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SDH Transport

Systems
SYNCHRONIZATION OF DIGITAL
SIGNAL :

SYNCHRONOUS SIGNAL:

 In a set of Synchronous signals, the digital transitions in the signals occur


at exactly the same rate. There may be a phase difference between the
transitions of the two signals, and this would lie on specified limits.

 SDH is a transmission protocol or it is a set of rules for transmitting the


data from source to destination via optical fiber.
Requirement Of Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy ( SDH )
Need for extensive network management capability within the
hierarchy.
Standard interfaces between equipment.
Need for inter-working between north American and European
systems.
Facilities to add or drop tributaries directly from a high speed
signal.
Standardization of equipment management process.
Node View - TJ100MC1

Line Diagram
E1 Tributary Card - TET16/TET21/TET28

E3/DS3 Tributary Card - TE31

TP01

TP01FT

STM-1 Tributary Card - A011

STM-1e/E4 Tributary Card - A1E4


Node view - TJ100MC4

Line Diagram
Tributary Card E1- TET16/TET21/TET28
Tributary Card E3/DS3 - TE31
3 E3/DS3 Tributary Card - TE33
Ethernet Tributary Card – ETC
Ethernet Tributary Card – ETCFT
TP01
TP01FT
STM1 card ΠA011 or A012
STM-1e/E4 Tributary Card - A1E4
STM-1e Tributary Card - A012E
STM-4 Tributary Card - A041,A041VLR
TR01
TJ100 MC-1 & TJ100 MC-4 can be
configured as Regenerator (REG),
Terminal Multiplexers (TMUX),
Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADM) and
Digital Cross-Connect (DXC)
SDH Network Elements
The Network Elements of
SDH Network :

 Regenerator (Reg.)
 Terminal Multiplexer
(TM)
 Add/Drop Multiplexer
(ADM)
 Digital Cross Connect
(DXC)
egenerator (Reg.)

STM- STM-
N Regenerator N

It mainly performs 3R function:


1R – Reamplification
2R – Retiming
3R – Reshaping
It regenerates the clock and amplifies the
incoming distorted and attenuated signal.
It derive the clock signal from the
Regenerator
Terminal Multiplexer (TM)

PDH Terminal STM-N


SDH Multiplexer

It combines the Plesionchronous and


synchronous input signals into higher bit
rate STM-N Signal.
Terminal Multiplexer
5 6 7

1 1 2 3 4

2 1

3
Tributaries . Line Interface (aggregate)
.

(Optional)
Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)

Add / Drop
STM-N STM-N
Multiplexer

PDH SDH
Add/Drop Multiplexer
Add / Drop illustration:
Synchronous
1 is dropped; 17 is added Transport
Drop 1

5 60 Module
1 21 25 34 3

2 1

Tributaries 3
...
17 Add 17

5 60
21 25 34 3
ADM makes
possibilities of
Extraction from & insertion into high speed SDH bit
streams of Plesiochronous and lower bit rate synchronous
signal.

Ring structure of network which provides the advantage of


automatic back-up path switching in the event of fault.
Digital Cross Connect (DXC)

STM- STM-
16 16
STM-4 STM-4
STM-1 STM-1
140 140
Mbit/s Mbit/s
34 34
Mbit/s Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s Cross - 2 Mbit/s
Connect
igital Cross Connect (DXC)

Digital Cross Connect:


A digital cross connect is an equipment which has the capability
of interconnecting tributaries
An Agg to Agg connection, a trib to aggregate connection and a
tributary to tributary connection is also possible in case of a Digital
Cross Connect
Types – Wideband  VT/DS1 level
 Broadband  STS-n/DS3 level &
 Narrowband  DS0 level
SDH NE: Digital cross
connect (DXC)
1

Ports

Ports Ports 21

Ports

25
TYPICAL LAYOUT OF SDH
LAYER
General view of Path Section
designations

PD
SDH # PD
SDH Regenerator SDH
H
AT
multiplexerSD Cross- multiplexer
H
AT
M
IP SD SD M
IP
H H connect H

Regenera Regenera
tor tor
Section Section
Multiplex Multiplex
Section Section

Path
Topologies
Network Configurations

 Point to Point
 Point to Multipoint
 Mesh Architecture
 Ring Architecture
SDH Network Topologies
Point-to-Point Network

