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# LECTURE OF STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

CHAPTER 5

## THE FORCE METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF

STATICALY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES

## ASSOC. PROF. DR. ĐỖ KIẾN QUỐC

FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

## 1. Statically Indeterminate Structures (SIS)

 Definition: Statically indeterminate structures are
those that are impossible to determine all sport
reactions and internal forces using only static
equations.

##  Geometrical Property: Geometrical stable with

redundant supports.

Chapter 5 2
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

2. Characteristics of SIS
- Internal forces and displacement
smaller compared to the
corresponding SDS.
- Internal forces resulted from to,, ql 4
…. 384 EI

## - Internal forces dependent to

structural member stiffness EI, EA. 5ql 4
- High ductility (large deformation at 384 EI

## failure) => Human safety in case of

risk as earthquake, explosion from
terrors…

Chapter 5 3
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

##  Definition: DI = number of unknown forces in excess

of the static equations = Redundant linkages (supports
or members).

##  Meaning: DI = Complexity of structural problem.

Chapter 5 4
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

## 4. Released Structures (RS)

 Definition: RS is normally SDS obtained from SIS by
releasing redundant kinkages.

##  Notice: 1 SIS  Various RS.

Chapter 5 5
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

## 4. Released Structures (RS)

 Example:

P P P

P P

Chapter 5 6
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

## 5. The Force Method

 Idea: SIS = RS + Equivalent Conditions
 Comparision of SIS and RS:
- In Force: at the released linkages, SIS has forces Xi, RS
has no forces..
- In Displacement: the displacements in Xi directions on
SIS are zeros, on RS are not zeros.
P
P

X1 X1 X3
X3
X5 X5
X2 X2
SIS X4 RS X4

Chapter 5 7
5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

## 5. The Force Method (Cont.)

- In Displacement: Require the conditions xk= 0 ( k=1,n).

##  X (X1 ,X 2 ,...,X n ,P)  0

1
n conditions for n unknowns
 X (X1 ,X 2 ,...,X n ,P)  0
2
=> X1, X2, …, Xn can be found
...................................... uniquely.
 X (X1 ,X 2 ,...,X n ,P)  0
n

Chapter 5 8

1. Normal Equations
The equivalent conditions  X K ( X 1 , X 2 ,..., X n , P )  0 can be
extended using the superposition principle:
 X (X1 ,X2 ,...,Xn ,P)   k 1   k 2  ...   kn   kP  0
K

or  k 1 X 1   k 2 X 2  ...   kn X n   kP  0
Given k= 1,2, …, n: Main coeffs. Auxiliary Coeffs

 11 X 1   12 X 2  ...   1n X n   1 P  0  11  12 ...  1n   X 1    1 P   0 
      
 21 X 1   22 X 2  ...   2 n X n   2 P  0 
 21 22  ...  2n   X    2P  0 
1
 
 .........................   ...   ...   ...
or
.........................................................
   
 n1 X 1   n 2 X 2  ...   nn X n   nP  0 
 n1 n 2  ...    X n    nP   0 
nn 

Chapter 5 9

## 2. Determination of Coefficients km

 Physical Meaning: km- displacement in direction of XK,
due to Xm = 1  M m , Nm , Qm (on RS)
According to Maxwell-Mohr formula :
M M N N QQ
 km    k m ds    k m ds     k m ds
EJ EF GF
Or in the form of diagram multilication :
Frame, beam truss Negligible

 km  M k M m  Nk Nm  Qk Qm   mk (Maxwell)
 kk  M k M k  Nk Nk  Qk Qk > 0
Because km = mk only 1/2 auxiliary coefficients need
calculated.

Chapter 5 10

## 3. Determination of Coefficients kP

kP - displacement in direction of XK, due to P on RS
o
( M P ,...)

M Po N Po QPo
 kP    M k ds    Nk ds    Qk ds
EJ EF GF

or kP  M k M P  Nk N P  Qk QP
o o o

## Frame, beam Truss

Chapter 5 11
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

## 1. Bending Moment Diagram Mp

Apply the superposition principle:
M P  M ( X1 ,..., X n , P)  M1  ....  M n  M Po
M P  M1 X1  ....  M n X n  M Po
M k - BMD due to Xk = 1 on RS Available on
M Po - BMD due to P on RS the Released
Structure

Chapter 5 12
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

## 2. Shear and Axial Force Diagram QP & NP

 QP : Inferred from MP
- Member with straight MP: QP determined using
“pencil rule”.
- Member with parabolic MP :
M B  0  QA

