r, R2–R1 ≈ dcosθ

𝑄𝑑 cos 𝜃

𝑉=

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2

𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉

E = −𝛻𝑉 =− a𝑟 + a𝜃 + a

𝜕𝑟 𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜑 𝜑

𝑄𝑑 cos 𝜃 𝑄𝑑 sin 𝜃

E=− − a 𝑟 − a

2𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 3 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 3 𝜃

𝑄𝑑

E= 2 cos 𝜃 a𝑟 − sin 𝜃 a𝜃

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 3

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole

The potential field of the dipole may be simplified by making use

of the dipole moment.

If the vector length directed from –Q to +Q is identified as d, then

the dipole moment is defined as Qd and is assigned the symbol

p.

p = 𝑄d

1 1

p ⋅ a𝑟 • Dipole charges: 𝑉 ∼ , E ∼

𝑉= 𝑟2 𝑟3

4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2

1 1

• Point charge: 𝑉∼ , E∼ 2

1 r− r′ 𝑟 𝑟

𝑉= p ⋅

4𝜋𝜀0 r − r ′ 2 r − r′

Conductors and

Dielectrics

CHAPTER 5

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Electric charges in motion constitute a current.

The unit of current is the ampere (A), defined as a rate of movement of charge passing

a given reference point (or crossing a given reference plane).

𝑑𝑄

𝐼=

𝑑𝑡

takes place through the motion of electrons.

Current density J is defined, measured in amperes per square meter (A/m2).

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

The increment of current ΔI crossing an incremental surface ΔS

normal to the current density is:

Δ𝐼 = 𝐽𝑁 Δ𝑆

Δ𝐼 = J ⋅ ΔS

𝐼 = න J ⋅ 𝑑S

𝑆

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Current density may be related to the velocity of volume charge density at a point.

Δ𝑄 Δ𝑥

Δ𝐼 = = 𝜌𝑣 Δ𝑆

Δ𝑡 Δ𝑡

• In the time interval Δt, the element of charge has moved a distance Δx

• The charge moving through a reference plane perpendicular to the direction of motion is ΔQ = ρvΔSΔx

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

The limit of the moving charge with respect to time is:

Δ𝐼 = 𝜌𝑣 Δ𝑆𝑣𝑥

𝐽𝑥 = 𝜌𝑣 𝑣𝑥

J = 𝜌𝑣 v

This last result shows clearly that charge in motion constitutes a current. We name it

here convection current.

J = ρvv is then called convection current density.

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Continuity of Current

The principle of conservation of charge:

“Charges can be neither created nor destroyed.”

But, equal amounts of positive and negative charge (pair of charges) may be

simultaneously created, obtained by separation, destroyed, or lost by recombination.

𝑆

Any outward flow of positive charge must be balanced by a decrease of positive charge (or

perhaps an increase of negative charge) within the closed surface.

If the charge inside the closed surface is denoted by Qi, then the rate of decrease is –dQi/dt

and the principle of conservation of charge requires:

𝑑𝑄𝑖

𝐼 = ර J ⋅ 𝑑S = − • The Integral Form of the Continuity Equation

𝑆 𝑑𝑡

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Continuity of Current

The differential form (or point form) of the continuity equation is obtained by using

the divergence theorem:

ර J ⋅ 𝑑S = න (𝛻 ⋅ J)𝑑𝑣

𝑆 vol

We next represent Qi by the volume integral of ρv:

𝑑

න (𝛻 ⋅ J)𝑑𝑣 = − න 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣

vol 𝑑𝑡 vol

If we keep the surface constant, the derivative becomes a partial derivative. Writing it within

the integral,

𝜕𝜌𝑣

න (𝛻 ⋅ J)𝑑𝑣 = න − 𝑑𝑣

vol vol 𝜕𝑡

𝜕𝜌𝑣

(𝛻 ⋅ J)Δ𝑣 = − Δ𝑣

𝜕𝑡

𝜕𝜌𝑣 • The Differential Form (Point Form)

𝛻⋅J=−

𝜕𝑡 of the Continuity Equation

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors

The energy-band structure of three types of materials at 0 K is shown as follows:

Energy in the form of heat, light, or an electric field may raise the energy of the electrons of the

valence band, and in sufficient amount they will be excited and jump the energy gap into the

conduction band.