Tributari
Tributari

Terminal Terminal
Multiplexer Regenerator Multiplexer
(TM) (TM)
es

Chain
Network

Tributari
Tributari

Terminal Add Drop Terminal


Multiplexer Multiplexer Multiplexer
(TM) (ADM) (TM)
es
Ring
Network
Tributar Tributar
ies ies
Add Drop Add Drop
Multiplexer Multiplexer
(ADM) (ADM)
Multiplexer

Tributari
Multiplexer
Add Drop
Tributari

Add Drop
(ADM)

(ADM)

es
es

Add Drop Add Drop


Multiplexer Multiplexer
(ADM) (ADM)

Tributari Tributar
Tributari
Exchange
es
2Mbit/ 140Mbit/s
s
Add Drop Add Drop
Multiplexer Multiplexer
(ADM) (ADM)
Multiplexer
Exchange

Add Drop

Multiplexer
Add Drop

Exchange
(ADM)

(ADM)
STM-4
Ring

Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)
STM-1 Add Drop STM-1
140Mbit/s Multiplexer
2Mbit/ (ADM)
s

2Mbit/
ADM linear route ADM
( Bus ) Ring
X X

X X X X X X
Mesh
Network
Tributari Tributar
es ies

Add/Drop Add Drop


& Cross Connect & Cross connect
Mux Mux
Tributaries

Tributaries
& Cross connect

STM-N Links

& Cross connect


Add Drop

Add Drop
Mux

Mux
Standard MS Rates :

Optical Signals Electrical Signals MS Rate


DS0 64 Kb/s

DS1 1.544 Mb/s

VT1.5 1.728 Mb/s

VT2 2.304 Mb/s

DS3 44.736 Mb/s

OC-1 STS-1 51.84 Mb/s

OC-3 STS-3 155.52 Mb/s

OC-3c STS-3c 155.52 Mb/s

OC-12 STS-12 622.08 Mb/s

OC-48 STS-48 2488.32 Mb/s

OC-192 STS-192 9953.28 Mb/s


O p tic a l E le c tric a l P a y lo a d
O v e rh e a d
ra te
L evel L evel L in e R a te R a te SD H
( M B ps ) ( M bps ) E q u iv a le n t

O C - 1 ST S - 1 5 1 .8 4 0 5 0 .1 1 2 1 .7 2 8 -
O C - 3 ST S - 3 1 5 5 .5 2 0 1 5 0 .3 3 6 5 .1 8 4 STM - 1
O C - 9 ST S - 9 4 6 6 .5 6 0 4 5 1 .0 0 8 1 5 .5 5 2
O C - 12 ST S - 12 6 2 2 .0 8 0 6 0 1 .3 4 4 2 0 .7 3 6 STM - 4
O C - 18 ST S - 18 9 3 3 .1 2 0 9 0 2 .0 1 6 3 1 .1 0 4
O C - 24 ST S - 24 1 2 4 4 .1 6 0 1 2 0 2 .6 8 8 4 1 .4 7 2
O C - 36 ST S - 36 1 8 6 .2 4 0 1 8 0 4 .0 3 2 6 2 .2 0 8
O C - 48 ST S - 48 2 4 8 8 .3 2 0 2 4 0 5 .3 7 6 8 2 .9 4 4 STM - 16
O C - 96 ST S - 96 4 9 7 6 .6 4 0 4 8 1 0 .7 5 2 1 6 5 .8 88
O C - 1 92 ST S - 192 9 9 5 3 .2 8 0 9 6 2 1 .5 0 2 3 3 1 .7 76 STM - 64
Frame Structure
Transport Module
STM-1 = 155 Mbit/s
STM-4 = 622 Mbit/s
STM-16 = 2.5Gbit/s
STM-64 = 10Gbit/s
Payload
One
Section
STM-4 overhead

STM-n

(n >1)
STM-1 frame structure
• The STM – n signal is multiples of frames consisting of
9 rows with 270 bytes in each row
• The order of transmission of information is first from
left to right and then from top to bottom
• The first 9 bytes in each row are for information and
used by the SDH system itself.This area is divided into 3
parts
 Regenerator Section Overhead(RSOH)
 Multiplex Section Overhead(MSOH)
 Pointers
Sdh22.exe
Data Rate
 Overall
9 rows*270
columns*8000frames/sec*8bits/byte
= 155.52Mbps

 9 rows*261
columns*8000frames/sec*8bits/byte
=150.336Mbps
 User Data/ Payload
9 rows*260
columns*8000frames/sec*8bits/byte
STM-1 frame structure

Check your learning section1


STM-1 frame structure

1-3 rows RSOH


4th row AU Pointer
PAY LOAD
5-9 rows MSOH

9 Columns 261 Columns

270 Columns

Check your learning section2


SDH Multiplexing
Process
STM-N Frame
• Is got by Byte Interleaved Multiplexing
of
Lower Order Frame.

