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Electromagnetics

SPRING 2019

INSTRUCTOR: DR. SHARJEEL AFRIDI


Books
1. Engineering Electromagnetics by William Hayt and John A. Buck
2. Electromagnetic Concepts & Applications by G.G. Skitek, S.V. Marshall
3. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics by F.T. Ulaby
4. Field and wave electromagnetics by David K Cheng
5. Vector Analysis by Murray Spiegel
CLO’s
CLO1 : To use vector calculus and the fundamental laws of physics to describe the electromagnetic
phenomena
CLO2 : To analyze and solve problems in electrostatic, magneto -static, and electromagnetic fields
CLO3 : To discriminate between basic integral and differential forms of the Maxwell’s Equations for
electrostatics and electrodynamics and solve Maxwell’s equations for simple electromagnetic
problems.
MAPPING
CLOs Level of Related PLOs Teaching Methods CLO attainment checked in
learning

CLO1 Cog-2 1 Lectures, tutorials First mid, Quiz 1, Final exam

CLO2 Cog-4 2 Lectures, tutorials First Mid, Second mid, Final Exam

CLO3 Cog-3 4 Lectures, tutorials Second Mid, Final exam, Quiz 3

Lecture CLO Mapping Assignments/


Topics
No. Quizzes
OBE introduction, Course introduction, Vector
01-02
Basics
03-04 Unit Vector, Dot and cross product of vectors CLO1

Scalar & Vector fields, One parameter vector, CLO1


05-06
Vector differentiation (Full, Partial), Space curves
07-08 Gradient, Divergence and Curl CLO1
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields
Electromagnetics is the study of the effect of charges at rest and charges in
motion.
Some special cases of electromagnetics:
◦ Electrostatics: charges at rest
◦ Magnetostatics: charges in steady motion (DC)
◦ Electromagnetic waves: waves excited by charges in time-varying motion
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields

• transmitter and receiver


are connected by a “field.”
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields
When an event in one place has an effect on something at a different location, we
talk about the events as being connected by a “field”.
A field is a spatial distribution of a quantity; in general, it can be either scalar or
vector in nature.
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields
Electric and magnetic fields:
◦ Are vector fields with three spatial components.
◦ Vary as a function of position in 3D space as well as time.
◦ Are governed by partial differential equations derived from
Maxwell’s equations.
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields
A scalar is a quantity having only an amplitude
(and possibly phase).
Examples: voltage, current, charge, energy, temperature

A vector is a quantity having direction in addition


to amplitude (and possibly phase).
Examples: velocity, acceleration, force, lift, weight, momentum, drag
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields
Relationships involving the universal constants:

1 𝜇0
𝑐= 𝜂0 =
𝜇0 𝜀0 𝜀0

In free space:
𝐵 = 𝜇0 𝐻

𝐷 = 𝜀0 𝐸
Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields
Universal constants in electromagnetics:
◦ Velocity of an electromagnetic wave (e.g., light) in free space (perfect
vacuum) 𝑐 ≈ 3 × 108 m/s

◦ Permeability of free space


𝜇0 = 4𝜋 × 10−7 H/m

◦ Permittivity of free space:


𝜀0 ≈ 8.854 × 10−12 F/m

◦ Intrinsic impedance of free space:


𝜂0 ≈ 120𝜋 Ω
Coulomb’s Law and electric field
intensity
(SECOND CHAPTER)
Coulomb's law states that the force between two very small objects
(point charges) separated in a vacuum or free space by a distance, which
is large enough compared to their size and is directly proportional to the
magnitude of their charge and inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them.
Point charge is an electric charge with no dimension or when the distance
between two charges is much bigger then the size of the charges.

Charles Augustin de coulomb, an officer in the French army, performed an


elaborate series of experiments using a delicate Torsion balance to
determine the quantitively the force exerted between two objects, each
having a static charge of electricity.

Torsion Balance
Coulomb’s Law
Charge
Electrons and protons are characterized by a property by virtue of which
they exert force of attraction or repulsion on one another. This property
is called charge.
OR
It is the fundamental property of subatomic particle (electron, proton,
neutron), that they attract or repel each other.

Charge can be of two types; positive or negative


Law of conservation of charge states that charge can neither be created Positive and negative charge
or destroyed but transferred.
Coulomb’s Law
- 𝐹 ∝ 𝑞1 𝑞2

1Τ F 12 F 21
-𝐹 ∝ (also known as inverse square law) Q1 Q2
𝑟2
𝑟12
Ƹ r 𝑟21
Ƹ
𝑞1𝑞2
-𝐹 ∝ ൗ𝑟 2
𝑞1𝑞2
𝐹Ԧ12 = 𝐾 2
𝑟12
Ƹ
𝑞1𝑞2 𝑟
𝐹=𝑘 ൗ𝑟 2
1
Where 𝑘 =
4𝜋𝜀𝑜
Coulomb’s Law
Where k is the constant of proportionality and its value depends on the medium between
the charges.

𝜀𝑜 is permittivity of free space,


𝜀0 ≈ 8.854 × 10−12 F/m

Permittivity is the measure of how electric field affects or affected by dielectric medium.
If we place any medium between two charges, then force will become
1 𝑞1𝑞2 1 𝐹 𝐹
𝐹Ԧ12

= 𝐹Ԧ12

= 𝜀𝑟 = ′
4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2 𝜀𝑟 𝜀𝑟 𝐹Ԧ12
Electric Field Intensity
Electric field intensity is the force per unit
charge.
According to faraday, it is intrinsic (natural) 𝐹Ԧ = 𝑞𝑜 𝐸
property that an electric field is exists in
spacearound the charge. qo
Q1
𝐹Ԧ
𝐸=
𝑞𝑜
1 𝑞1 𝑞𝑜 1
𝐸= 2 𝑟Ƹ
4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 𝑞𝑜
1 𝑞
𝐸= 2 𝑟Ƹ
4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟
Example 1
A test charge Q = 2 micro coulomb is placed halfway between a charge Q1 = 6 micro coulomb
and a charge Q2 = 4 micro coulomb, which are 10 cm apart. Find the force on the test charge
and its direction.
Answer
F1 = 43.2 N
F2 = 28.8 N
F = F1-F2 = 14.4 N away from Q1
Example 2
If two equal charges, each of 1 C, were separated in air by distance of 1 km, what would be the
force between them?

Answer ?

Example 3
Three 20 micro coulomb charge are placed along a straight line, successive charges being 2 m
apart. Calculate the force on the right most charge.
Answer?
Electric Field Due to Charge Distribution
𝑞 𝑐
Volume charge density = 𝜌 = ( ) , 𝑞 = 𝜌𝑣
𝑣 𝑚3
- Number of charges in per unit area

𝑑𝑞
𝜌= , 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑣
𝑑𝑣
Now take a test charge at some distance, and to find
a force we take
1 𝑑𝑞
𝑑𝐸 = 𝑟Ƹ
4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2
1 𝜌𝑑𝑣
𝑑𝐸 = 𝑟Ƹ
4𝜋𝜀𝑜 𝑟 2
1 𝜌𝑑𝑣
𝐸 = ‫׬ = 𝐸𝑑 ׬‬ 2 𝑟Ƹ
4𝜋𝜀 𝑜 𝑟
Volume Charge Density in Cartesian
Coordinates
𝑑𝑞
𝜌= , 𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑣
𝑑𝑣
dv = dxdydz Total volume charge
𝑄 = න 𝜌 𝑑𝑣
𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑣 𝑣

𝑑𝑞 = 𝜌𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑧 𝑄 = න 𝜌𝑠 𝑑𝑠 Total surface charge


𝑠
𝑄 = ‫𝑧𝑑𝑦𝑑𝑥𝑑𝜌 ׮‬
𝑄 = න 𝜌𝑙 𝑑𝑙 Total line charge
𝐿

Example 4:
Find enclosed charge for given volume charge
𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑐
density 𝜌 = 𝜌𝑜 3
𝑎𝑏𝑐 𝑚
4th Chapter