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors

First let us consider the conductor.

Here, the valence electrons (or free conductive electrons) move under the influence of an electric field E.

An electron having a charge Q = –e will experiences a force:

F = −𝑒E

In free space, the electron would accelerate and continuously increase its velocity.

In the crystalline material, the progress of the electron is impeded by collisions with the lattice structure, and

a constant average velocity is soon attained.

This velocity vd is termed the drift velocity. It is linearly related to the electric field intensity by the mobility of

the electron in a given material. We designate mobility by the symbol μe, so that

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors

v𝑑 = −𝜇𝑒 E Aluminum 0.0012

The unit of mobility is square meter per volt-second Copper 0.0032

Silver 0.0056

J = −𝜌𝑒 𝜇𝑒 E • Where 𝜌𝑒 is the free-electron charge density, a negative value. The negative value of 𝜌𝑒 and the

minus lead to the current density J that is in the same direction as the electric field E

J = 𝜎E

Conductivity can be expressed in term of the charge density and electric mobility as

Where 𝜎 is measured in Siemens per meter (𝑆/𝑚). One Siemens is the basic unit of conductance in the SI system

and is defined as one ampere per volt

Higher temperature infers a greater crystalline lattice vibration, more impeded electron progress for a given electric field strength, lower drift velocity,

lower mobility, lower conductivity and higher resistivity

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors

The application of Ohm’s law in point form to a

macroscopic region leads to a more familiar form.

𝑉 = 𝐸𝐿

Assuming J and E to be uniform, in a cylindrical

region shown below, we can write: 𝐼 𝑉

𝐽 = = 𝜎𝐸 =𝜎

𝑆 𝐿

𝐿

⇒𝑉= 𝐼

𝜎𝑆

𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅

𝐿

𝐼 = න J ⋅ 𝑑S = 𝐽𝑆 𝑅=

𝑆

𝑎

𝜎𝑆

𝑉𝑎𝑏 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L

𝑏

𝑎

𝑎

𝑉𝑎𝑏 − 𝑏E ⋅ 𝑑L

= −E න 𝑑L 𝑅= =

𝑏 𝐼 𝜎 𝑆E ⋅ 𝑑S

= −E ⋅ L𝑏𝑎 = E ⋅ L𝑎𝑏

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Conditions

Property 1:

The charge density within a conductor is zero (ρv = 0) and the surface charge

density resides on the exterior surface.

Property 2:

In static conditions, no current may flow, thus the electric field intensity within

the conductor is zero (E = 0).

The external electric field intensity and electric flux density are decomposed into the tangential

components and the normal components.

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Conditions

The tangential component of the electric field intensity is seen to be zero Et = 0 Dt = 0.

If not, then a force will be applied to the surface charges, resulting in their motion and no static conditions.

The normal component of the electric flux density leaving the surface is equal to the

surface charge density in coulombs per square meter (DN = ρS).

According to Gauss’s law, the electric flux leaving an incremental surface is equal

to the charge residing on that incremental surface.

The flux cannot penetrate into the conductor since the total field there is zero.

It must leave the surface normally.

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Conditions

If Field E exists in a region

consisting of two different

media, the condition that

the field must satisfy at

the interface separating

the media is called

boundary condition.

These conditions are

helpful in determining the

field on one side of the රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0 ර D ⋅ 𝑑S = 𝑄

boundary if the field on 𝑆

the other side is known. 𝑏 𝑐 𝑑 𝑎

න + න + න + න =0 න + න + න =𝑄

𝑎 𝑏 𝑐 𝑑 top bottom sides

1 1

𝐸𝑡 Δ𝑤 − 𝐸𝑁,at b Δℎ + 𝐸𝑁,at a Δℎ = 0 𝐷𝑁 Δ𝑆 = 𝑄 = 𝜌𝑆 Δ𝑆

2 2

E1t = E2t

Tangential Component Δℎ → 0, Δ𝑤 << ⇒ 𝐸𝑡 Δ𝑤 = 0 𝐷𝑁 = 𝜌𝑆

of E is said to be

continuous across the

boundry

𝐸𝑡 = 0 𝐷𝑡 = 𝐸𝑡 = 0 𝐷𝑁 = 𝜀0 𝐸𝑁 = 𝜌𝑆

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Semiconductors

In an intrinsic semiconductor material, such as pure germanium or silicon,

two types of current carriers are present: electrons and holes.

