Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49


What does SAP stands for – SAP stands for Systems, Applications and 

Products in data processing.
SAP is the fourth largest software company in the world.
The SAP R/3 system is a business software package designed to integrate 
all areas of a business.
It provides end to end solutions for financials, manufacturing, logistics, 
distribution etc.
All business processes are executed in one SAP system and sharing 
common information with everyone.
More about SAP
•  SAP is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system by SAP AG, company based 
out of Walldorf in Germany. AG is derived from the German word 
AKtiengesellschaft.  According to German Language SAP Stands for Systeme, 
Anwendungen und Produkte in Der Datenverarbeitung. SAP software suite that is 
being implemented as part of re-engineering and Provides end to end solutions 
for financial, logistics, distribution, inventories. Present scenario large number of 
companies are using sap software for their day to day business activities.
• After the hugely successful R/3, SAP created more and more niche software like 
Customer Relationship Management (CRM), SRM, XI (now called Process 
Integration or PI) and once again living up to the standards of SAP by maintaining 
tight integration with their core ECC software. The newest version of the suite 
is SAP ECC 6.0.
History of SAP
• SAP Founded in and around 1972 by five IBM engineers Hopp,  Wellenreuther, Hector, 
Tschira and Plattner.
• SAP R/1 :– The first version of SAP software was launched in and around 1972  known as 
the “R/1 system. R” stands for real-time data processing. it is one tier architecture in 
which three layers Presentation, Application and Database are installed in one 
• (one – Presentation + Application + Database)
• SAP R/2 :– In 1979 second version of SAP R/2 was released. with IBM’s database and a 
dialogue-oriented business application. SAP R/2 to handle different languages and 
currencies. R/2 is 2 tier architecture in which three layers Presentation, Application and 
Database are installed in two separate server.
• (Server one – Presentation, Server two – Application + Database
• SAP R/3 :– SAP upgraded R/2 to R/3. SAP R/3 is the client/server version of the software 
and it is 3 tier architecture in which three layers Presentation, Application and data base 
are installed in three server/system.
• Server one – Presentation, Server Two – Application, server Three – Database
Products of SAP
• SAP R/3 and R/3 Enterprise
• mySAP Business Suite
• SAP Industry Solutions
• SAP xApps
• SAP Solution Manager
Industry Solutions of SAP
SAP R/3 – Modules & Integration
• SAP Functional Modules
• FICO – Finance & Control
• PP – Production Planning
• MM – Material Management
• SD – Sales & Distribution
• HR – Human Resources
• CRM – Customer Relationship Management
• SAP Technical Modules
• ABAP – Advanced business applications programming
• XI – Exchange Infrastructure
• Net viewer
• Basis
• BIW – Business Information Warehousing
What is SAP FICO ?
• SAP FICO Stands for FI (Financial Accounting) and CO
(Controlling). SAP FICO is the imp module of ERP and both Finance
and Controlling modules stores the financial transactions data. The 
‘FI (Financial Accounting)’ records, collects, and processes financial 
transactions or information on a real-time basis to provide the 
necessary inputs for external (statutory) reporting purpose. SAP CO 
plays an important role for the management decision making purpose 
and for the internal reporting purpose. Read More for SAP FICO
FICO contains the following sub-modules.

General Ledger accounting Cost Element Accounting

Accounts Receivables Cost Center Accounting

Accounts Payable Profit Center Accounting

Asset Accounting Internal Orders

Bank Accounting Product Cost Controlling

Consolidation Profitability Analysis

Special Purpose Ledger

Travel Management
• What is SAP MM ?
• SAP MM ( Material Management ) is one of the imp 
module in SAP ERP software and it supports the 
procurement and inventory functions occurring in 
day-to-day business operations. This MM module 
contains many aspects such as purchasing, goods 
receiving, material storage, consumption-based 
planning, and inventory. SAP MM module is fully 
integrated with other modules in the SAP R/3 System 
such as FICO, SD, QM, PM, PP, and WM. Read 
More for SAP MM