ENERGY AND POTENTIAL


Electric Field and Potential
 The electric field intensity was defined as the force on a unit test charge at
that point where we wish to find the value of the electric field intensity.
1. Coulomb’s Law
2. Gauss’s Law

 The electric field intensity, a vector field can be found directly from charge
distribution.
 Three different integrations are needed, one for each component.
 It could be desirable if we find some scalar function with a single integration
and then determine the electric field from that scalar.
 This function is known as potential or potential field
 Third method of finding electric field.
Potential Difference
Potential difference is defined as the work done in moving a unit test
charge from one point to another point.
Ohm’s law also states that a current through a conductor between two
points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage
across the two points.
OR
Potential difference is the work done per unit charge

To move the test charge against the electric field, we have to exert a Scalar Quantity
force equal and opposite in magnitude to that exerted by the field.
► We must expend energy or do work
To move the charge in the direction of the electric field, our energy
expenditure turns out to be negative.
► We do not do the work, the field does
Energy Expanded in Moving a Point charge in an Electric Field
To move a charge Q a distance dL in an electric field E, the force on Q arising from the
electric field is or the charge Q experiences a force F in an electric field is defined as
F𝐸 = 𝑄E
Work is defined as force acting over a distance. The unit of work is joules (J)
Work done (W) = Force (F) . Displacment(D)
The component of this force in the direction dL is 𝐹𝐸𝐿 = F𝐸 ⋅ a𝐿 = 𝑄E ⋅ a𝐿

The force that we apply must be equal and opposite to the force exerted by the field (No
acceleration)
𝐹appl = −𝑄E ⋅ a𝐿

Differential work done by external source to Q is equal to 𝑑𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ a𝐿 𝑑𝐿 = −𝑄E ⋅ 𝑑L

• If E and L are perpendicular, the differential work will be zero ( E.D cos Ɵ )
Energy Expanded in Moving a Point charge in an Electric Field
The work required to move the charge a finite distance is determined by integration
final
𝑊=න 𝑑𝑊
init

final
𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L
init

•The path must be specified beforehand


•The charge is assumed to be at rest at both initial and final positions
The Line Integral
The integral expression of previous equation is
an example of a line integral, taking the form of
integral along a prescribed path

Without using vector notation, we should have


to write final
𝑊 = −𝑄 න 𝐸𝐿 𝑑𝐿
init

• EL: component of E along dL


The Line Integral
The work involved in moving a charge Q from B to A is approximately

𝑊 = −𝑄(𝐸𝐿1 Δ𝐿1 + 𝐸𝐿2 Δ𝐿2 + ⋯ + 𝐸𝐿6 Δ𝐿6 )

𝑊 = −𝑄(E1 ⋅ ΔL1 + E2 ⋅ ΔL2 + ⋯ + E6 ⋅ ΔL6 )

If we assume that the electric field is uniform


E1 = E2 = ⋯ = E6 𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ (ΔL1 + ΔL2 + ⋯ + ΔL6 )

L𝐵𝐴
Therefore
By parallelogram law
𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ L𝐵𝐴 (uniform E) (vectors add with each other and the sum is
vector directed from intial to final point)
The Line Integral
Since the summation can be interpreted as a line integral, the exact result for the uniform field
can be obtained as
𝐴
𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L
𝐵

𝐴
𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ න 𝑑L (uniform E)
𝐵

𝑊 = −𝑄E ⋅ L𝐵𝐴 (uniform E)

• For the case of uniform E, W does not depend on the particular path selected along which
the charge is carried
Differential Length
𝑑L = 𝑑𝑥a𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦a𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 Rectangular

𝑑L = 𝑑𝜌a𝜌 + 𝜌𝑑𝜑a𝜑 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 Cylindrical


𝑑L = 𝑑𝑟a𝑟 + 𝑟𝑑𝜃a𝜃 + 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜑a𝜑 Spherical

Example
Given the non uniform field E = yax + xay +2az, determine the work
expended in carrying 2 C from B(1,0,1) to A(0.8,0.6,1) along the shorter
arc of the circle x2 + y2 = 1, z = 1
Example 4.1
𝑑L = 𝑑𝑥a𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦a𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 • Differential path, rectangularcoordinate
𝐴
𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L
𝐵
𝐴
= −𝑄 න (𝑦a𝑥 + 𝑥a𝑦 + 2a𝑧 ) ⋅ (𝑑𝑥a𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦a𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧 )
𝐵
0.8 0.6 1
= −2 න 𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 2 න 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 2 න 2𝑑𝑧
1 0 1

• Circle equation: 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 = 1
𝑥= 1 − 𝑦2

𝑦= 1 − 𝑥2
Example 2.1
0.8 0.6 1
𝑊 = −2 න 1− 𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥 − 2න 1− 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 − 2 න 2𝑑𝑧
1 0 1

0.8 0.6
𝑥 2
1 −1 𝑦 2
1 −1
= −2 1 − 𝑥 + sin 𝑥 −2 1 − 𝑦 + sin 𝑦
2 2 1 2 2 0

𝑢 𝑎2 −1 𝑢
= −0.962 J න 𝑎2 − 𝑢2 𝑑𝑢 = 2 2
𝑎 − 𝑢 + sin
2 2 𝑎

Example 4.2
Redo the example, but use the straight-line path from B to A.
Example 4.2
𝑦𝐴 − 𝑦𝐵
• Line equation: 𝑦 − 𝑦𝐵 = (𝑥 − 𝑥𝐵 ) ⇒ 𝑦 = −3𝑥 + 3
𝑥𝐴 − 𝑥𝐵
0.8 0.6 1
𝑊 = −2 න 𝑦𝑑𝑥 − 2 න 𝑥𝑑𝑦 − 2 න 2𝑑𝑧
1 0 1

0.8 0.6
𝑦
= −2 න (−3𝑥 + 3)𝑑𝑥 − 2 න (1 − )𝑑𝑦 − 0
1 0 3

= −0.962 J
Drill Problem 1
1
Given the electric field 𝐸 = 2 (8𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑎𝑥 + 4𝑥 2 𝑧𝑎𝑦 − 4𝑥 2 𝑦𝑎𝑧 ) v/m, find the differential amount
𝑍
of work done in moving a 6 nC charge a distance of 2µm, starting at p(2,-2,3) and proceeding in
7 3 2 6 3 2 3 6
the direction 𝑎𝐿 = 𝑎 − 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦 + 𝑎𝑧 𝑏 𝑎𝑥 − 𝑎𝑦 − 𝑎𝑧 𝑐 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑎𝑦
6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Drill Problem 2
Calculate a work done in moving a 4 C charge from B(1,0,0) to A(0,2,0) along the path y = 2-2x, z
𝑉 𝑉 𝑉
= 0 in the field E = (a) 5𝑎𝑥 𝑏 5𝑥𝑎𝑥 𝑐 5𝑥𝑎𝑥 + 5𝑦𝑎𝑦 .
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Work and Path Near an Infinite Line Charge


𝜌𝐿
E = 𝐸𝜌 a𝜌 = a
2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌 𝜌
𝑑L = 𝑑𝜌a𝜌 + 𝜌𝑑𝜑a𝜑 + 𝑑𝑧a𝑧

final
𝜌𝐿 final 𝜌
𝐿
𝑊 = −𝑄 න a𝜌 ⋅ 𝜌1 𝑑𝜑a𝜑 = −𝑄 න 𝑑𝜑a𝜌 ⋅ a𝜑
init 2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌1 init 2𝜋𝜀 0

=0

final 𝜌 𝑏
𝐿 𝜌𝐿 𝑑𝜌
𝑊 = −𝑄 න a𝜌 ⋅ 𝑑𝜌a𝜌 = −𝑄 න
init 2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌 𝑎 2𝜋𝜀0 𝜌
𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑏
=− ln
2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎
Potential and Potential Difference
We already find the expression for the work W done by an external source in moving a charge
Q from one point to another in an electric field E
final
𝑊 = −𝑄 න E ⋅ 𝑑L
init
Potential difference V is defined as the work done by an external source in moving a unit
positive charge from one point to another in an electric field
final
Potential difference = 𝑉 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L
init