• For Example
STM-4 is got by Multiplexing 4 STM-1
Frames.
Byte Interleaved multiplexing

SD H

M
U
X

L in e S ig n a l
STM - 4
S T M -3

T rib u ta ry
S ig n a ls
S T M -1
TU Columns Bytes/ Bandwidth Payload
Format Frame

TU 11 3 27 1.728Mbps DS1

TU 12 4 36 2.304Mbps E-1

TU 2 12 108 6.912Mbps DS-2


SDH Over Heads
STM-1 Section
Overhead

Y Y 1* 1*

Y- 1001 SS11 (S unspecified)


1*- All 1’s
Regenerator Section Overhead

A1 & A2 – Framing Bytes

• These two bytes indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame

J0 – Regenerator Section Trace

• It’s used to transmit a Section Access Point Identifier so


that a section receiver can verify its continued connection to
the intended transmitter

• Identifies by a number in the individual STM – 1s of a higher


order STM - n
RSOH (contd..)
B1- Bit Interleaved parity (BIP-8)
• This is a parity code (even parity), used to check for
transmission errors over a regenerator section
• Its value is calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N
frame after scrambling, then placed in the B1 byte of STM-1
before scrambling
E1 – Engineering Order wire
• This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire channel
for voice communication between regenerators
• This byte functionality is available at both multiplexers and
Regenerators
RSOH (contd..)

F1 – User Channel
• This byte is set aside for the user’s purposes

D1 to D3 – Data Communication Channel


• These three bytes form a 192 kbps DCC for Operation &
management of the SDH System
• Network management system sends / receives provisioning,
security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring
command / response by way of DCC
STM Regenerator Section
Overhead

Regenerator Section Overhead :


• Performance monitoring (STM-n signal)
• Local orderwire
• Data communication channels to carry
information for OAM&P
• Framing
MS Overhead
B2 – Bit Interleaved parity
(BIP – 24)
• This is used to determine if a transmission error has
occurred over a multiplex section. It is even parity, and is
calculated over all bits of the MS Overhead and the STM-N
frame (except the regenerator section) of the previous STM-N
frame before scrambling
• The value is placed in the three B2 bytes of the MS
Overhead before scrambling. These bytes are provided for
all STM-1 signals in an STM-N signal
MSOH (contd..)
K1 & K2 – Multiplex Section Protn.
• These two bytes are used for MSP signaling between
multiplex level entities for bi-directional automatic protection
switching and for communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) conditions
D4 to D12 – Data Communication Channel
• These nine bytes form a 576 kbps DCC for Operation &
management of the multiplexers on a SDH line
• Network management system sends / receives provisioning,
security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring
command / response by way of DCC
Automatic Protection Switching
•APS is the capability of a transmission system to detect a
failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby
facility to recover the traffic.
•Only the Multiplex Section in SDH is protected in this
automatic fashion.
•MS protection mechanism is coordinated by K1 and K2
bytes.
•Path protection is managed at a higher level by network
management functions
APS (contd..)

Protection Switching is initiated due to :


• Signal failure
• Signal degradation
• In response to commands from a local craft terminal
or a remote network manager.
MSOH (contd..)
E2 – Engineering Order wire
• This byte is allocated to be
used as a local order wire
channel for voice
communication between
multiplexers
• This byte is not accessible at
the regenerators
M1 - Remote Error indication
• It is used to indicate the MS layer remote error indication
(MS-REI)
MSOH (contd..)
S1 Synchronization status message
byte (SSMB)
• Bits 5 to 8 of this S1 byte are used
to carry the synchronization
messages
0000 Quality unknown (existing sync. network)
0010 G.811 PRC (Primary Reference Clock)
0100 G.812 transit SSU-A (Synchronisation Supply Unit - A)
1000 G.812 local SSU-B (Synchronisation Supply Unit – B)
1011 G.813 Option 1 SEC (Synchronous Equipment Timing Clock)
1111 Do not use for synchronization.
SDH Pointers
H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3
Use of Pointers H1 & H2 = VC payload pointer
• It indicates the starting position of VC H3 = Negative Justification

• It is also used for justification 1 = All 1’s

• AU pointer is also used for concatenation Y = 1001SS11 (S bits unspecified)


• SDH provides payload pointers to permit differences in the
phase and frequency of the Virtual Containers (VC-n) with
respect to the STM-N frame
• Lower-order pointers are also provided to permit phase
differences between VC-12/VC-2 and the higher-order VC-
3/VC-4
To accomplish this, a process known as byte stuffing is used
Pointers (contd..)