Y q 0  Q B

MA MB
NA NB
QA QB

##  NP : Inferred from QP considering the equilibrium of

nodes.
Chapter 5 13
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

3. Example:
Plot diagrams MP, QP, NP.

q
a EJ = const

Chapter 5 14
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

3. Example (cont.):
- Degree of indeterminacy: DI=2
- Select RS:

RS

q
a EJ = const

X1

X2
a

Chapter 5 15
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

3. Example (cont.):
- Normal equations: qa 2
a
2
a
M1 M2 M Po

X1 =1

X2 = 1
11 X 1  12 X 2  1P  0
 21 X 1   22 X 2   2 P  0
3 3 3
4 a a a
11  M12  ,  22  M 22  , 12   21  M1 M 2  
3 EJ 3EJ 2EJ
5qa 4 qa 4
1P  M1M  o
P , 2 P  M 2M  
o
P
8EJ 4EJ
Chapter 5 16
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

3. Example (cont.):
Simplified :
4 1 5
X 1  X 2  qa  0
3 2 8
1 1 1
 X 1  X 2  qa  0
2 3 4
- Solution:
3 3
X 1   qa, X 2  qa
7 28

Chapter 5 17
5.3 DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL FORCES DIAGRAMS IN SIS

3. Example (cont.):
- Plot M P  M1 X1  M 2 X 2  M P
o

- Plot QP : From MP
- Plot NP : From QP (Equilibrium of nodes) 4qa
3qa 7
2
qa 28
14

qa 2 4qa
qa 2 28 7
8
MP QP NP

3qa 3qa
7 28

Chapter 5 18
5.4. ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE

1. Normal Equations
the k-th equation is obtained using the superposition principle:

 k1 X1  ...   kn X n   kt  0

 kt    tc  N   t M (if t, h … = const)
k
h k

2. Diagrams
M to = 0 in statically indeterminate structures, so
M t  M 1 X 1  ....  M n X n
Qt : inferred from Mt
Nt : inferred from Qt (equilibrium of nodes)

Chapter 5 19
5.4. ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE

3. Example:
Plot the bending moment diagram M.
+t

+t +2t +t a

Chapter 5 20
5.4. ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE

3. Example (cont.):
- Released structure and normal equation: 11 X 1  1t  0
- Plot M 1 & N1 1
a a
+t

a M1 N1
+t +2t +t

X1 =1 X1 =1

Chapter 5 21
5.4. ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE

1
3. Example (cont.): a
a
+t

a M1 N1
+t +2t +t

X1 =1 X1 =1

a
3
5 a
- Coefficients : 11  M1 
2

3 EJ

1t    tc  N   t M
1
h 1

3t   3 2a 
  .(1.a)  .t.  2a 2    .t.a.   
2 h 2 h 

Chapter 5 22
5.4. ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE

3. Example (cont.):  3 2a 
 .t.a   
- Solution: X 1  
1t
  2 h   3EJ . .t  3  2a 
 
11 5a 3 5a 2  2 h 
3EJ
- Plot: M t  M1 X1
3EJ  t  3 2a 
  
5a  2 h 

Mt

Chapter 5 23
5.5 ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO SUPPORT SUBSIDENCE

1. Released Structures
In order to the equivalent condition always has the form
 X ( X1 ,..., X n , )  0 it is necessary that:
k

## • For the redundant support without subsidence: It can be removed

and replaced by the reaction Xk.
• For the redundant support with subsidence: It must be cut and
replaced by the pairs of forces Xk.  X k  0 has the physical
meaning of relative displacement in direction of Xk..
Example:

X1
X1
 X1 = 0 X1 X1  0 (= -)

Chapter 5 24
5.5 ANALYSIS OF SIS SUBJECTED TO SUPPORT SUBSIDENCE

2. Normal Equations
 k1 X1  ...   kn X n  k   0 k = 1 , n.
 k    Rki  im 0 in Statically Determinate
i Structures
Diagram: M   M1 X1  ....  M n X n  M
o

Q & N  as above
Example:
1  (1.)   X1 = 1

## (+: closer; -: far away)

Chapter 5 25
5.6 CALCULATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN SIS

Formula kP  M P M ko
M ko - on any released structure.
Proof:
“P” “P” “K”
P K P K PK = 1

MP  MP M Ko

X1
(a) X3 (b) (c)
X2

Chapter 5 26
5.6 CALCULATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN SIS

Example:

qa 2 qa 2
q L “K” PK = 1
8 8

a
MP M Ko

 kP  0

Chapter 5 27
5.6 CALCULATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN SIS
2. Displacement due to Temperature Change and
Support Subsidence
t1 t1
K K “K” PK = 1

t2 t2
t1 t1  t1 t1
Mt Mt M Ko
X1
(a)
X3 (b) (c)
X2
For the equivalence: (a)=(b), where (b) is the Released Structure = Statically
Determinate Structure. The displacement on (b) can be calculated instead of (a).
Apply the superposition on (b) :

## kt  M t M ko  okt k  M  M ko  ok

 okt displacement due to temperature on RS.
ok displacement due to support subsidence on RS.