The electrons are those from the top of the filled valence band which have

received sufficient energy to cross the small forbidden band into

conduction band.

The vacancies left by the electrons represent unfilled energy states in the valence band.

They may also move from atom to atom in the crystal.

The vacancy is called a hole, and the properties of semiconductor are described by

treating the hole as a positive charge of e, a mobility μh, and an effective mass

comparable to that of the electron.

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Semiconductors

The conductivity of a semiconductor is described as:

𝜎 = −𝜌𝑒 𝜇𝑒 + 𝜌ℎ 𝜇ℎ

As temperature increases, the mobilities decrease, but the charge densities increase

very rapidly.

As a result, the conductivity of silicon increases by a factor of 100 as the temperature

increases from about 275 K to 330 K.

Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Semiconductors

The conductivity of the intrinsic semiconductor increases with

temperature, while that of a metallic conductor decreases with

temperature.

The intrinsic semiconductors also satisfy the point form of Ohm's

law: the conductivity is reasonably constant with current density

and with the direction of the current density.

J = 𝜎E

CHAPTER 6

capacitance

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

A dielectric material in an electric field can be viewed as a free-space

arrangement of microscopic electric dipoles, a pair of positive and negative

charges whose centers do not quite coincide.

These charges are not free charges, not contributing to the conduction

process. They are called bound charges, can only shift positions slightly in

response to external fields.

All dielectric materials have the ability to store electric energy. This storage

takes place by means of a shift (displacement) in the relative positions of the

bound charges against the normal molecular and atomic forces.

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The mechanism of this charge displacement differs in various

dielectric materials.

Polar molecules have a permanent displacement existing

between the centers of “gravity” of the positive and negative

charges, each pair of charges acts as a dipole.

Dipoles are normally oriented randomly, and the action of the

external field is to align these molecules in the same direction.

Nonpolar molecules does not have dipole arrangement until after a field is applied.

The negative and positive charges shift in opposite directions against their mutual

attraction and produce a dipole which is aligned with the electric field.

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Either type of dipole may be described by its dipole moment p:

p = 𝑄d

If there are n dipoles per unit volume and we deal with a volume Δv, then there are nΔv dipoles in

a volume Δv. The total dipole moment is obtained by the vector sum

𝑛Δ𝑣

ptotal = p𝑖

𝑖=1

If the dipoles are aligned in the same general direction, Ptotal may have signification value

We now define the polarization P as the dipole moment per unit volume:

𝑛Δ𝑣

1

P = lim

Δ𝑣→0 Δ𝑣

p𝑖 = 𝑛p = 𝑛𝑄d

𝑖=1

The immediate goal is to show that the bound-volume charge density acts like the free-volume

charge density in producing an external field ► We shall obtain a result similar to Gauss’s law.

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Take a dielectric containing nonpolar molecules. No molecules has p, and P = 0 throughout the material.

Somewhere in the interior of the dielectric we select an incremental surface element ΔS, and apply an electric

field E.

The electric field produces a moment p = Qd in each molecule, such that p and d make an angle θ with ΔS.

Due to E, any positive charges initially lying below the surface ΔS and within ½dcosθ must have crossed ΔS going upward.

Any negative charges initially lying above the surface ΔS and within ½dcosθ must have crossed ΔS going downward.

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

For n molecules/m3, the net total charge (positive and negative) which crosses the elemental

surface in upward direction is:

The notation Qb means the bound charge. In terms of the polarization, we have:

Δ𝑄𝑏 = P ⋅ ΔS

outward.

The net increase in the bound charge within the closed surface is:

𝑄𝑏 = − ර P ⋅ 𝑑S

𝑆

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Seeing some similarity to Gauss’s law, we may now generalize the definition of electric flux

density so that it applies to media other than free space.