• The value of the pointer has a range of 0 to 782

For example,
• If the VC-4 Payload Pointer has a value of 0, then the VC-4
begins in the byte adjacent to the H3 byte of the Overhead;

• If the Payload Pointer has a value of 87 (since each row of


the payload has 86 positions), then the VC-4 begins in the byte
adjacent to the K2 byte of the overhead in the byte of the next
row

• The pointer value, which is a binary number, is carried in


bits 7 through 16 of the H1-H2 pointer word.
pointer justification.exe
Pointers (contd..)
Positive Pointer Justification
• When the data rate of the VC is too slow in relation to the
rate of the STM-1 frame, positive stuffing must occur. An
additional byte is stuffed in, allowing the alignment of the
container to slip back in time. This is known as positive
stuffing
Negative Pointer Justification
• Conversely, when the data rate of the VC is too fast in
relation to the rate of the STM-1 frame, that negative stuffing
must occur. Because the alignment of the container advances in
time, the payload capacity must be moved forward. Thus,
actual data is written in the H3 byte, the negative stuff
opportunity within the Overhead; this is known as negative
stuffing
AU – 4 Positive Pointer
Justification
H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

Points out
Start of VC-4 VC-4 Boundary

Positive justification
H1 Yopportunity
Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3
To next Row
To next Row
Points out
Start of VC-4 VC-4 Boundary

H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

Points out
Start of VC-4 VC-4 Boundary
AU – 4 Negative Pointer
Justification
H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

Points out
Start of VC-4
VC-4 Boundary

Negative justification
opportunity
H1 Y Y H2 1 1 From next row

From next row


Points out
Start of VC-4 VC-4 Boundary

H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

Points out
Start of VC-4 VC-4 Boundary
Multiplexer Section
Overhead
MS Alarm indication signal

Performance Monitoring of individual STM-1’s


Protection Switching Information


MS Remote Defect Indication (RDI)


Data channels for OAM&P


Pointer to commencement of synchronous


payload envelope
Express order-wire

Path OverHead

TCM – Tandem Connection Monitoring


Path Overhead
J1- Path trace

• Starting point of VC
• It is used to transmit repetitively a path access
point identifier, similar to J0

B3 – Path Bit Interleaved Parity – BIP- 8

• Error Monitoring over the previous VC-4 frame.


• Even parity is used to monitor path errors
POH (contd..)
C2 – Signal Label
• It is defined to indicate the composition or the
maintenance of the VC-4
Binary Hex Mapping
0000 0000 00 Unequipped
0000 0001 01 Equipped,non specific
0000 0010 02 TUG structure
0000 0011 03 Locked TU
0000 0100 04 34 / 45 Mbps into C3 (async)
0001 0010 12 140 Mbps into C4 (async)
0001 0011 13 ATM
0001 0100 14 MAN (DQDB)
0001 0101 15 FDDI
POH (contd..)
G1- Path status FEBE FERF UNUSED

• It is defined to send back the path status and


performance to where the path is generated

F2,F3 – Path User Channels

• It is assigned for user communication purposes


between path elements by the network operator

H4 – Multi frame Indicator

• H4 byte provides the multiframe information


POH (contd..)
K3 – Automatic protection switching(APS) channel

• (b1-b4) are assigned for APS signaling for protection


at the VC-4/3 path labels

N1 – Network operator Byte

• The tandem connection monitoring function is


currently not used
VC12 path overhead

BIP-2 (Bits 1 and 2). The Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) bits are used to provide an error
monitoring function for the VC-12 path.
REI (Bit 3). The Remote Error Indication (REI) bit is used to communicate detected BIP-
2 errors back to the VC-12 path originator.
RFI (Bit 4). Remote Fail Indicator (RFI). Not used in present applications.
Signal label (Bits 5 to 7). These bits are used to indicate the payload mapping and
equipped status.
RDI (Bit 8). The Remote Defect Indicator (RDI) bit is used to indicate certain detected
TU path alarms to the VC-12 path originator.
STM Path Overhead