We shall now set an agreement on the direction of movement. VAB signifies the potential
difference between points A and B and is the work done in moving the unit charge from B (last
named) to A (first named)
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Definition of Potential Difference and Potential


 Potential difference is measured in joules per coulomb (J/C). However, volt (V) is
defined as a more common unit.
 The potential difference between points A and B is:
𝐴
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L V
• VAB is positive if work is done in carrying the positive
𝐵 charge from B to A

 From the line-charge example, we found that the work done in taking a charge Q
from ρ = a to ρ = b was:
𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑏
𝑊=− ln
2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎

 Or, from ρ = b to ρ = a,
𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑎 𝑄𝜌𝐿 𝑏
𝑊=− ln = ln
2𝜋𝜀0 𝑏 2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎
 Thus, the potential difference between points at ρ = a to ρ = b is:
𝑊 𝜌𝐿 𝑏
𝑉𝑎𝑏 = = ln
𝑄 2𝜋𝜀0 𝑎
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Definition of Potential Difference and Potential


For a point charge, we can find the potential difference between points A and B at
radial distance rA and rB, choosing an origin at Q:
𝑄
E = 𝐸𝑟 a𝑟 = a
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2 𝑟 𝑑L = 𝑑𝑟a𝑟

𝐴
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L
𝐵

𝑟𝐴
𝑄
= −න 𝑑𝑟
𝑟𝐵 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2

𝑄 1 1
= − • rB > rA  VAB > 0, WAB > 0,
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 𝑟𝐵
Work expended by the external
𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑤𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝐸 source (us)
Depends upon the distance of point A and point B from charge • rB < rA  VAB < 0, WAB < 0,
Q, rather than the path
Work done by the electric field
Closed Line integral of E is Zero
Definition of Potential Difference and Potential
It is often convenient to speak of potential, or absolute potential, of a point rather than the
potential difference between two points.
For this purpose, we must first specify the reference point which we consider to have zero
potential.
The most universal zero reference point is “ground”, which means the potential of the
surface region of the earth.
Another widely used reference point is “infinity.”
For cylindrical coordinate, in discussing a coaxial cable, the outer conductor is selected
as the zero reference for potential.
If the potential at point A is VA and that at B is VB, then:
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵
The Potential Field of a Point Charge
In previous section we found an expression for the potential difference between two
points located at r = rA and r = rB in the field of a point charge Q placed at the origin:
𝑄 1 1
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 𝑟𝐵
𝑟𝐴
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = − න 𝐸𝑟 𝑑𝑟 dl = -dr
𝑟𝐵
Where dl is the
distance towords
center

Any initial and final values of θ or Φ will not affect the answer. As long as the radial distance between rA and rB
is constant, any complicated path between two points will not change the results

This is because although dL has r, θ, and Φ components, the electric field E only has the radial r component.
The Potential Field of a Point Charge
The potential difference between two points in the field of a point charge depends only on
the distance of each point from the charge.
Thus, the simplest way to define a zero reference for potential in this case is to let V = 0
at infinity.
As the point r = rB recedes to infinity, the potential at rA becomes:
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵
𝑄 1 𝑄 1
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = −
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐵
𝑄 1 𝑄 1
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = −
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴 4𝜋𝜀0 ∞

𝑄 1
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = = 𝑉𝐴
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟𝐴
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Potential Field of a Point Charge


Generally,
𝑄
𝑉=
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟

Physically, Q/4πε0r joules of work must be done in carrying


1 coulomb charge from infinity to any point in a distance of r meters from the charge Q.

We can also choose any point as a zero reference:


𝑄
𝑉= + 𝐶1
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟

with C1 may be selected so that V = 0 at any desired value of r.


Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Equipotential Surface
Equipotential surface is a surface composed of all those points having the
same value of potential.
No work is involved in moving a charge around on an equipotential surface.

The equipotential surfaces in the potential field of a point charge are spheres centered at the
point charge.
The equipotential surfaces in the potential field of a line charge are cylindrical surfaces axed at
the line charge.
The equipotential surfaces in the potential field of a sheet of charge are surfaces parallel with the
sheet of charge.
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Potential Field of a System of Charges: Conservative Property


We will now prove, that for a system of charges, the potential is also independent of the
path taken.
Continuing the discussion, the potential field at the point r due to a single point charge
Q1 located at r1 is given by:
𝑄1
𝑉(r) =
4𝜋𝜀0 r − r1

The field is linear with respect to charge so that superposition is applicable. Thus, the potential arising from
n point charges is:
𝑄1 𝑄2 𝑄𝑛
𝑉(r) = + + ⋯+
4𝜋𝜀0 r − r1 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r2 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r𝑛

𝑛
𝑄𝑚
𝑉(r) = ෍
4𝜋𝜀0 r − r𝑚
𝑚=1
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Potential Field of a System of Charges: Conservative Property


If each point charge is now represented as a small element of continuous volume charge
distribution ρvΔv, then:

𝜌𝑣 (r1 )Δ𝑣1 𝜌𝑣 (r2 )Δ𝑣2 𝜌𝑣 (r𝑛 )Δ𝑣𝑛


𝑉(r) = + + ⋯+
4𝜋𝜀0 r − r1 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r2 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r𝑛

As the number of elements approach infinity, we obtain the integral expression:


𝜌𝑣 (r′ )𝑑𝑣 ′
𝑉(r) = න ′
vol 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r

If the charge distribution takes from of a line charge or a surface charge,

𝜌𝐿 (r ′ )𝑑𝐿′ 𝜌𝑆 (r ′ )𝑑𝑆 ′
𝑉(r) = න 𝑉(r) = න
4𝜋𝜀0 r − r ′ 𝑆 4𝜋𝜀0 r − r

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Potential Field of a System of Charges: Conservative Property


With zero reference at ∞, the expression for potential can be taken generally as:

𝐴
𝑉𝐴 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L

Or, for potential difference:


𝐴 • Potential conservation
𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉𝐵 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L in a simple dc-circuit
𝐵
problem in the form of
Both expressions above are not dependent on the path Kirchhoff’s voltage law
chosen for the line integral, regardless of the source of the
E field.

For static fields, no work is done in carrying the unit charge around any closed path.

රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
We have discussed two methods of determining potential: directly from the
electric field intensity by means of a line integral, or from the basic charge
distribution itself by a volume integral.

In practical problems, however, we rarely know E or ρv.

Preliminary information is much more likely to consist a description of two


equipotential surface, and the goal is to find the electric field intensity.
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
The general line-integral relationship between V and E is:

𝑉 = − නE ⋅ 𝑑L

𝑑𝑉 = −E ⋅ 𝑑L

For a very short element of length ΔL, E is essentially constant:

Δ𝑉 = −E ⋅ ΔL

Δ𝑉 = −𝐸Δ𝐿 cos 𝜃

Δ𝑉
= −𝐸 cos 𝜃
Δ𝐿

Assuming a conservative field, for a given reference and starting point, the result of the integration
is a function of the end point (x,y,z). We may pass to the limit and obtain:
𝑑𝑉
= −𝐸 cos 𝜃
𝑑𝐿
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
For the equipotential surfaces below, find the direction of E at P.