We write Gauss’s law in terms of ε0E and QT, the total enclosed charge (bound charge plus free

charge):

𝑄𝑇 = ර 𝜀0 E ⋅ 𝑑S

𝑆

𝑄𝑇 = 𝑄𝑏 + 𝑄

𝑄 = 𝑄𝑇 − 𝑄𝑏 = ර (𝜀0 E + P) ⋅ 𝑑S

𝑆

material is polarized

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

For equations with volume charge densities, we now have:

𝑄𝑏 = න 𝜌𝑏 𝑑𝑣 𝑄 = න 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣

𝑣 𝑣

𝑄𝑇 = න 𝜌𝑇 𝑑𝑣

𝑣

With the help of the divergence theorem, we may transform the equations into equivalent divergence

relationships:

𝛻 ⋅ P = −𝜌𝑏

𝛻 ⋅ D = 𝜌𝑣

𝛻 ⋅ 𝜀0 E = 𝜌𝑇

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

To utilize the new concepts, it is necessary to know the relationship between E and P.

This relationship will be a function of the type of material. We will limit the discussion to isotropic materials for

which E and P are linearly related.

In an isotropic material, the vectors E and P are always parallel, regardless of the orientation of the field.

P = 𝜒𝑒 𝜀0 E

D = 𝜀0 E + 𝜒𝑒 𝜀0 E = (𝜒𝑒 + 1)𝜀0 E

𝜀𝑟 = 𝜒𝑒 + 1 a measure of how easily

a dielectric polarizes in

D = 𝜀0 𝜀𝑟 E = 𝜀E response to an electric field

𝜀 = 𝜀0 𝜀𝑟 εr : relative permittivity

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

In summary, we now have a relationship between D and E which depends on the dielectric

material present:

D = 𝜀E

𝜀 = 𝜀0 𝜀𝑟

𝛻 ⋅ D = 𝜌𝑣

ර D ⋅ 𝑑S = 𝑄

𝑆

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Consider the interface between two dielectrics having permittivities ε1 and ε2, as shown below.

We first examine the tangential components around the small closed path on the left, with Δw<< :

රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0 𝐸tan 1 Δ𝑤 − 𝐸tan 2 Δ𝑤 = 0

𝐸tan 1 = 𝐸tan 2

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The tangential electric flux density is discontinuous,

= 𝐸tan 1 = 𝐸tan 2 = =

𝜀1 𝜀2 𝐷tan 2 𝜀2

The boundary conditions on the normal components are found by applying Gauss’s law to the

small cylinder shown at the right of the previous figure (net tangential flux is zero).

polarization already counted in by using dielectric constant

𝐷𝑁1 Δ𝑆 − 𝐷𝑁2 Δ𝑆 = Δ𝑄 = 𝜌𝑆 Δ𝑆 different from unity

available in the perfect dielectrics we are considering

𝐷𝑁1 − 𝐷𝑁2 = 𝜌𝑆

• ρS exists only in special cases where it is deliberately placed

there

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Combining the normal and the tangential components of D,

𝐷tan 1 𝐷1 sin 𝜃1 𝜀1

= =

𝐷tan 2 𝐷2 sin 𝜃2 𝜀2

𝜀2 𝐷1 sin 𝜃1 = 𝜀1 𝐷2 sin 𝜃2

𝜀1 > 𝜀2 → 𝜃1 > 𝜃2

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The direction of E on each side of the boundary is

identical with the direction of D, because D = εE.

E1

𝜀1 𝐸𝑁1 = 𝜀2 𝐸𝑁2

𝐸tan 1 = 𝐸tan 2

𝜀1 > 𝜀2 → 𝜃1 > 𝜃2

E2

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The boundary conditions existing at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric are much

simpler than those previously discussed.

First, we know that D and E are both zero inside the conductor.

Second, the tangential E and D components must both be zero to satisfy:

රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0 D = 𝜀E

Finally, the application of Gauss’s law shows once more that both D and E are normal to the

conductor surface and that

DN = ρS and EN = ρS/ε.