 Performance Monitoring of STM SPE


 Path Status
 Path Trace
 Signal Label (Unequipped or Equipped)
STM-4 Section OverHead
MAPPING
Elements of SDH
• Container (C)
• Virtual Container (VC)
• Tributary Unit (TU)
• Tributary Unit Group (TUG)
• Administrative Unit (AU)
• Administrative Unit Group (AUG)
• Synchronous Transport Module - N (STM – N)
Container
• Input signals are placed into the containers

• It adds stuffing bytes for PDH signals,which compensates for


the permitted frequency deviation between the SDH system and
the PDH signal

• C12 (2 Mbps – G.703)


• C11 (1.5 Mbps)
• C2 (6 Mbps)
• C3 (34 / 45 Mbps)
• C4 (140 Mbps)
Virtual Container
MAPPING : It is a process from Containers to
Virtual containers.

POH + PAYLOAD = POH PAYLOAD

ANALOGY:
Packing C2 carton box with some more packing
material and labeled as VC2 box
Virtual Container
• It adds overheads to a container or groups of tributary units,
that provides facilities for supervision and maintenance of the
end to end paths
• VCs carry information end to end between two path access
points through the SDH system
• VCs are designed for transport and switching sub-SDH
payloads
• VC12 (C12 + POH)
• VC11 (C11 + POH)
• VC2 (C2 + POH)
• VC3 (C3 + POH)
• VC4 (C4 + POH)
Virtual Container (contd..)
• At each level, subdivisions of capacity can float individually
between the payload areas of adjacent frames. Each
subdivision can be readily located by its own pointer that is
embedded in the overheads.

• The pointer is used to find the floating part of the AU or TU,


which is called a virtual container (VC).

• The AU pointer locates a higher-order VC, and the TU pointer


locates a lower-order VC. For example, an AU–3 contains a VC–3
plus a pointer, and a TU–2 contains a VC–2 plus a pointer.

• A VC is the payload entity that travels across the network, being


created and dismantled at or near the service termination point.
Tributary Unit
• It adds pointers to the VCs
• This pointer permits the SDH system to compensate for
phase differences within the SDH network and also for the
frequency deviations between the SDH networks
• TUs acts as a bridge between the lower order path layer
and higher order path layer

• TU12 (VC12 + pointer)


• TU2 (VC2 + pointer)
• TU3 (VC3 + pointer)
Tributary Unit Group
• It defines a group of tributary units that are multiplexed
together
• As a result, a TU group could contain one of the following
combinations
• Three TU-12s (TUG – 2)
• Seven TUG-2s (TUG – 3)
Administrative Unit
• It adds pointer to the HO Virtual containers(similar to the
tributary unit)
• AU - 3 (VC-3 + pointer)
• AU - 4 (VC-4 + pointer)

Administrative Unit Group


• It defines a group of administrative units that are
multiplexed together to form higher order STM signal
Synchronous Transport Module – n
• It adds section overhead (RSOH & MSOH) to a number
of AUGs that adds facilities for supervision &
maintenance of the multiplexer & regenerator sections

• This is the signal that is transmitted on the SDH line

• The digit “n” defines the order of the STM signal


SDH Generalised Multiplexing
Structure
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N signal

A corresponding arrangement is used for demultiplexing


Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
2.048 Mbps 1 2 3 32

(E1) 32 Bytes

Stuffing Bytes

C-12 1 23 32

34 Bytes

POH (Lower Order)

VC-12 1 23 32

35 Bytes
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
Pointer

TU-12
36 Bytes

TU 12 is arranged 9 Rows
Into Matrix of 9 X 4

4 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
TU-12 TU-12 TU-12

9 Rows

4 Columns 4 Columns 4 Columns

Multiplexing

TUG-2 9 Rows

12 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
7 TUG-2s

X 7 TUG-2 TUG-3(multiplexing)
Stuffing Bytes

TUG 3

84 Columns
86 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N

TUG - 3 TUG - 3 TUG - 3

86 Columns

X 3 TUG–3
VC - 4
HOPOH Stuffing Bytes

258 Columns
261 Columns
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
VC - 4

9 rows Pay Load


POH

261 Columns
AU – 4 (Adding Pointer)

AU Pointer
POH

h Row Pay Load

9 Columns
261 Columns

mapping E1.exe
SYNCHRONIZATION
Synchronization
 Synchronization is the means of keeping
all of the digital equipment in your
network operating at the same rate.
In terms of synchronous networks
(SDH/SONET), this means that all network
elements must be oriented towards a single
clock. In SDH and SONET, higher bit rates and
synchronization are the major Advances
compared to older transmission technologies.
This is the only way to assure uniform
standardization at all hierarchy levels and
represents a major challenge for system
manufacturers and network operators.
Primary Reference
Clock ( PRC )
Stratum 1

