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Workplace Emotions,

Attitudes, and
Stress

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
What is Stress?

 An adaptive response to a situation that is


perceived as challenging or threatening to the
person’s well-being
 Aphysiological and psychological condition
that prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious
environmental conditions
 Eustress (positive) vs. distress (negative)

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Sexual Harassment

 Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on


work environment or job performance
 Quid pro quo
• employment or job performance is conditional on
unwanted sexual relations

 Hostile work environment


• an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working
environment

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Work Overload and Task Control
Stressors
 Work Overload Stressor
• Working more hours, more intensely than one can
cope
• Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal
worker norm
 Task Control Stressor
• Due to lack control over how and when tasks are
performed
• Stress increases with responsibility

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Individual Differences in Stress

 Different threshold levels of


resistance to stressor
 Use different stress coping
strategies
 Resilience to stress
• Due to personality and coping
strategies
 Workaholism
• Highly involved in work
• Inner pressure to work
• Low enjoyment of work © Photodisc. With permission.

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Managing Work-Related Stress

 Remove the stressor


• Minimize/remove stressors
 Withdraw from the stressor
• Vacation, rest breaks
 Change stress perceptions
• Positive self-concept, humor
 Control stress consequences
• Healthy lifestyle, fitness, wellness
 Receive social support

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Positive Emotions at Mott MacDonald

To attract and keep talented


employees, companies are
finding creative ways to generate
positive emotions in the
workplace. Employees at Mott
MacDonald have plenty of fun.
For example, the Abu Dhabi oil
and gas team has an annual
desert safari, complete with camel
rides (shown in photo).

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Emotions Defined
 Psychological, behavioral, and
physiological episodes
experienced toward an object,
person, or event that create a
state of readiness.
 Most emotions occur without our
awareness
 Moods – lower intensity emotions
without any specific target source

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Types of Emotions

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Attitudes versus Emotions

Attitudes Emotions

Judgments about an Experiences related to an


attitude object attitude object

Based mainly on Based on innate and learned


rational logic responses to environment

Usually stable for days Usually experienced for


or longer seconds or less

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Traditional Model of Attitudes

 Purely cognitive approach


• Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object
• Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on
beliefs about the attitude object
• Behavioral intentions: motivation to act in response
to the attitude object
 Problem: Ignores important role of emotions
in shaping attitudes

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Attitudes: From Beliefs to Behavior

Perceived Environment
Cognitive Emotional
process process

Beliefs
Emotional
Episodes
Attitude Feelings

Behavioral
Intentions

Behavior
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Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior

 How emotions influence attitudes:


1. Feelings are shaped by cumulative emotional
episodes (not just evaluation of beliefs)
2. We ‘listen in’ on our emotions when determining
our attitude toward something
 Potential conflict between cognitive and
emotional processes
 Emotions also directly affect behavior
• e.g. facial expression

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Generating Positive Emotions at Work

 The emotions-attitudes-
behavior model illustrates that
attitudes are shaped by
ongoing emotional experiences.

 Thus, successful companies


actively create more positive
than negative emotional
episodes.

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Cognitive Dissonance

 A state of anxiety that occurs when an


individual’s beliefs, feelings and behaviors
are inconsistent with one another
 Most common when behavior is:
• known to others
• done voluntarily
• can’t be undone

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Emotional Labor Defined

Effort, planning and control needed to express


organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal
transactions.
Emotional labor is higher when job requires:
• frequent and long duration display of emotions
• displaying a variety of emotions
• displaying more intense emotions

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Emotional Labor Across Cultures

 Displaying or hiding emotions varies across


cultures
• Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice
in Korea, Japan, Austria
• Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt,
Spain, Russia

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Emotional Labor Challenges

 Difficult to display expected emotions


accurately, and to hide true emotions

 Emotional dissonance
• Conflict between true and required emotions
• Potentially stressful with surface acting
• Less stress through deep acting

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Emotional Intelligence Defined

Ability to perceive
and express emotion,
assimilate emotion in
thought, understand
and reason with
emotion, and regulate
emotion in oneself
and others

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Model of Emotional Intelligence

Highest Relationship
Managing other people’s emotions
Management

Perceiving and understanding the


Social Awareness meaning of others’ emotions

Self-management Managing our own emotions

perceiving and understanding the


Self-awareness meaning of your own emotions
Lowest

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Emotional Intelligence Competencies
Self Other
(personal competence) (social competence)

Recognition
of emotions Self-awareness Social awareness

Regulation Relationship
of emotions Self-management
management

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Improving Emotional Intelligence

 Emotional intelligence is a set of


competencies (aptitudes, skills)
 Can be learned, especially through coaching
 EI increases with age -- maturity

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Job Satisfaction

 A person's evaluation of his or her job and


work context
 A collection of attitudes about specific facets
of the job

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EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction

• Leaving the situation


Exit • Quitting, transferring

• Changing the situation


Voice • Problem solving, complaining

• Patiently waiting for the


Loyalty situation to improve

• Reducing work effort/quality


Neglect • Increasing absenteeism

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Job Satisfaction and Performance

Happy workers are somewhat more productive


workers, but:
1. General attitude is a poor predictor of specific
behaviors
2. Job performance affects satisfaction only when
rewarded
3. Effect on performance strongest in complex jobs
because of greater employee influence on job
performance (e.g. limited in assembly lines)

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Happy Staff=Happy Customers at Wegman’s

Wegmans Food Market


enjoys strong customer
loyalty and low employee
turnover by keeping
employees happy.

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Job Satisfaction and Customers

Job satisfaction increases


customer satisfaction and
profitability because:
1. Job satisfaction affects
mood, leading to positive
behaviors toward customers
2. Job satisfaction reduces
employee turnover, resulting
in more consistent and
familiar service

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Organizational Commitment

 Affective commitment
• Emotional attachment to, identification with, and
involvement in an organization

 Continuance commitment
• Calculative attachment – stay because too costly to
quit

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Building (Affective) commitment

• Apply humanitarian values


Justice/ Support
• Support employee wellbeing

Shared
• Values congruence
Values

• Employees trust org leaders


Trust
• Job security supports trust

Organisational • Know firm’s past/present/future


Comprehension • Open and rapid communication

Employee • Employees feel part of company


Involvement • Involvement demonstrates trust

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General Adaptation Syndrome
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Alarm Reaction Resistance Exhaustion

Normal
Level of
Resistance

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Consequences of Distress

Cardiovascular disease,
Physiological hypertension, headaches

Work performance, accidents,


Behavioral absenteeism, aggression, poor
decisions

Dissatisfaction, moodiness,
Psychological depression, emotional fatigue

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Job Burnout Process
Interpersonal and
Role-Related Stressors

Emotional
Exhaustion
Physiological,
psychological,
Cynicism
and behavioral
consequences

Reduced Personal
Accomplishment

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What are Stressors?

 Stressors are the causes of stress -- any


environmental condition that places a
physical or emotional demand on the person.
 Some common workplace stressors include:
• Harassment an incivility
• Work overload
• Low task control

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Psychological Harassment

Repeated and hostile or


unwanted conduct, verbal
comments, actions or gestures,
that affect an employee's dignity
or psychological or physical
integrity and that result in a
harmful work environment for
the employee.

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Workplace Emotions,
Attitudes, and
Stress

McGraw-Hill/Irwin
McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4-35