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ASP Study Prep

CHEMISTRY AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE CALCULATIONS


Atoms, elements, matter
 Atoms = protons, neutrons, electrons
 Atomic weight = number of protons + number of neutrons
 Number of protons defines the element
 Isotopes = different numbers of neutrons but same number of protons
Chemical reactions, balancing, stoichiometry
 Reaction standard notation has reactants on the left and products on the right
 Understand how to balance an equation
 M1V1=M2V2
 Understand how to interpret number of moles per unit of reactant or product
e.g. 2(NH3) -> N2 + 3(H2)
Unit conversions, dimensional analysis
 Practice converting units
 Good idea to know typical conversions (e.g. 1 inch = 2.54 cm)
Concentrations
 Parts per million (ppm)
 mg/m3
 specific gravity
 molarity (M)
pH scale, acids, bases
 pH scale is a logarithmic scale, specifically, the negative log of the concentration
of H+ atoms
 Pure water has a concentration of H+ equal to 10-7. The –log[10-7] = 7
 Acids have a pH less than 7. Bases have a pH greater than 7
Gas Calculations
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
 P = pressure (atm)
 V = volume (L)
 n = number of moles
 R = 0.0821 L*atm/mol*K (or 8.314 J/mol*K)
 T = temperature (K)
A few things to remember
 Temperature is in Kelvin, not Fahrenheit or Celsius
 Celsius = (Temp(F) - 32) x 5/9
 Fahrenheit = (Temp(C) x 9/5) + 32
 Kelvin = Temp(C) + 273
 Pressure is in atmospheres (atm)
 Pressure at sea level = 1 atm (or 760 mmHg)
 Volume is in Liters
 Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
 273K (0 ⁰C)
 1 atm (760 mmHg)
Industrial Hygiene Concepts
 Airborne concentrations in a room
 Time-Weighted Averages
 e.g. Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL), Immediately Dangerous to Life and
Health (IDLH)
 Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) and Upper Explosive Limit (UEL)
 The minimum and maximum concentration of a substance in air that will
produce a fire or explosion
 Be able to calculate the LEL or UEL of a mixture
What is the atomic mass of a ethanol (C2H6O) if hydrogen has an
atomic mass of 1, carbon has an atomic mass of 12, and oxygen has
an atomic mass of 16?
Solution
Atomic mass of ethanol = 6x(1) + 2x(12) + 1x(16) = 46
Convert 100 feet per second (ft/sec) to miles per hour (mi/hr or mph)
Solution
100 Feet/sec x 1 mile/5280ft x 60 sec/min x 60 min/hour
= 68.18 mph
Convert 100 feet per second (ft/sec) to kilometers per hour (km/hr)
Solution
100 Feet/sec x 12 inch/ft x 2.54cm/inch x 1m/100cm x 1km/1000m x 60 sec/min
x 60 min/hour
= 109.73 km/h
Hazardous material spill of acid:
 Collect 25 mL sample
 Test 5 mL with pH paper, indicates a pH of around 1.
 Prepare 0.100 Molar solution of base to perform acid/base titration
 Titrate remaining 20 mL of sample, requires 50 mL of base for neutralization
 What is the molarity of the acid in the sample?
 Assume acid is HCl and base is NaOH
Solution

 M1V1=M2V2
 Want to solve for M2, so M2 = M1V1/V2
= (0.1M)(50mL)/(20mL) = 0.25M
The density of an gas at STP is 5 grams per liter. What is the molecular
weight of one mole of this gas in grams?
Solution
Calculate number of moles
PV=nRT -> n/V=P/RT
Pressure = 1 atm
Volume = 1 Liter
Temperature = 273K
R=0.0821
n/(1)=(1)/(.0821)(273) = 0.0446
Since 0.0446 moles weighs 5 grams, 1 mole is
5 / 0.0446 = 112 grams
The density of an gas at 100 ⁰C and 684 mmHg is 5 grams per liter.
What is the molecular weight of one mole of this gas in grams?
Solution
Calculate number of moles
PV=nRT -> n/V=P/RT
Pressure = 684 mmHg/760 mmHg = 0.9 atm
Volume = 1 Liter
Temperature = 100 ⁰C = 273+100 = 373K
R=0.0821
n/(1)=(.9)/(.0821)(373) = 0.0294
Since 0.0294 moles weighs 5 grams, 1 mole is
5 / 0.0294 = 170 grams
One kilogram of solvent spills in a sealed room with dimensions 10m x
10m x 4m.
 What is airborne concentration of solvent (in mg/m3) after evaporation?
Solution
 Concentration is mg/m3
 Convert 1kg to mg
 Calculate volume of room
1 kg x 1,000g/kg x 1,000mg/g = 1,000,000 mg
Room volume = 10m x 10m x 4m = 400m3
concentration of solvent in air =
1,000,000mg/400m3 = 2500mg/m3
Calculate the LEL of the following mixture

Chemical LEL (%/Vol) % of Total


Benzene 1.2 20
Methanol 6.0 40
MEK 1.4 10
Ethanol 3.3 30
Solution

(Percent of all components)/


((Percent1/LEL1)+(Percent2/LEL2)+(Percent3/LEL3)+(Percent4/LEL4)

(100)/((20/1.2)+(40/6.0)+(10/1.4)+(30/3.3))
LEL of mixture = 2.53