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# SUBNETWORK

## Alex C. Bacalla, DIT

A subnet or subnetwork is a logical
partition of an IP network into multiple,
smaller network segments. It is typically
used to subdivide large networks into
smaller, more efficient subnetworks.
Subnetting is the strategy used to
partition a single physical network
into more than one smaller logical
sub-networks (subnets).
Why do we subnet?
• Security
• Organization
• Performance
Subnetting Steps
1. Identify the Class
2. Identify Network Part and Host Part
4. Convert Subnet Mask to Binary
5. Use 2n-2 to Determine Subnet Mask
6. Determine LSB (Least Significant Bit)
“we need 11 networks”

172.16.0.0
Step 1. Identify the Class

172.16.0.0
Class A 1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254
Class B 128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254
Class C 192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254
Step 2. Identify Network Part and Host Part

Class A XXX.000.000.000
Class B XXX.XXX.000.000
Class C XXX.XXX.XXX.000

172.16.0.0
172.16. 0.0
Step 3. Apply Default Subnet Mask

172.16.0.0
172.16. 0.0
255.255. 0.0
Step 4. Convert Subnet Mask to Binary

172.16.0.0
172.16. 0.0
255.255. 0.0
11111111.11111111. 00000000.00000000
Step 5. Use 2n-2 to Custom Subnet Mask

## “we need 11 networks”

2 -2
n ≥11
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128
Step 5. Use 2n-2 to Custom Subnet Mask

## “we need 11 networks”

2 -2
n
≥11
16-2 = 14
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128
Step 5. Use 2n-2 to Custom Subnet Mask

## “we need 11 networks”

2 -2
n ≥11
20 21
16-2 = 14
22 23 24 25 26 27
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

11111111.11111111. 11110000.00000000
Step 5. Use 2n-2 to Custom Subnet Mask

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

11111111.11111111. 11110000.00000000

255.255.240.0
Step 6. Determine LSB (Least Significant Bit)

11111111.11111111. 11110000.00000000
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

First Subnetwork

172.16.16.0
Subnetworks
172.16.16.0 172.16.96.0 172.16.176.0
172.16.31.255 172.16.111.0 172.16.192.255

## 172.16.32.0 172.16.112.0 172.16.192.0

172.16.47.255 172.16.127.255 172.16.207.255

## 172.16.48.0 172.16.128.0 172.16.208.0

172.16.63.255 172.16.143.255 172.16.223.255

## 172.16.64.0 172.16.144.0 172.16.244.0

172.17.79.255 172.16.159.255 172.16.239.255

172.16.80.0 172.16.160.0
172.16.95.0 172.17.175.255