• The Production Planning  application module is used to plan and 
control the manufacturing activities of a company. consists of all 
system configuration, master data, , and complete solution to Produce 
process. Read more for SAP PP Training
• SAP SD ?
• SAP SD ( Sales and Distribution ) is important module of SAP and it is a 
part of logistics.  The main activities of SD are sales order handling, 
distribution of shipments to customers, billing process, customer 
invoice, delivery. SD module is fully integrated with other modules in 
the SAP R/3 System such as Finance, Purchasing(MM), Production 
Planning(PP). Read Mor for SAP SD
• What is SAP HR ?
• SAP Human Resources manages complete employee life cycle and payroll. All aspects 
are covered from training to appraisal. Read more for SAP Human Capital management
• Advantages of SAP :-
• SAP software manages these business management tasks in modules that all work 
together in one system by sharing information.
• Promoting consistent practice across an entire division
• No duplicate data
• Automate Project Monitoring and Multi dimensional and flexible reporting
• Standardization of business processes
• Make Planning, Scheduling, Tracking and Management easier leaving more time for 
you to perform value-added work
• Ability to provide clear cut job roles with authorizations
• Enabling integration with e-commerce
• Cost Savings on overheads such as Stationery, File Storage, etc
• Why – SAP R/3 software has been successful
• Multi-Lingual
• Secure Information
• Multi-Currency
• Best business Practice
• Enterprise-Wide
• Real time processing with an integrated suite of client/server applications
• SAP R/3 Architecture
• SAP Systems contains three layers such as Presentation Layer, Application Layer 
and Database Layer.
• Presentation: – It is a layer where the user work with SAP GUI. It interacts with 
database layer via Application layer.
• Application: – It interacts between presentation and database layer
• Database: – It is a central database that stores all the data of ERP SAP Systems.
• SAP Business Suites
• SAP offering various applications along with the ERP SAP to meet the customer requirement. The 
important applications of SAP are as follows.
• SAP Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM)
• SAP Customer Relationship Management (SAP CRM)
• SAP Product Life Cycle Management (SAP PLM)
• SAP Supplier Relationship Management (SAP SRM)
• SAP Advanced Planning and Optimization (SAP APO)
• Phases of SAP Implementation project
• Phase 1 – Project Preparation,
• Phase 2 – Business Blueprint,
• Phase 3 – Realization,
• Phase 4 – Final Preparation,
• Phase 5 – Go-Live and support 
What is SAP Instance & SAP SID?

What is an Instance?
Sap Instance is a group of resources such as
•Work Processes
usually for a single application or database server within a SAP R/3 client-server environment.
There are three types of instances:-
1.Dialog instance
2.Central Instance
3.Database Instance
SAP System = D ialog Instance + C entralInstance + D atabase Instance.
• For one SAP system, all three instances share the same directory.
• Dialog Instance: - Dialog instance exists in the application layer. Its purpose is 
to maintain the load on the server. Dialog instance exists on the different host. 
If a number of dialog instance increases hardware resources, dispatcher, 
workprocesses also increases so that more number of users can login at a time.
• Central Instance: - Central instance can also work as dialog instance. But the 
main thing is that it contains Enqueue and message servers. All dialog 
instances communicate with central instance before requesting  database with 
message server. When an instance is started, the dispatcher process attempts 
to establish a connection to the message server so that it can announce the 
services it provides (DIA, BTC, SPO, UPD, etc.).Lock table is managed in central 
instance by enqueue service.
• Database Instance: - As normal database instance accepts requests from 
central instance to fulfill the user's requests. As lock management system 
provided by enqueue server, it will provide service to users.
• What is SID?
• SID is a unique identification code for every R/3 installation (SAP system) consisting of a database 
server & several application servers. SID stands for SAP System Identification. SAPSID — a three-
character code such as C11, PRD, E56, etc.)
• Logical System Names: -
• When data is distributed between different systems, each system within a network has to be 
clearly identifiable. The "logical system" deals with this issue.
• A logical system is an application system in which the applications work together on a common 
database. In SAP terms, the logical system is a client.
• Since the logical system name is used to identify a system uniquely within the network, two 
systems cannot have the same name if they are connected to each other as BW systems or as 
source systems, or if there are plans to connect them in any way.
• Example for production system logical system name might be:-
• SID Description - P=Production(type) , B=BW(component) , G=Germany.(plant name)
• Logical System name-
• PBGCLNT100.This form is easy to understand.
What is ERP

ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning, it is a business software
systems that support business or enterprise throughout the project in 
organizing, planning, maintaining, tracking and utilization of  
resources (Man, Machine, Material and Money) effectively.
• If you are new to ERP, the first question which arises in your mind 
is What is an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), ERP System, ERP
software and why it is so important for business success. 
•ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning.
•ERP is gate way to integrate the data and processes of an organization into single
system with all modules that supports the core business areas. Its recommended to
read about SAP modules list.
•Enterprise Resource Planning systems cover all basic functions of an
•Enterprise Resource Planning is developing into a Multi-Module Application
Software Package that enables business processes across the supply chain
•ERP Software allows to integrate all the operational units such as financing,
human resources, manufacturing, sales, marketing, finance & accounting,
procurement, inventory management and so on.
•ERP software system allows the business to achieve real time business process,
increase productivity, improves delivery, reduce cost and increase profits, increase
product quality,improve information and performance management.
If u get an query what is erp, simply we can explain ERP is a business suite with
number of applications that are integrated together and assist a organization in
collecting, managing and reporting information throughout the business process.
• Why do we Need ERP Software
• ERP is an integrated systems of different business process for e.g. if a 
company has different departments like sales department, production 
department, material management, finance department,etc, so 
in ERP we have an integration of all the departments and they all use 
common database.
• We can have standardization of systems across locations. For e.g. for 
MNC companies can have different plants in different locations with 
standard systems.
• Erp systems helps to have a better controlling over the different 
• As ERP is a integrated systems, it helps to provide the better 
• History of ERP Systems
• ERP System have took years to emerge and is still evolving. These systems are 
transformation and ever-changing.
• Before early ERP-type systems emerged, in the prehistoric age of 1960 and early 
1970’s Departmentalised systems came into picture.
• In 1970’s manufacturing chain was the center of business operations. This led to 
the development of MRP systems.
• The second phase of ERP development occurred in 1980’s which focused more on 
quality measures which led to the evolution of MRP II Systems.
• In the 1990’s, Enterprise Resource Planning started using multi-module application 
to increase organizations process. ERP Systems integrates with all the modules of 
organization’s business modules and this led to the evolution of ERP System.
• The benefits of  ERP systems are: customer satisfaction, better information, 
productivity, increased quality and decreases in time to market, product cost, 
delivery time, inventory levels.
What is an ERP software and its
• Advantages of Implementation of an ERP system :
• Reduced redundancy in entering data
• ERP system provides the real time information all needs of the organization in a 
single system.
• It Allow everyone to access same source and  share same source of information
• It allow to access, update instantly and saves lot of time.
• Integration among different functional areas to ensure proper communication, 
productivity and efficiency
• The Accounting for all of these tasks, tracking the Revenue, Cost and Profit on a 
granular level.
• Allow standardisation of business processes and enterprise’s information.
• It is a single source of systems that can be use through out the organization.
• ERP software enables real time information availability, reduction in inventory and 
cycle times.
• Disadvantages of ERP Systems:-
• The disadvantages of ERP systems are as follows :-
• Takes a lot of effort and time and requires a lot of training
• Customization of the ERP software is limited, you may not allowed to 
design application as per business requirements.
• ERP systems can be very expensive to install.
• ERP Systems centralize the data in one place and this can increase the 
risk of loss of sensitive information in the event of a security violation.
• The usage of ERP system can be difficult for users, so appropriate 
training is to required to use the ERP software.
Before ERP
• What is ERP in Manufacturing
• A manufacturing company could use an ERP system to track and 
manage virtually every operation in the organization. Requests for 
Proposal (RFP) and corresponding quotes can be entered and 
assigned to any large database of customers. Quotes can be changed 
to Sales orders upon receipt of purchase orders, with line items and 
corresponding prices that represent goods to be delivered to a 
• What is ERP SAP Software
• SAP is an Enterprise Resource Planning software that supports all the 
companies business process. It integrates with all SAP modules and 
provides the accurate business solutions of financial, sales, 
manufacturing etc.
Common ERP Software Modules
Sales Order (SO)
Purchase Order (PO)
Finance and Accounting
Manufacturing Resource Planning
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Human Resources
• The important modules in ERP SAP Systems are as follows-
• What is SAP FICO: – SAP FICO stands for Financial Accounting and 
controlling. It is one of the important module of ERP because it store 
all the financial transactions data of company. It is used for extract the 
financial statements of balance sheet and Profit & Loss accounts for 
external reporting. Read more for SAP FICO
• What is SAP MM: – SAP MM stands for Material Management, it 
supports the procurement process and inventory functions of day to 
day operations. SAP MM module carriers all the activities of material 
planning and control, purchasing, inventory management, goods 
receipt and invoice verification. Read more ERP SAP MM
• What is ERP SD: – SAP SD stands for Sales and Distribution, it handles 
all the process of order to delivery and execute all the process of 
sales, shipping and billing of goods and services. Read more for 
• What is SAP HR: – SAP HR is also known as HCM (Human Capital 
Management), it handles all the activities of employees from hiring to 
final termination in organization. Read more ERP SAP HR
• What is SAP ABAP: – SAP ABAP stands for Advanced Business 
Application Programming, it is a fourth generation programming 
language that is used to develop the SAP applications. Read more for 
what is SAP ABAP
• Why ERP
• It is a singe application integrated software 
• It is a singe database systems.
• ERP systems allows to share the information 
and communicated more effectively.
• ERP automates customer orders, order 
fulfilment, billing, shipping and tracking and 
so on.
Db01 is used for onitoring exclusive lock waits. Exclusive lock wait happens when a
process wants to lock a database object exclusively but this lock is prevented by a
another database transaction ,then the system blocks the lock request until the current
database transaction releases the object again
Db02 is used to display many information related to SAP table and its indexes
like size ,storage quality,number of distinct values for column , growth history.
These information can be used in program and system performance analysis.
Db12 is to collect and present information that is
necessary to monitor database backups
Db13 is used to plan backup
Db15 is used for achieving objects
Centralized Computing Center Management
System (CCMS) reporting. Centralized (CEN) (CCMS) is a SAP monitoring
capability. Use this capability to report CCMSalerts for multiple SAP systems to
a central monitoring hub. You monitor the SAPenvironment fromone CCMS