𝑑𝑉
ቤ ,
𝑑𝐿 max
𝜃 = 180°
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
Since the potential field information is more likely to be determined first, let us describe
the direction of ΔL (which leads to a maximum increase in potential) in term of potential
field.
Let aN be a unit vector normal to the equipotential surface and directed toward the
higher potential.
The electric field intensity is then expressed in terms of the potential as:

𝑑𝑉
E=− ቤ𝑁
𝑑𝐿 max

The maximum magnitude occurs when ΔL is in the aN direction. Thus we define dN as


incremental length in aN direction,

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑉

𝑑𝐿 𝑑𝑁max

𝑑𝑉
E=− a
𝑑𝑁 𝑁
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
The mathematical operation to find the rate of change in a certain
direction is called gradient.
Now, the gradient of a scalar field T is defined as:

𝑑𝑇
Gradient of 𝑇 = grad 𝑇 = a
𝑑𝑁 𝑁

Using the new term,

𝑑𝑉
E=− a = −grad 𝑉
𝑑𝑁 𝑁
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
Since V is a function of x, y, and z, the total differential is:
𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
𝑑𝑉 = 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑑𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
But also,
𝑑𝑉 = −E ⋅ 𝑑L = −𝐸𝑥 𝑑𝑥 − 𝐸𝑦 𝑑𝑦 − 𝐸𝑧 𝑑𝑧
Both expression are true for any dx, dy, and dz. Thus:
𝜕𝑉
𝐸𝑥 = −
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
E=− a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a𝑧
𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝐸𝑦 = −
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
𝜕𝑉 grad 𝑉 = a + a + a
𝐸𝑧 = − 𝜕𝑥 𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧
𝜕𝑧

Note: Gradient of a scalar is a vector.


Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
Introducing the vector operator for gradient:
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
𝛻= a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
We now can relate E and V as:

E = −𝛻𝑉

𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 Rectangular
𝛻𝑉 = a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 Cylindrical
𝛻𝑉 = a𝜌 + a𝜑 + a
𝜕𝜌 𝜌 𝜕𝜑 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉
𝛻𝑉 =
𝜕𝑟
a𝑟 +
𝑟 𝜕𝜃
a𝜃 + a
𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜑 𝜑
Spherical
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

Potential Gradient
Example
Given the potential field, V = 2x2y–5z, and a point P(–4,3,6), find
V, E, direction of E, D, and ρv.

𝑉𝑃 = 2(−4)2 (3) − 5(6)


= 66 V
𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
E = −𝛻𝑉 =− a𝑥 + a𝑦 + a = −4𝑥𝑦a𝑥 − 2𝑥 2 a𝑦 + 5a𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝑧

E𝑃 = −4(−4)(3)a𝑥 − 2(−4)2 a𝑦 + 5a𝑧 = 48a 𝑥 − 32a 𝑦 + 5a 𝑧


V
m

E𝑃
a𝐸,𝑃 =
E𝑃

pC
D𝑃 = 𝜀0 E𝑃 = 425a𝑥 − 283.3a 𝑦 + 44.27a𝑧
m3

𝜌𝑣 = div D = div 𝜀0 E = (8.854 × 10−12 )(−4𝑦) = −35.42𝑦


pC
m3

At 𝑃, 𝜌𝑣 = −35.42(3)
pC pC
m3 = −106.26
m3
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole
The dipole fields form the basis for the behavior of dielectric materials in electric field.
The dipole will be discussed now and will serve as an illustration about the importance
of the potential concept presented previously.

An electric dipole, or simply a dipole, is the name given to two point charges of equal
magnitude and opposite sign, separated by a distance which is small compared to the
distance to the point P at which we want to know the electric and potential fields.
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole
The distant point P is described by the spherical coordinates
r, θ, Φ = 90°.
The positive and negative point charges have separation d and described in rectangular
coordinates (0,0, 0.5d) and
(0,0,–0.5d).
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole
The total potential at P can be written as:

𝑄 1 1 𝑄 𝑅2 − 𝑅1
𝑉= − =
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅1 𝑅2 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑅1 𝑅2

The plane z = 0 is the locus of points for which R1 = R2


The potential there is zero (as also all points at ∞).
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole
For a distant point, R1 ≈ R2 ≈ r, R2–R1 ≈ dcosθ

𝑄𝑑 cos 𝜃
𝑉=
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2

Using the gradient in spherical coordinates,


𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕𝑉
E = −𝛻𝑉 =− a𝑟 + a𝜃 + a
𝜕𝑟 𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝜕𝜑 𝜑
𝑄𝑑 cos 𝜃 𝑄𝑑 sin 𝜃
E=− − a 𝑟 − a
2𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 3 4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 3 𝜃

𝑄𝑑
E= 2 cos 𝜃 a𝑟 − sin 𝜃 a𝜃
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 3
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential

The Dipole
The potential field of the dipole may be simplified by making use
of the dipole moment.
If the vector length directed from –Q to +Q is identified as d, then
the dipole moment is defined as Qd and is assigned the symbol
p.
p = 𝑄d

Since dar = dcosθ , we then have:


1 1
p ⋅ a𝑟 • Dipole charges: 𝑉 ∼ , E ∼
𝑉= 𝑟2 𝑟3
4𝜋𝜀0 𝑟 2
1 1
• Point charge: 𝑉∼ , E∼ 2
1 r− r′ 𝑟 𝑟
𝑉= p ⋅
4𝜋𝜀0 r − r ′ 2 r − r′
Conductors and
Dielectrics
CHAPTER 5
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Current and Current Density


Electric charges in motion constitute a current.
The unit of current is the ampere (A), defined as a rate of movement of charge passing
a given reference point (or crossing a given reference plane).

𝑑𝑄
𝐼=
𝑑𝑡

Current is defined as the motion of positive charges, although conduction in metals


takes place through the motion of electrons.
Current density J is defined, measured in amperes per square meter (A/m2).
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Current and Current Density


The increment of current ΔI crossing an incremental surface ΔS
normal to the current density is:
Δ𝐼 = 𝐽𝑁 Δ𝑆

If the current density is not perpendicular to the surface,


Δ𝐼 = J ⋅ ΔS

Through integration, the total current is obtained:


𝐼 = න J ⋅ 𝑑S
𝑆
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Current and Current Density


Current density may be related to the velocity of volume charge density at a point.

Δ𝑄 Δ𝑥
Δ𝐼 = = 𝜌𝑣 Δ𝑆
Δ𝑡 Δ𝑡

• An element of charge ΔQ = ρvΔSΔL moves along the x axis


• In the time interval Δt, the element of charge has moved a distance Δx
• The charge moving through a reference plane perpendicular to the direction of motion is ΔQ = ρvΔSΔx
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Current and Current Density


The limit of the moving charge with respect to time is:
Δ𝐼 = 𝜌𝑣 Δ𝑆𝑣𝑥

In terms of current density, we find:


𝐽𝑥 = 𝜌𝑣 𝑣𝑥

J = 𝜌𝑣 v

This last result shows clearly that charge in motion constitutes a current. We name it
here convection current.
J = ρvv is then called convection current density.
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Continuity of Current
The principle of conservation of charge:
“Charges can be neither created nor destroyed.”
But, equal amounts of positive and negative charge (pair of charges) may be
simultaneously created, obtained by separation, destroyed, or lost by recombination.

𝐼 = ර J ⋅ 𝑑S • The Continuity Equation in Closed Surface


𝑆

Any outward flow of positive charge must be balanced by a decrease of positive charge (or
perhaps an increase of negative charge) within the closed surface.
If the charge inside the closed surface is denoted by Qi, then the rate of decrease is –dQi/dt
and the principle of conservation of charge requires:
𝑑𝑄𝑖
𝐼 = ර J ⋅ 𝑑S = − • The Integral Form of the Continuity Equation
𝑆 𝑑𝑡
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Continuity of Current
The differential form (or point form) of the continuity equation is obtained by using
the divergence theorem:

ර J ⋅ 𝑑S = න (𝛻 ⋅ J)𝑑𝑣
𝑆 vol
We next represent Qi by the volume integral of ρv:
𝑑
න (𝛻 ⋅ J)𝑑𝑣 = − න 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣
vol 𝑑𝑡 vol

If we keep the surface constant, the derivative becomes a partial derivative. Writing it within
the integral,
𝜕𝜌𝑣
න (𝛻 ⋅ J)𝑑𝑣 = න − 𝑑𝑣
vol vol 𝜕𝑡
𝜕𝜌𝑣
(𝛻 ⋅ J)Δ𝑣 = − Δ𝑣
𝜕𝑡
𝜕𝜌𝑣 • The Differential Form (Point Form)
𝛻⋅J=−
𝜕𝑡 of the Continuity Equation
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors
The energy-band structure of three types of materials at 0 K is shown as follows:

Energy in the form of heat, light, or an electric field may raise the energy of the electrons of the
valence band, and in sufficient amount they will be excited and jump the energy gap into the
conduction band.
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors
First let us consider the conductor.
Here, the valence electrons (or free conductive electrons) move under the influence of an electric field E.
An electron having a charge Q = –e will experiences a force:

F = −𝑒E
In free space, the electron would accelerate and continuously increase its velocity.