Chapter 5 28
5.6 CALCULATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN SIS

Example:
Caculate the vertical displacement.
PK = 1 PK = 1

a 1 1
4 2 2
M Ko N Ko

a a

 kt  M t M ko    tc  N   t M
o o
k
h k

 .t.a  a
 129  2 
80  h
Chapter 5 29
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures

 Structural analysis consists of:
o
- Plot M p , Mk

- Calculate coefficients:  km ,  kP
- Solve the normal equations
 A good Released Structure:
o
- Determine easily M p , M k , the shape of M diagrams
simple  easy multiplication of diagrams
- Provide as much as possible  km  0  Easy solving
normal equations
 With complicated structures or multi-span structures such as
continuous beams, the Released Structures are normally selected
by “cutting” them into independent parts.

Chapter 5 30
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures

 Example: beam P

MK
Not good:

XK= 1

MK = 1
Good:

MK

Chapter 5 31
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures

 Example:
- Plot M, Q.
- Calculate the vertical displacement at K.

qa qa2 q

K
a a a

Chapter 5 32
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures (cont.)

 Example (cont.):
- Degree of indeterminacy: DI = 2
- select RS:
X1 X2

- Normal equaions:
11 X 1  12 X 2  1P  0
 21 X 1   22 X 2   2 P  0

Chapter 5 33
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures (cont.)

Example (cont.): X = 1
1

M1
X2 = 1
M2

qa 2
2 M Po
qa
qa 2
8
4
2 a 2 a 1 a
11  M 12  ,  22  M 22  ,  21  12  M 1 M 2 
3 EJ 3 EJ 6 EJ
3 3
11 qa 1 qa
1P  M1M Po   ,  2 P  M 2 M Po  
48 EJ 8 EJ
Chapter 5 34
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures (cont.)

 Example (cont.):
Simplified: 2 X  1 X  11 qa 2  0
1 2
3 6 48
1 2 1 2
X 1  X 2  qa  0
6 3 8
- Solution:
19 2 13 2
X1  qa , X 1  qa
60 120

Chapter 5 35
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures (cont.)

 Example (cont.):
- Plot M P  M1 X1  M 2 X 2  M Po
- Plot QP : from MP
82 2
qa
120
38 2 MP
qa
120 13 2
49 2 qa
qa 120
120
155
98 qa
qa 120 35
120 qa
120
QP
22 13
qa qa
120 120

Chapter 5 36
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 1. Selection of Released Structures (cont.)

 Example (cont.):
- Calculate the vertical displacement at K
1

Mk
a
4
13 qa 4
yk  M k M P 
320 EJ

Chapter 5 37
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

2. Symmetric Structures
 The Released Structures should be selected symmetrical :
The unknowns become 2 groups :
- Symmetrical : X1, X2 => M1, M2 symmetrical.
- Anti-symmetrical : X3 => M3 anti-symmetrical.

X1 X2 X1 X3

= +

## (a) (b) (c)

Chapter 5 38
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## The normal Equations become 2 independent groups.

P P/2 P/2 P/2 P/2

X1 X2 X1 X3

= +

## 11 X 1  12 X 2  1P  0

Symmetrical Unknowns
 21 X 1   22 X 2   2 P  0
 33 X 3  3P  0 Anti-Symmetrical Unknown

Chapter 5 39
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 2. Symmetric Structures (cont.)

 Analysis of the load into symmetrical and anti-

## MPo  MPo sym  MPo anti-sym

- With symmetrical load: 3 P  0 X3 = 0, X1, X2 0.

## - With anti-symmetrical load: 1P   2 P  0  X1= X2 = 0

X3 0.

Chapter 5 40
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Example: P/2 P/2
P/2 P/2
P
X1
= +

## (a) (b) (c)

System (b): 11 X1  1P  0 P/2
X1
P/2
System (c): Select RS as  M p  0
o

so 1P   2 P  3P  0
 X1  X2  X3  0 X2 X3

MP  M1X 1  M2 X 2  M3 X 3  MPo  0
Chapter 5 41
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 2. Variation of the unknowns by rigid bars

 Idea: change of position and location of unknowns 
change  km . If the change is suitable then there may be
several  km  0 (applicable for frames or arches).
 Example:
X2
X1 X1
2h
h   3
X3 X3

X1, X3 : Symm.
X2 : Anti-symm.

Chapter 5 42
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 2. Variation of the unknowns by rigid bars

 Example (cont.)
X2 = 1
X1 = 1

X3 = 1
M1 M2
M3

## All the auxiliary coefficients  km = 0:

Chapter 5 43
5.7 SYMPLIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

## 2. Variation of the unknowns by rigid bars

 Example (cont.)
X2 = 1
X1 = 1

X3 = 1
M1 M2
M3
Leading to 3 independent equations :
11 X1  1P  0
 22 X1   2 P  0
 33 X1   3 P  0

Chapter 5 44