The boundary conditions for conductor–free space are valid also for conductor–dielectric

boundary, with ε0 replaced by ε.

𝐷𝑡 = 𝐸𝑡 = 0 𝐷𝑁 = 𝜀𝐸𝑁 = 𝜌𝑆

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

We will now spend a moment to examine one phenomena: “Any charge that is introduced

internally within a conducting material will arrive at the surface as a surface charge.”

Given Ohm’s law and the continuity equation (free charges only):

J = 𝜎E

𝜕𝜌𝑣

𝛻⋅J=−

𝜕𝑡

We have:

𝜕𝜌𝑣 𝜎 𝜕𝜌𝑣

𝛻 ⋅ 𝜎E = − 𝛻⋅ D=−

𝜕𝑡 𝜀 𝜕𝑡

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

If we assume that the medium is homogenous, so that σ and ε are not functions of position, we

will have:

𝜀 𝜕𝜌𝑣

𝛻⋅D=−

𝜎 𝜕𝑡

Using Maxwell’s first equation, we obtain;

𝜀 𝜕𝜌𝑣

𝜌𝑣 = −

𝜎 𝜕𝑡

Making the rough assumption that σ is not a function of ρv, it leads to an easy solution that at least

permits us to compare different conductors.

The solution of the above equation is:

𝜎

−( )𝑡

• ρ0 is the charge density at t = 0

𝜌𝑣 = 𝜌0 𝑒 𝜀 • Exponential decay with time constant of ε/σ

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance

Let us consider two conductors embedded in a homogenous dielectric.

Conductor M2 Carries a tota positive charge Q and M1 carries an equal negative

charge. Thus the total charge of the system is zero.

We now know that the charge is carried on the surface as the surface charge

density and also that the electric field is normal to that conductor surface. Each

conductor is moreover, an equipotential surface.

The electric flux is directed from M2 to M1, thus M2 is at the more positive

potential.

Works must be done to carry a positive charge from M1 to M2.

We may now define the capacitance of this two-conductor system as the ratio of

the magnitude of the total charge on either conductor to the magnitude of the 𝜀 𝑆ׯE ⋅ 𝑑S

potential difference between the conductors. 𝑄 𝐶=

𝐶= +

𝑉0 − − E ⋅ 𝑑L

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance

The capacitance is independent of the potential and total charge for their

ratio is constant.

if the charge density is increased by a factor, Gauss's law indicates that the

electric flux density or electric field intensity also increases by the same

factor, as does the potential difference.

𝜀 𝑆ׯE ⋅ 𝑑S

𝐶= +

− − E ⋅ 𝑑L

Capacitance is a function only of the physical dimensions of the system of conductors and of the

permittivity of the homogenous dielectric.

Capacitance is measured in farads (F), 1 F = 1 C/V.

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance

We will now apply the definition of capacitance to a simple two-conductor system, where the

conductors are identical, infinite parallel planes, and separated a distance d to each other.

𝜌𝑆

E = a𝑧

𝜀

D = 𝜌𝑆 a𝑧

𝐷𝑁 = 𝐷𝑧 = +𝜌𝑆

The charge on the upper plane is negative,

𝐷𝑁 = −𝐷𝑧 = −𝜌𝑆

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance

The potential difference between lower and upper planes is:

lower 0

𝜌𝑆 𝜌𝑆

𝑉0 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L = −න ⋅ 𝑑𝑧 = 𝑑

upper 𝑑 𝜀 𝜀

The total charge for an area S of either plane, both with linear dimensions much greater than their

separation d, is:

infinite-plane arrangement, far from the

edges, is:

𝑄 𝜀𝑆 𝜌𝑆 𝑑

𝐶= = 𝑉0 =

𝑉0 𝑑 𝜀

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The configuration of the two-wire line consists of two parallel

conducting cylinders, each of circular cross section.

field intensity, the potential field, the surface charge density

distribution, and the capacitance.

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The potential field of two infinite line

charges, with a positive line charge in the

xz plane at x = a and a negative line at x

= –a is shown below.