In the crystalline material, the progress of the electron is impeded by collisions with the lattice structure, and
a constant average velocity is soon attained.

This velocity vd is termed the drift velocity. It is linearly related to the electric field intensity by the mobility of
the electron in a given material. We designate mobility by the symbol μe, so that
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors
v𝑑 = −𝜇𝑒 E Aluminum 0.0012
The unit of mobility is square meter per volt-second Copper 0.0032
Silver 0.0056
J = −𝜌𝑒 𝜇𝑒 E • Where 𝜌𝑒 is the free-electron charge density, a negative value. The negative value of 𝜌𝑒 and the
minus lead to the current density J that is in the same direction as the electric field E

J = 𝜎E

Conductivity can be expressed in term of the charge density and electric mobility as

𝜎 = −𝜌𝑒 𝜇𝑒 • The Point Form of Ohm’s Law

Where 𝜎 is measured in Siemens per meter (𝑆/𝑚). One Siemens is the basic unit of conductance in the SI system
and is defined as one ampere per volt
Higher temperature infers a greater crystalline lattice vibration, more impeded electron progress for a given electric field strength, lower drift velocity,
lower mobility, lower conductivity and higher resistivity
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Metallic Conductors
 The application of Ohm’s law in point form to a
macroscopic region leads to a more familiar form.
𝑉 = 𝐸𝐿
 Assuming J and E to be uniform, in a cylindrical
region shown below, we can write: 𝐼 𝑉
𝐽 = = 𝜎𝐸 =𝜎
𝑆 𝐿
𝐿
⇒𝑉= 𝐼
𝜎𝑆

𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅

𝐿
𝐼 = න J ⋅ 𝑑S = 𝐽𝑆 𝑅=
𝑆
𝑎
𝜎𝑆
𝑉𝑎𝑏 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L
𝑏
𝑎
𝑎
𝑉𝑎𝑏 − ‫ 𝑏׬‬E ⋅ 𝑑L
= −E න 𝑑L 𝑅= =
𝑏 𝐼 ‫𝜎 𝑆׬‬E ⋅ 𝑑S
= −E ⋅ L𝑏𝑎 = E ⋅ L𝑎𝑏
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Conductor Properties and Boundary


Conditions
Property 1:
The charge density within a conductor is zero (ρv = 0) and the surface charge
density resides on the exterior surface.
Property 2:
In static conditions, no current may flow, thus the electric field intensity within
the conductor is zero (E = 0).

Now our next concern is the fields external to the conductor.


The external electric field intensity and electric flux density are decomposed into the tangential
components and the normal components.
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Conductor Properties and Boundary


Conditions
The tangential component of the electric field intensity is seen to be zero Et = 0  Dt = 0.

If not, then a force will be applied to the surface charges, resulting in their motion and no static conditions.

The normal component of the electric flux density leaving the surface is equal to the
surface charge density in coulombs per square meter (DN = ρS).

According to Gauss’s law, the electric flux leaving an incremental surface is equal
to the charge residing on that incremental surface.
The flux cannot penetrate into the conductor since the total field there is zero.
It must leave the surface normally.
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Conductor Properties and Boundary


Conditions
 If Field E exists in a region
consisting of two different
media, the condition that
the field must satisfy at
the interface separating
the media is called
boundary condition.
 These conditions are
helpful in determining the
field on one side of the රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0 ර D ⋅ 𝑑S = 𝑄
boundary if the field on 𝑆
the other side is known. 𝑏 𝑐 𝑑 𝑎
න + න + න + න =0 න + න + න =𝑄
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐 𝑑 top bottom sides
1 1
𝐸𝑡 Δ𝑤 − 𝐸𝑁,at b Δℎ + 𝐸𝑁,at a Δℎ = 0 𝐷𝑁 Δ𝑆 = 𝑄 = 𝜌𝑆 Δ𝑆
2 2
E1t = E2t
Tangential Component Δℎ → 0, Δ𝑤 << ⇒ 𝐸𝑡 Δ𝑤 = 0 𝐷𝑁 = 𝜌𝑆
of E is said to be
continuous across the
boundry
𝐸𝑡 = 0 𝐷𝑡 = 𝐸𝑡 = 0 𝐷𝑁 = 𝜀0 𝐸𝑁 = 𝜌𝑆
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Semiconductors
In an intrinsic semiconductor material, such as pure germanium or silicon,
two types of current carriers are present: electrons and holes.
The electrons are those from the top of the filled valence band which have
received sufficient energy to cross the small forbidden band into
conduction band.

The forbidden-band energy gap in typical semiconductors is of the order of 1 eV.


The vacancies left by the electrons represent unfilled energy states in the valence band.
They may also move from atom to atom in the crystal.
The vacancy is called a hole, and the properties of semiconductor are described by
treating the hole as a positive charge of e, a mobility μh, and an effective mass
comparable to that of the electron.
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Semiconductors
The conductivity of a semiconductor is described as:

𝜎 = −𝜌𝑒 𝜇𝑒 + 𝜌ℎ 𝜇ℎ

As temperature increases, the mobilities decrease, but the charge densities increase
very rapidly.
As a result, the conductivity of silicon increases by a factor of 100 as the temperature
increases from about 275 K to 330 K.
Chapter 5 Current and Conductors

Semiconductors
The conductivity of the intrinsic semiconductor increases with
temperature, while that of a metallic conductor decreases with
temperature.
The intrinsic semiconductors also satisfy the point form of Ohm's
law: the conductivity is reasonably constant with current density
and with the direction of the current density.

J = 𝜎E
CHAPTER 6
capacitance
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


A dielectric material in an electric field can be viewed as a free-space
arrangement of microscopic electric dipoles, a pair of positive and negative
charges whose centers do not quite coincide.
These charges are not free charges, not contributing to the conduction
process. They are called bound charges, can only shift positions slightly in
response to external fields.
All dielectric materials have the ability to store electric energy. This storage
takes place by means of a shift (displacement) in the relative positions of the
bound charges against the normal molecular and atomic forces.
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


The mechanism of this charge displacement differs in various
dielectric materials.
Polar molecules have a permanent displacement existing
between the centers of “gravity” of the positive and negative
charges, each pair of charges acts as a dipole.
Dipoles are normally oriented randomly, and the action of the
external field is to align these molecules in the same direction.

Nonpolar molecules does not have dipole arrangement until after a field is applied.
The negative and positive charges shift in opposite directions against their mutual
attraction and produce a dipole which is aligned with the electric field.
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


Either type of dipole may be described by its dipole moment p:
p = 𝑄d

If there are n dipoles per unit volume and we deal with a volume Δv, then there are nΔv dipoles in
a volume Δv. The total dipole moment is obtained by the vector sum
𝑛Δ𝑣

ptotal = ෍ p𝑖
𝑖=1

If the dipoles are aligned in the same general direction, Ptotal may have signification value
We now define the polarization P as the dipole moment per unit volume:
𝑛Δ𝑣
1
P = lim
Δ𝑣→0 Δ𝑣
෍ p𝑖 = 𝑛p = 𝑛𝑄d
𝑖=1

The immediate goal is to show that the bound-volume charge density acts like the free-volume
charge density in producing an external field ► We shall obtain a result similar to Gauss’s law.
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


Take a dielectric containing nonpolar molecules. No molecules has p, and P = 0 throughout the material.
Somewhere in the interior of the dielectric we select an incremental surface element ΔS, and apply an electric
field E.
The electric field produces a moment p = Qd in each molecule, such that p and d make an angle θ with ΔS.

