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Raghavendra Naik

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CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Basic working principle
 Components
 Advantages
 Conclusion
 References
Introduction
 In today’s fast developing world, air pollution is rapidly
increasing and affecting most of the major cities of the world.
 These increased is mainly due to the emission of carbon
dioxide and other toxic gases from the vehicles which leads to
gradual increasing in global warming.
 Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant. PM2.5 are
tiny particles in the air that reduce visibility and cause the air to
appear hazy when levels are high.
 Nowadays the pre mature death is increasing due to the expose
to PM2.5.
 In order to overcome and minimize these criteria hybrid
engines were introduced.
 A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct
power sources to move the vehicle. The term most
commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs),
which combine an internal combustion engine and one or
more electric motors.
 The most common type of hybrid vehicle is the gasoline-
electric hybrid vehicles, which use gasoline (petrol) and
electric batteries.
 The presence of the electric power train is intended to
achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional
vehicle or better performance.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
 A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle
that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE)
system with an electric propulsion system.
Basic working
 The mechanical output is first converted into electricity using a
generator. The converted electricity either charges the battery
or can bypass the battery to propel the wheels via the motor
and mechanical transmission.
Power Flow Control
In the series hybrid system there are four operating modes
based on the power flow:

 Mode 1: During startup (Figure 1a), normal driving or


acceleration of the series HEV, both the ICE and battery deliver
electric energy to the power converter which then drives the
electric motor and hence the wheels via transmission.

 Mode 2: At light load (Figure 1b), the ICE output is greater


than that required to drive the wheels. Hence, a fraction of the
generated electrical energy is used to charge the battery. The
charging of the batter takes place till the battery capacity
reaches a proper level.
 Mode 3: During braking or deceleration (Figure 1c), the
electric motor acts as a generator, which converts the kinetic
energy of the wheels into electricity and this, is used to charge
the battery.

 Mode 4: The battery can also be charged by the ICE via the
generator even when the vehicle comes to a complete stop
(Figure 1d).
Types Of Hybrid Electric Vehicle
 Series Hybrid
 Parallel Hybrid
Series Hybrid Vehicle
 This is an electric power train for which an I.C. engine is
coupled to the generator to charge batteries and provide power
to the electric drive motor which can be seen in Fig.1
Parallel Hybrid Vehicle
 Parallel hybrid systems have both an internal combustion
engine (ICE) and an electric motor in parallel connected to a
mechanical transmission
Advantages of P-hev over S-hev
 Both the engine and electric motor are coupled to the
transmission system hence the transmission system can
turns the wheels
 If any one propulsion system fails to operate than parallel
connected other propulsion system can operate and drives
the vehicle
 Under acceleration more power is allocated to drive the
train than to the batteries and
 During period of idle, more power goes to the batteries
than the drive trains.
Power flow in P-hev
 Mode 1: At startup (Figure 3a), the battery solely provides
the necessary power to propel the vehicle and the ICE
remains in off mode.
 Mode 2: During full throttle acceleration (Figure 3b),
both the ICE and the EM share the required traction
power.
 Mode 3: During normal driving (Figure 3c), the required
traction power is provided by the ICE only and the EM
remains in the off state.
 Mode 4: During normal braking or deceleration (Figure
3d), the EM acts as a generator to charge the battery.
 Mode 5: To charge the battery during driving (Figure 3e),
the ICE delivers the required traction power and also
charges the battery. In this mode the EM acts as a
generator.

 Mode 6: When the vehicle is at standstill (Figure 3f), the


ICE can deliver power to charge the battery via the EM
Components Of HEV
1. Electric motor:

 Converts electric energy to mechanical energy.

 It is powered by DC sources such as batteries or fuel cells or by


AC sources
2. Auxiliary power unit(APU):

 It is a device that provides energy for functions other than


propulsion.

 APUs use spark and combustion engines as a source of power.


However in recent years fuel cell APUs that nearly eliminate
all emissions are used.

 APU in HEVs supplies baseline power required by vehicles,


recharges batteries and power accessories such as air
conditioners and heaters.
3. Generator:

 Converts mechanical energy


Into electrical energy
 The combustion engine
in serial hybrid drives electric
generator.
 The generator both
Charges battery and powers motor
That moves vehicle.
4. Energy storage systems:

 Batteries are used for energy storage in HEVs


 Flywheels store energy mechanically by turning heavy rotor to
store kinetic energy.
5. Battery Charger

220V AC power supply is also provided to charge the lithium ion


batteries.
This can be done during night time where the solar charging will
not be available.
 A simple low-cost battery charger based on a saturated controller
is proposed for charging of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.
Advantages
 Environmental friendly
 Less dependence on fossil fuel
 Financial benefits
 Built from lighter material
Conclusion
 The concept of hybridization of vehicles results in better
efficiency and also saves a lot of fuel in today’s fuel deficit
world.

 A hybrid gives a solution to all the problems to some extent


Reference
 Satti Swami Reddy, Kola Siva Tharun, Eco Friendly Vehicle,
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology
(IJETT), 4(4), April 2013, 957-960.
 Trajkovic, S., Tunestal, P., and Johansson, B., "Vehicle
Driving Cycle Simulation of a Pneumatic Hybrid Bus Based on
Experimental Engine Measurements," SAE Technical Paper
2010-01-0825, 2010, doi:10.4271/201001-0825.
 Husain, Electric and Hybrid Vehicles-
Design
 Fundamentals, Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2003.
 Charters, D., 2008. MIRA Case Study: Hybrid 4WD vehicle
(H4V).