The potential of a single line charge with

zero reference at a radius of R0 is:

𝜌𝐿 𝑅0

𝑉= ln

2𝜋𝜀 𝑅

𝑉= ln − ln = ln

2𝜋𝜀 𝑅1 𝑅2 2𝜋𝜀 𝑅20 𝑅1

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

We choose R10 = R20, thus placing the zero reference at equal distances from each line.

Expressing R1 and R2 in terms of x and y,

𝜌𝐿 (𝑥 + 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2 𝜌𝐿 (𝑥 + 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2

𝑉= ln = ln

2𝜋𝜀 (𝑥 − 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2 4𝜋𝜀 (𝑥 − 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2

necessary.

Choosing an equipotential surface V = V1, we define a dimensionless

parameter K1 as:

4𝜋𝜀𝑉1

𝐾1 = 𝑒 𝜌𝐿

(𝑥 + 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2

𝐾1 =

(𝑥 − 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

After some multiplications and algebra, we obtain:

𝐾1 + 1

𝑥2 − 2𝑎𝑥 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑎2 = 0

𝐾1 − 1

2 2

𝐾1 + 1 2

2𝑎 𝐾1

𝑥−𝑎 +𝑦 =

𝐾1 − 1 𝐾1 − 1

V = V1 equipotential surface is independent of z and intersects

the xz plane in a circle of radius b,

2𝑎 𝐾1

𝑏=

𝐾1 − 1

The center of the circle is x = h, y = 0, where:

𝐾1 + 1

ℎ=𝑎

𝐾1 − 1

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Let us no consider a zero-potential conducting plane located at x = 0, and a conducting cylinder of

radius b and potential V0 with its axis located a distance h from the plane.

Solving the last two equations for a and K1 in terms of b and h,

𝑎= ℎ2 − 𝑏 2

ℎ + ℎ2 − 𝑏 2

𝐾1 =

𝑏

2𝜋𝜀𝑉0

The potential of the cylinder is V0, so that: 𝐾1 = 𝑒 𝜌𝐿

2𝜋𝜀𝑉0

Therefore, 𝜌𝐿 =

ln 𝐾1

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Given h, b, and V0, we may determine a, K1, and ρL.

The capacitance between the cylinder and the plane is now available. For a length L in the z

direction,

𝜌𝐿 𝐿 4𝜋𝜀𝐿 2𝜋𝜀𝐿

𝐶= = =

𝑉0 ln 𝐾1 ln 𝐾1

2𝜋𝜀𝐿 2𝜋𝜀𝐿

𝐶= =

ℎ + ℎ2 − 𝑏 2 ℎ

cosh−1 ( )

ln 𝑏

𝑏

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Example

The black circle shows the cross section of a cylinder of

5 m radius at a potential of 100 V in free space. Its axis is 13

m away from a plane at zero potential.

b 5, h 13, V0 100

a h2 b2 132 52 12

h h2 b2 13 12

K1 5 K1 25

b 5

4 V0 4 (8.854 1012 )(100)

L 3.46 nC m

ln K1 ln 25

2 2 (8.854 1012 )

C 1

1

34.6 pF m

cosh (h b) cosh (13 5)

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

We may also identify the cylinder representing

the 50 V equipotential surface by finding new

values for K1, b, and h.

K1 e 4V1 L

4 8.8541012 50 3.46109

e

5

2a K1 2 12 5

b 13.42 m

K1 1 5 1

K1 1 5 1

ha 12 18 m

K1 1 5 1

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

L ( x a) 2 y 2

E ln 2

2 ( x a ) 2

y

2( x a)a x 2 ya y 2( x a)a x 2 ya y

L

2 ( x a ) 2

y 2

( x a ) 2

y 2

L 2( x a)a x 2 ya y 2( x a)a x 2 ya y

D E =

2 ( x a) y2 2

( x a) 2 y 2

S ,max Dx , x h b , y 0 = L h b a h b a

2 (h b a)2 (h b a) 2

3.46 109 13 5 12 13 5 12

S ,max

(13 5 12)2 (13 5 12) 2 0.165 nC m2

2

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

hba hba

S ,min Dx, x h b, y 0 = L (h b a) 2 (h b a) 2

2

3.46 109 13 5 12 13 5 12

S ,min

(13 5 12)2 (13 5 12) 2 0.073 nC m 2

2

- +

- +

- +

- - + +

- +

- +

- +

S ,min Dx , x h b, y 0

S ,max Dx , x h b , y 0

Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

For the case of a conductor with b << h, then:

ln h h2 b2

b

ln h h b ln 2h b

2 L (b h)

C

ln(2h b)