STMS is the transport tool that assists the CTO for central management of all
transport functions. TMS is used for performing: Defining Transport Domain
Controller. Configuring the SAP system Landscape. Defining the Transport
Routes among systems within the system Landscape
SAP MM Training. SE01 (Transport Organizer (Extended))
is a standard SAPtransaction code available within R/3
SAP systems depending on your version and release

SE06 Set Up Workbench Organizer
Transaction code SE06 has to be executed once in every newly installed R/3 System.
This applies to an R/3 standard installation as well as the installation of a copy of an
existing R/3 system. SE06 provides the following functions for processing after
Generating basic settings of
 the Change & Transport Organizer.
 Closing other requests & tasks.
 Setting the system change option.
SE07 CTS Status Display
SAP transaction SE07 (CTS Status Display) is classified in the Basis
Component module under application component Transport
Management System and runs CTS: Transaction for Analyzing to
import all program RDDSTR01 upon execution.
SE09 Workbench Organizer ( Release Transport )/SE10
Customizing Organizer
The Workbench Organizer in the ABAP/4 Workbench is used for
organizing software development projects. It is designed to
support both large and small, as well as central and local
development projects.
SE11 ABAP/4 Dictionary Maintenance
By using this transaction code, you can create, change and display
table entries and structures. 2. At the initial screen, you can put
any tables or structures to view, edit or even create a new one.
Transaction code SE11 is normally used a ABAP programmer.
SE16 Data Browser
The transaction code SE-16 is a Data
Browser.It allows you to go through the
contents of the data dictionary objects
Description : Object Navigator
Main Category : Basis
Sub Category : Repository Browser
SCC1 Transport Role from one
Client to Other
Transaction code SCC1 is a supplement to the client copy. It can be used to transfer
individual transport requests directly out for the source client into the the current client.
The activities are listed in a clearly structured copy log. For test purposes, you can start
the report in test mode, which generates a log as in the production run but does not
perform any database update. If the number or size of the tables is very large, you are
recommended to start this report in the background.