Due to E, any positive charges initially lying below the surface ΔS and within ½dcosθ must have crossed ΔS going upward.
Any negative charges initially lying above the surface ΔS and within ½dcosθ must have crossed ΔS going downward.
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


For n molecules/m3, the net total charge (positive and negative) which crosses the elemental
surface in upward direction is:

Δ𝑄𝑏 = 𝑛𝑄𝑑 cos 𝜃 ⋅ Δ𝑆 Δ𝑄𝑏 = 𝑛𝑄d ⋅ ΔS

The notation Qb means the bound charge. In terms of the polarization, we have:

Δ𝑄𝑏 = P ⋅ ΔS

If we interpret ΔS as an element of a closed surface, then the direction of ΔS is


outward.
The net increase in the bound charge within the closed surface is:

𝑄𝑏 = − ර P ⋅ 𝑑S
𝑆
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


Seeing some similarity to Gauss’s law, we may now generalize the definition of electric flux
density so that it applies to media other than free space.
We write Gauss’s law in terms of ε0E and QT, the total enclosed charge (bound charge plus free
charge):

𝑄𝑇 = ර 𝜀0 E ⋅ 𝑑S
𝑆

𝑄𝑇 = 𝑄𝑏 + 𝑄

Combining the last three equations:

𝑄 = 𝑄𝑇 − 𝑄𝑏 = ර (𝜀0 E + P) ⋅ 𝑑S
𝑆

We may now define D in more general terms:

D = 𝜀0 E + P There is an added term to D when a


material is polarized
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


For equations with volume charge densities, we now have:

𝑄𝑏 = න 𝜌𝑏 𝑑𝑣 𝑄 = න 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝑣
𝑣 𝑣

𝑄𝑇 = න 𝜌𝑇 𝑑𝑣
𝑣

With the help of the divergence theorem, we may transform the equations into equivalent divergence
relationships:
𝛻 ⋅ P = −𝜌𝑏

𝛻 ⋅ D = 𝜌𝑣

𝛻 ⋅ 𝜀0 E = 𝜌𝑇
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


To utilize the new concepts, it is necessary to know the relationship between E and P.
This relationship will be a function of the type of material. We will limit the discussion to isotropic materials for
which E and P are linearly related.
In an isotropic material, the vectors E and P are always parallel, regardless of the orientation of the field.

The linear relationship between P and E can be described as:


P = 𝜒𝑒 𝜀0 E

D = 𝜀0 E + 𝜒𝑒 𝜀0 E = (𝜒𝑒 + 1)𝜀0 E

We now define: χe : electric susceptibility,


𝜀𝑟 = 𝜒𝑒 + 1 a measure of how easily
a dielectric polarizes in
D = 𝜀0 𝜀𝑟 E = 𝜀E response to an electric field

𝜀 = 𝜀0 𝜀𝑟 εr : relative permittivity
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

The Nature of Dielectric Materials


In summary, we now have a relationship between D and E which depends on the dielectric
material present:

D = 𝜀E

𝜀 = 𝜀0 𝜀𝑟

𝛻 ⋅ D = 𝜌𝑣

ර D ⋅ 𝑑S = 𝑄
𝑆
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials


Consider the interface between two dielectrics having permittivities ε1 and ε2, as shown below.

We first examine the tangential components around the small closed path on the left, with Δw<< :

රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0 𝐸tan 1 Δ𝑤 − 𝐸tan 2 Δ𝑤 = 0

𝐸tan 1 = 𝐸tan 2
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials


The tangential electric flux density is discontinuous,

𝐷tan 1 𝐷tan 2 𝐷tan 1 𝜀1


= 𝐸tan 1 = 𝐸tan 2 = =
𝜀1 𝜀2 𝐷tan 2 𝜀2

The boundary conditions on the normal components are found by applying Gauss’s law to the
small cylinder shown at the right of the previous figure (net tangential flux is zero).

• ρS cannot be a bound surface charge density because the


polarization already counted in by using dielectric constant
𝐷𝑁1 Δ𝑆 − 𝐷𝑁2 Δ𝑆 = Δ𝑄 = 𝜌𝑆 Δ𝑆 different from unity

• ρS cannot be a free surface charge density, for no free charge


available in the perfect dielectrics we are considering
𝐷𝑁1 − 𝐷𝑁2 = 𝜌𝑆
• ρS exists only in special cases where it is deliberately placed
there
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials


Combining the normal and the tangential components of D,

𝐷𝑁1 = 𝐷1 cos 𝜃1 = 𝐷2 cos 𝜃2 = 𝐷𝑁2


𝐷tan 1 𝐷1 sin 𝜃1 𝜀1
= =
𝐷tan 2 𝐷2 sin 𝜃2 𝜀2

𝜀2 𝐷1 sin 𝜃1 = 𝜀1 𝐷2 sin 𝜃2

𝜀1 > 𝜀2 → 𝜃1 > 𝜃2
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials


The direction of E on each side of the boundary is
identical with the direction of D, because D = εE.
E1

𝜀1 𝐸𝑁1 = 𝜀2 𝐸𝑁2

𝐸tan 1 = 𝐸tan 2
𝜀1 > 𝜀2 → 𝜃1 > 𝜃2

E2
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions Between a Conductor and a Dielectric


The boundary conditions existing at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric are much
simpler than those previously discussed.
First, we know that D and E are both zero inside the conductor.
Second, the tangential E and D components must both be zero to satisfy:

රE ⋅ 𝑑L = 0 D = 𝜀E

Finally, the application of Gauss’s law shows once more that both D and E are normal to the
conductor surface and that
DN = ρS and EN = ρS/ε.
The boundary conditions for conductor–free space are valid also for conductor–dielectric
boundary, with ε0 replaced by ε.

𝐷𝑡 = 𝐸𝑡 = 0 𝐷𝑁 = 𝜀𝐸𝑁 = 𝜌𝑆
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions Between a Conductor and a Dielectric


We will now spend a moment to examine one phenomena: “Any charge that is introduced
internally within a conducting material will arrive at the surface as a surface charge.”
Given Ohm’s law and the continuity equation (free charges only):

J = 𝜎E
𝜕𝜌𝑣
𝛻⋅J=−
𝜕𝑡

We have:
𝜕𝜌𝑣 𝜎 𝜕𝜌𝑣
𝛻 ⋅ 𝜎E = − 𝛻⋅ D=−
𝜕𝑡 𝜀 𝜕𝑡
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Boundary Conditions Between a Conductor and a Dielectric


If we assume that the medium is homogenous, so that σ and ε are not functions of position, we
will have:
𝜀 𝜕𝜌𝑣
𝛻⋅D=−
𝜎 𝜕𝑡
Using Maxwell’s first equation, we obtain;

𝜀 𝜕𝜌𝑣
𝜌𝑣 = −
𝜎 𝜕𝑡
Making the rough assumption that σ is not a function of ρv, it leads to an easy solution that at least
permits us to compare different conductors.
The solution of the above equation is:

𝜎
−( )𝑡
• ρ0 is the charge density at t = 0
𝜌𝑣 = 𝜌0 𝑒 𝜀 • Exponential decay with time constant of ε/σ
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance
Let us consider two conductors embedded in a homogenous dielectric.
Conductor M2 Carries a tota positive charge Q and M1 carries an equal negative
charge. Thus the total charge of the system is zero.
We now know that the charge is carried on the surface as the surface charge
density and also that the electric field is normal to that conductor surface. Each
conductor is moreover, an equipotential surface.

The electric flux is directed from M2 to M1, thus M2 is at the more positive
potential.
Works must be done to carry a positive charge from M1 to M2.

Let us assign V0 as the potential difference between M2 and M1.