Derivation of Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations

These equations allow one to find the potential field in a region, in which values of potential or electric field

are known at its boundaries.

where

and

so that

or finally:

Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations (continued)

Recall the divergence as expressed in

rectangular coordinates:

then:

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 2 𝜕 2 𝜕 2

𝜵= 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒂𝒚 + 𝒂𝒛 → 𝛻2 = 𝜵 ∙ 𝜵 = 2 + 2 + 2

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

Summary of Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations

we already have:

which becomes:

In the event that there is zero volume charge density, the right-hand-side becomes zero, and we obtain

Laplace’s equation:

Laplacian Operator in Three Coordinate Systems

(Laplace’s equation)

Chapter 8

Magnet

Properties of a Magnet

Magnetic Dipoles

Magnetic Flux

Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet

Laws of Magnetism

Magnetic Field of a Point Charge

Given a point charge q, we know that it generates an electric field regardless of weather it is moving

If the charge is in fact moving then the charge is also generates magnetic field.

The magnetic field generated by the charge however does not behave in the same way the electric field

of the charge does

Biot Savart Law

Biot and Savart recognized that a conductor carrying a steady current

produces a force on a magnet.

Biot and Savart Produced an equation that gives the magnetic field at

some point in space in terms of the current that produces a field.

magnetic field dB at point P associated with an element of conductor

length ds has the following properties.

The Vector dB is perpendicular to both ds (the direction of the

current I) and to the unit vector r directed from the element ds

to the point

Biot Savart Law

It states that any point P the magnitude of the magnetic field intensity produced by the

differential element is proportional to the product of the current, the magnitude of the

differential length, and the sine of the angle lying between the filament and a line

connecting the filament to the point P at which the field is desired; also the magnitude of

magnetic field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the

differential element to the point P.

The direction of the magnetic field intensity is normal to the plane containing the

differential filament and the line drawn from the filament to the point P.

1

Field 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 𝐼 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑙 where as 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 𝑟 2

sin𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐼 𝑑𝑙 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑑𝑙 sin 𝜃 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑑𝐿 𝑥 𝑟റ

𝑑𝐵 ∝ → 𝑑𝐵 = → 𝑑𝐵 =

𝑟2 4𝜋 𝑟2 4𝜋 𝑟 3

Magnetic Field Due to Straight Wire

Carrying Current

𝜇𝑜 𝑑𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝑑𝐵 =

4𝜋 𝑟 2

𝑅

sin 𝜋 − 𝜃 = = sin 𝜃, 𝑟 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑅2

𝑥 2 + 𝑅2

𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑅𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝐵 =

4𝜋 (𝑥 2 + 𝑅2 )3/2

𝑜 ∞ 𝜇 𝐼 𝑅𝑑𝑥 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝑅 𝑑𝑥

𝐵 = = 𝐵𝑑 −∞ 4𝜋 =

(𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )3/2 4𝜋 (𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )3/2

𝑑𝑥 𝑥

Rule = =

(𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )3/2 𝑅2 (𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )1/2

𝜇𝑜 𝑥

𝐵= (limit ∞ → −∞)

4𝜋𝑅 (𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )1/2

𝜇𝑜 𝐼

𝐵= 2𝜋𝑅

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux

Density

In free space, let us define magnetic flux density B as

B 0 H

where B is measured in webers per square meter (Wb/m2) or tesla (T).

The constant μ0 is not dimensionless and has a defined value for free space, in henrys per meter (H/m), of

0 4 107 H m

The magnetic-flux-density vector B, as the name weber per square meter implies, is a member of the

flux-density family of vector fields.

Comparing the laws of Biot-Savart and Coulomb, one can find analogy between H and E that leads to an

analogy between B and D; D = ε0E and B = μ0H.

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux

Density

If B is measured in teslas or webers per square meter, then magnetic flux H should be

measured in webers.

Let us represent magnetic flux by Φ and define Φ as the flux passing through any designated

area,

B dS Wb

S

D dS Q

S

We remember that Gauss’s law states that the total electric flux passing through any closed

surface is equal to the charge enclosed. This charge is the source of the electric flux D.

For magnetic flux, no current source can be enclosed, since the current is considered to be in

closed circuit.

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux

Density

For this reason, the Gauss’s law for the magnetic field can be written as

B dS 0

S

Through the application of the divergence theorem, we can also find that

B 0 static electric fields and steady

magnetic fields.

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux

Density

Collecting all equations we have until now of static electric fields and steady magnetic fields,

D v H J

E 0 B 0

The corresponding set of four integral equations that apply to static electric fields and steady

magnetic fields is

D dS Q dv H dL I J dS

S vol

v

S

E dL 0 B dS 0 S

Ampere’s Circuital Law

The Line integral of H. dl or B. ds around any closed path equals I, where I is the total steady current

passing through any closed surface bounded by closed loop or path.

ර 𝐵 . 𝑑𝑠 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼

Or

𝐻 ׯ. 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼

Ampere’s Circuital Law

In solving electrostatic problems, whenever a high degree of symmetry is present,

we found that they could be solved much more easily by using Gauss’s law

compared to Coulomb’s law.

Again, an analogous procedure exists in magnetic field.

Here, the law that helps solving problems more easily is known as Ampere’s circuital

law.

The derivation of this law will waits until several subsection ahead. For the present

we accept Ampere’s circuital law as another law capable of experimental proof.

Ampere’s circuital law states that the line integral of magnetic field intensity H about

any closed path is exactly equal to the direct current enclosed by that path,

H dL I

Ampere’s Law

B ds I

0 enc

Chapter 8 The Steady Magnetic Field

about the closed path a

and b is equal to I

• The integral around path c

is less than I.

The application of Ampere’s circuital law involves finding the total current enclosed

by a closed path.

Ampere’s Circuital Law

Let us again find the magnetic field intensity

produced by an infinite long filament carrying a

current I. The filament lies on the z axis in free

space, flowing to az direction.

We choose a convenient path to any section of

which H is either perpendicular or tangential and

along which the magnitude H is constant.

The path must be a circle of radius ρ, and Ampere’s circuital law can be written as

2 2

I

H dL H d

0

H d H 2 I

0

H

2

Ampere’s Law with Displacement

Current

Imagine a wire connected to a charging or discharging capacitor. The area in the

Amperian loop could be stretched into the open region of the capacitor. In this case

there would be current passing through the loop, but not through the area bounded

Ampere’s Law with Displacement Current

If Ampere’s Law still holds, there must be a magnetic field generated by the changing E-field

between the plates. This induced B-field makes it look like there is a current (call it the

displacement current) passing through the plates.

Equation for Displacement current

d E

Id 0

dt

Modified Ampere’s Law

(Ampere-Maxwell Law)

B ds I

0

enc 0 I d ,enc

d E

B ds

0

I enc 0 0

dt

Stokes’ Theorem

Previously, from Ampere’s circuital law, we derive one of Maxwell’s equations, ∇×H = J.

This equation is to be considered as the point form of Ampere’s circuital law and applies on

a “per-unit-area” basis.

Now, we shall devote the material to a mathematical theorem known as Stokes’ theorem.

In the process, we shall show that we may obtain Ampere’s circuital law from ∇×H = J.

Stokes’ Theorem

Consider the surface S of the next figure, which is broken up into incremental

surfaces of area ΔS.

If we apply the definition of the curl to one of these incremental surfaces, then:

H dL S

( H ) N

S

or

H dL S

( H ) a N

S

or

H dL S ( H) a N S ( H) S

Stokes’ Theorem

Let us now perform the circulation for every ΔS comprising S and sum the results.

some cancellation will occur because every interior

wall is covered once in each direction.

The only boundaries on which cancellation cannot

occur form the outside boundary, the path enclosing

S.

Therefore,

H dL ( H) dS

S

where dL is taken only on the perimeter of S.

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