We may now define the capacitance of this two-conductor system as the ratio of
the magnitude of the total charge on either conductor to the magnitude of the ‫𝜀 𝑆ׯ‬E ⋅ 𝑑S
potential difference between the conductors. 𝑄 𝐶=
𝐶= +
𝑉0 − ‫׬‬− E ⋅ 𝑑L
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance
The capacitance is independent of the potential and total charge for their
ratio is constant.
if the charge density is increased by a factor, Gauss's law indicates that the
electric flux density or electric field intensity also increases by the same
factor, as does the potential difference.

‫𝜀 𝑆ׯ‬E ⋅ 𝑑S
𝐶= +
− ‫׬‬− E ⋅ 𝑑L

Capacitance is a function only of the physical dimensions of the system of conductors and of the
permittivity of the homogenous dielectric.
Capacitance is measured in farads (F), 1 F = 1 C/V.
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance
We will now apply the definition of capacitance to a simple two-conductor system, where the
conductors are identical, infinite parallel planes, and separated a distance d to each other.

𝜌𝑆
E = a𝑧
𝜀

D = 𝜌𝑆 a𝑧

The charge on the lower plane is positive, since D is upward.


𝐷𝑁 = 𝐷𝑧 = +𝜌𝑆
The charge on the upper plane is negative,
𝐷𝑁 = −𝐷𝑧 = −𝜌𝑆
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance
The potential difference between lower and upper planes is:
lower 0
𝜌𝑆 𝜌𝑆
𝑉0 = − න E ⋅ 𝑑L = −න ⋅ 𝑑𝑧 = 𝑑
upper 𝑑 𝜀 𝜀
The total charge for an area S of either plane, both with linear dimensions much greater than their
separation d, is:

𝑄 = 𝜌𝑆 𝑆, where 𝜌𝑆 = Q/S (Charge per unit area)

The capacitance of a portion of the


infinite-plane arrangement, far from the
edges, is:

𝑄 𝜀𝑆 𝜌𝑆 𝑑
𝐶= = 𝑉0 =
𝑉0 𝑑 𝜀
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


The configuration of the two-wire line consists of two parallel
conducting cylinders, each of circular cross section.

We shall be able to find complete information about the electric


field intensity, the potential field, the surface charge density
distribution, and the capacitance.

This arrangement is an important type of transmission line.


Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


The potential field of two infinite line
charges, with a positive line charge in the
xz plane at x = a and a negative line at x
= –a is shown below.
The potential of a single line charge with
zero reference at a radius of R0 is:

𝜌𝐿 𝑅0
𝑉= ln
2𝜋𝜀 𝑅

The combined potential field can be written as:

𝜌𝐿 𝑅10 𝑅20 𝜌𝐿 𝑅10 𝑅2


𝑉= ln − ln = ln
2𝜋𝜀 𝑅1 𝑅2 2𝜋𝜀 𝑅20 𝑅1
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


We choose R10 = R20, thus placing the zero reference at equal distances from each line.
Expressing R1 and R2 in terms of x and y,

𝜌𝐿 (𝑥 + 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2 𝜌𝐿 (𝑥 + 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2
𝑉= ln = ln
2𝜋𝜀 (𝑥 − 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2 4𝜋𝜀 (𝑥 − 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2

To recognize the equipotential surfaces, some algebraic manipulations are


necessary.
Choosing an equipotential surface V = V1, we define a dimensionless
parameter K1 as:
4𝜋𝜀𝑉1
𝐾1 = 𝑒 𝜌𝐿
(𝑥 + 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2
𝐾1 =
(𝑥 − 𝑎)2 + 𝑦 2
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


After some multiplications and algebra, we obtain:
𝐾1 + 1
𝑥2 − 2𝑎𝑥 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑎2 = 0
𝐾1 − 1
2 2
𝐾1 + 1 2
2𝑎 𝐾1
𝑥−𝑎 +𝑦 =
𝐾1 − 1 𝐾1 − 1

The last equation shows that the


V = V1 equipotential surface is independent of z and intersects
the xz plane in a circle of radius b,

2𝑎 𝐾1
𝑏=
𝐾1 − 1
The center of the circle is x = h, y = 0, where:
𝐾1 + 1
ℎ=𝑎
𝐾1 − 1
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


Let us no consider a zero-potential conducting plane located at x = 0, and a conducting cylinder of
radius b and potential V0 with its axis located a distance h from the plane.
Solving the last two equations for a and K1 in terms of b and h,

𝑎= ℎ2 − 𝑏 2

ℎ + ℎ2 − 𝑏 2
𝐾1 =
𝑏
2𝜋𝜀𝑉0
The potential of the cylinder is V0, so that: 𝐾1 = 𝑒 𝜌𝐿
2𝜋𝜀𝑉0
Therefore, 𝜌𝐿 =
ln 𝐾1
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


Given h, b, and V0, we may determine a, K1, and ρL.
The capacitance between the cylinder and the plane is now available. For a length L in the z
direction,

𝜌𝐿 𝐿 4𝜋𝜀𝐿 2𝜋𝜀𝐿
𝐶= = =
𝑉0 ln 𝐾1 ln 𝐾1

2𝜋𝜀𝐿 2𝜋𝜀𝐿
𝐶= =
ℎ + ℎ2 − 𝑏 2 ℎ
cosh−1 ( )
ln 𝑏
𝑏
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


Example
The black circle shows the cross section of a cylinder of
5 m radius at a potential of 100 V in free space. Its axis is 13
m away from a plane at zero potential.

b  5, h  13, V0  100

a  h2  b2  132  52  12

h  h2  b2 13  12
K1   5  K1  25
b 5
4 V0 4 (8.854 1012 )(100)
L    3.46 nC m
ln K1 ln 25
2 2 (8.854 1012 )
C 1
 1
 34.6 pF m
cosh (h b) cosh (13 5)
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


We may also identify the cylinder representing
the 50 V equipotential surface by finding new
values for K1, b, and h.

K1  e 4V1  L
4 8.8541012 50 3.46109
e
5
2a K1 2  12 5
b   13.42 m
K1  1 5 1

K1  1 5 1
ha  12  18 m
K1  1 5 1
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


 L ( x  a) 2  y 2 
E    ln 2
 2 ( x  a ) 2
 y 
  2( x  a)a x  2 ya y 2( x  a)a x  2 ya y 
 L   
2  ( x  a ) 2
 y 2
( x  a ) 2
 y 2

 L  2( x  a)a x  2 ya y 2( x  a)a x  2 ya y 
D  E =    
2  ( x  a)  y2 2
( x  a) 2  y 2 

 S ,max   Dx , x h b , y 0 =  L  h  b  a  h  b  a 
2  (h  b  a)2 (h  b  a) 2 
3.46 109  13  5  12 13  5  12 
 S ,max  
 (13  5  12)2 (13  5  12) 2   0.165 nC m2
2  
Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


  hba hba 
 S ,min  Dx, x h b, y 0 = L  (h  b  a) 2  (h  b  a) 2 
2  
3.46 109  13  5  12 13  5  12 
 S ,min  
 (13  5  12)2 (13  5  12) 2   0.073 nC m 2

2  
- +
- +
- +
- - + +
- +
- +
- +

 S ,min  Dx , x h b, y 0
 S ,max   Dx , x h b , y 0

 S ,max  2.25 S ,min


Chapter 6 Dielectrics and Capacitance

Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line


For the case of a conductor with b << h, then:


ln  h  h2  b2
  b

ln  h  h  b  ln  2h b 

2 L (b  h)
C
ln(2h b)
Derivation of Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations
These equations allow one to find the potential field in a region, in which values of potential or electric field
are known at its boundaries.

Start with Maxwell’s first equation:

where

and

so that

or finally:
Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations (continued)
Recall the divergence as expressed in
rectangular coordinates:

…and the gradient:

then:

. It is known as the Laplacian operator


𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 2 𝜕 2 𝜕 2
𝜵= 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒂𝒚 + 𝒂𝒛 → 𝛻2 = 𝜵 ∙ 𝜵 = 2 + 2 + 2
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
Summary of Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations

we already have:

which becomes:

This is Poisson’s equation, as stated in rectangular coordinates.

In the event that there is zero volume charge density, the right-hand-side becomes zero, and we obtain

Laplace’s equation:
Laplacian Operator in Three Coordinate Systems

(Laplace’s equation)
Chapter 8

The Steady Magnetic Field


Magnet
Properties of a Magnet
Magnetic Dipoles
Magnetic Flux
Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet
Laws of Magnetism
Magnetic Field of a Point Charge
Given a point charge q, we know that it generates an electric field regardless of weather it is moving

If the charge is in fact moving then the charge is also generates magnetic field.

The magnetic field generated by the charge however does not behave in the same way the electric field
of the charge does
Biot Savart Law
Biot and Savart recognized that a conductor carrying a steady current
produces a force on a magnet.

Biot and Savart Produced an equation that gives the magnetic field at
some point in space in terms of the current that produces a field.

Biot-Savart law says that if a wire carries a steady current I, the


magnetic field dB at point P associated with an element of conductor
length ds has the following properties.
The Vector dB is perpendicular to both ds (the direction of the
current I) and to the unit vector r directed from the element ds
to the point
Biot Savart Law
It states that any point P the magnitude of the magnetic field intensity produced by the
differential element is proportional to the product of the current, the magnitude of the
differential length, and the sine of the angle lying between the filament and a line
connecting the filament to the point P at which the field is desired; also the magnitude of
magnetic field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the
differential element to the point P.

The direction of the magnetic field intensity is normal to the plane containing the
differential filament and the line drawn from the filament to the point P.

1
Field 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 𝐼 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑙 where as 𝑑𝐵 ∝ 𝑟 2
sin𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

𝐼 𝑑𝑙 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑑𝑙 sin 𝜃 𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑑𝐿 𝑥 𝑟റ
𝑑𝐵 ∝ → 𝑑𝐵 = → 𝑑𝐵 =
𝑟2 4𝜋 𝑟2 4𝜋 𝑟 3
Magnetic Field Due to Straight Wire
Carrying Current
𝜇𝑜 𝑑𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑑𝐵 =
4𝜋 𝑟 2
𝑅
sin 𝜋 − 𝜃 = = sin 𝜃, 𝑟 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑅2
𝑥 2 + 𝑅2

𝜇𝑜 𝐼 𝑅𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝐵 =
4𝜋 (𝑥 2 + 𝑅2 )3/2

𝑜 ∞ 𝜇 𝐼 𝑅𝑑𝑥 𝜇𝑜 𝐼𝑅 𝑑𝑥
𝐵 = ‫׬ = 𝐵𝑑 ׬‬−∞ 4𝜋 = ‫׬‬
(𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )3/2 4𝜋 (𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )3/2

𝑑𝑥 𝑥
Rule = ‫׬‬ =
(𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )3/2 𝑅2 (𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )1/2
𝜇𝑜 𝑥
𝐵= (limit ∞ → −∞)
4𝜋𝑅 (𝑥 2 +𝑅2 )1/2
𝜇𝑜 𝐼
𝐵= 2𝜋𝑅
Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux
Density
 In free space, let us define magnetic flux density B as

B  0 H
where B is measured in webers per square meter (Wb/m2) or tesla (T).
 The constant μ0 is not dimensionless and has a defined value for free space, in henrys per meter (H/m), of

0  4 107 H m
 The magnetic-flux-density vector B, as the name weber per square meter implies, is a member of the
flux-density family of vector fields.
 Comparing the laws of Biot-Savart and Coulomb, one can find analogy between H and E that leads to an
analogy between B and D; D = ε0E and B = μ0H.
Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux
Density
 If B is measured in teslas or webers per square meter, then magnetic flux H should be
measured in webers.
 Let us represent magnetic flux by Φ and define Φ as the flux passing through any designated
area,

   B  dS Wb
S
  D  dS  Q
S

 We remember that Gauss’s law states that the total electric flux passing through any closed
surface is equal to the charge enclosed. This charge is the source of the electric flux D.
 For magnetic flux, no current source can be enclosed, since the current is considered to be in
closed circuit.
Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux
Density
 For this reason, the Gauss’s law for the magnetic field can be written as

 B  dS  0
S

 Through the application of the divergence theorem, we can also find that

• Fourth Maxwell’s Equation,


B  0 static electric fields and steady
magnetic fields.
Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux
Density
 Collecting all equations we have until now of static electric fields and steady magnetic fields,

  D  v H  J
E  0  B  0
 The corresponding set of four integral equations that apply to static electric fields and steady
magnetic fields is

 D  dS  Q    dv  H  dL  I   J  dS
S vol
v
S

 E  dL  0  B  dS  0 S
Ampere’s Circuital Law
The Line integral of H. dl or B. ds around any closed path equals I, where I is the total steady current
passing through any closed surface bounded by closed loop or path.

ර 𝐵 . 𝑑𝑠 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼

Or

‫𝐻 ׯ‬. 𝑑𝑙 = 𝜇𝑜 𝐼
Ampere’s Circuital Law
 In solving electrostatic problems, whenever a high degree of symmetry is present,
we found that they could be solved much more easily by using Gauss’s law
compared to Coulomb’s law.
 Again, an analogous procedure exists in magnetic field.
 Here, the law that helps solving problems more easily is known as Ampere’s circuital
law.
 The derivation of this law will waits until several subsection ahead. For the present
we accept Ampere’s circuital law as another law capable of experimental proof.
 Ampere’s circuital law states that the line integral of magnetic field intensity H about
any closed path is exactly equal to the direct current enclosed by that path,

 H  dL  I
Ampere’s Law

 
 B  ds   I
0 enc
Chapter 8 The Steady Magnetic Field

Ampere’s Circuital Law

• The line integral of H


about the closed path a
and b is equal to I
• The integral around path c
is less than I.

 The application of Ampere’s circuital law involves finding the total current enclosed
by a closed path.
Ampere’s Circuital Law
 Let us again find the magnetic field intensity
produced by an infinite long filament carrying a
current I. The filament lies on the z axis in free
space, flowing to az direction.
 We choose a convenient path to any section of
which H is either perpendicular or tangential and
along which the magnitude H is constant.

 The path must be a circle of radius ρ, and Ampere’s circuital law can be written as

2 2
I
 H  dL   H  d
0
 H   d  H 2  I
0
 H 
2
Ampere’s Law with Displacement
Current
Imagine a wire connected to a charging or discharging capacitor. The area in the
Amperian loop could be stretched into the open region of the capacitor. In this case
there would be current passing through the loop, but not through the area bounded
Ampere’s Law with Displacement Current
If Ampere’s Law still holds, there must be a magnetic field generated by the changing E-field
between the plates. This induced B-field makes it look like there is a current (call it the
displacement current) passing through the plates.
Equation for Displacement current

d E
Id  0
dt
Modified Ampere’s Law
(Ampere-Maxwell Law)
 
 B  ds   I
0
enc   0 I d ,enc

  d E
 B  ds  
0
I enc   0 0
dt
Stokes’ Theorem
 Previously, from Ampere’s circuital law, we derive one of Maxwell’s equations, ∇×H = J.
 This equation is to be considered as the point form of Ampere’s circuital law and applies on
a “per-unit-area” basis.

 Now, we shall devote the material to a mathematical theorem known as Stokes’ theorem.
 In the process, we shall show that we may obtain Ampere’s circuital law from ∇×H = J.
Stokes’ Theorem
 Consider the surface S of the next figure, which is broken up into incremental
surfaces of area ΔS.
 If we apply the definition of the curl to one of these incremental surfaces, then:

 H  dL S
(  H ) N
S
or

 H  dL S
(  H )  a N
S
or

 H  dL S (  H)  a N S  (  H)  S
Stokes’ Theorem
 Let us now perform the circulation for every ΔS comprising S and sum the results.

 As we evaluate the closed line integral for each ΔS,


some cancellation will occur because every interior
wall is covered once in each direction.
 The only boundaries on which cancellation cannot
occur form the outside boundary, the path enclosing
S.

 Therefore,

 H  dL   (  H)  dS
S
where dL is taken only on the perimeter of S.