SYNCHRONIZATIO DIGITAL
N HIERARCHY EXCHANGE
Stratum 1

TRANSMISSION NETWORK

Digital Exchange Digital Exchange Digital Exchange


Stratum 2 Stratum 2 Stratum 2

Transmission Network

Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital


Exchange Exchange Exchange Exchange Exchange
Stratum 3 Stratum 3 Stratum 3 Stratum 3 Stratum 3
The network illustrates
the digital network
synchronization
hierarchy,with all clocks
normally operating at the
same frequency as the
reference source. A large
network can comprise the
interconnection of many
such clusters of nodes,
each operating
plesiochronous.
Clock Hierarchies
CLOCK SUPPLY HIERARCHY
STRUCTURE
• S1 Clk : Cesium / Rubidium atomic clk.
Accurate upto 0.00001ppm.
Loses 1sec every 3000yrs.
• S2 Clk : Accurate to 0.016ppm.
<255 slips in 1st 86 days after loosing S1 link.
1st slip can’t occur within first 7 days.
• S3 Clk : Accurate upto 4.6ppm.
<255 slips in 1st 24hrs after loss of reference.
1st slip can’t occur <6mins after reference loss.
• S4 Clk : No guarantee.
Stratum Accuracy Skip Rate Notes
1 10*10-11 2.523/Year PRC

2 1.6*10-8 11.06/Day Electronic Switch Sys

3 4.6*10-6 132.48/Hour DCS


4 3.2*10-5 15.36/Min PBX, CPE
SYNCHRONIZATION
All network elements are synchronised to a central clock

➄The central clock is generated by a high precision primary


clock(prc)-G.811 (10x10-11 )

➄Clock is distributed throughout the network,this signal is


passed on to the Sub-ordinate Synchronization units (ssu)
and synchronous equipment clock (sec)
Primary Secondary

Internal
Selector Clock

Auotmatic Switch

Timing Signal Generator (TSG)

Internal Diagram of
BITS
S1 Synchronization status
message byte (SSMB)
• Synchronization Status Messaging is the transmission of
synchronization quality messages between NEs.
•Bits 5 to 8 of this S1 byte are used to carry the synchronization
messages

0000 Quality unknown (existing sync. network)


0010 G.811 PRC (Primary Reference Clock)
0100 G.812 transit SSU-A (Synchronisation Supply Unit - A)
1000 G.812 local SSU-B (Synchronisation Supply Unit – B)
1011 G.813 Option 1 SEC (Synchronous Equipment Timing Clock)
1111 Do not use for synchronization.
QL settings for use with SSM
Example: Ring synchronization
Figs. A,B,C give a simple example of ring synchronization using four
network elements and
a PRC clock source:
. Configuration of network elements for clock distribution
. Clock distribution behavior when a fault occurs
During normal operation, the complete ring is clocked by the PRC,
which is directly connected to NE 1 (clock input T3). This NE cannot
derive a clock from the data inputs and is not configured initially as
a clock port. This prevents possible clock loops.
The other three network elements derive the clock from the
incoming data signals. The best clock source is always used (here,
PRC). The output signals have this clock quality, so PRC is indicated
in the S1 byte. To avoid clock loops, ªDon't Use for
Synchronizationº (DNU) is indicated in the S1 byte in the opposite
direction.
At NE 4, PRCs are present at both data ports. In this case according
to the clock derivation table determining the priority in case of
identical clock priority, the clock from NE 3 is used.
What happens to the ring in case of a fault ?
In this case, NE 3 no longer receives a valid synchronization
signal from NE 2, so it operates in holdover mode (Fig. B)
since an alternative clock source is not yet available. This is
also indicated in the S1 byte (SEC) towards NE 4.
NE 4 now receives a signal with PRC quality from NE 1 in the
reverse direction. According to the clock derivation table, NE
4 takes the synchronization clock from the reverse direction
(NE 1).
The same applies to NE 3, which uses the clock from NE 4
from the reverse direction (Fig. C).
Despite the disruption, all of network elements still use the
PRC clock.
Errors & Alarms
TYPICAL LAYOUT OF SDH
LAYER
General view of Path Section
designations

PD
SDH # PD
SDH Regenerator SDH
H
AT
multiplexerSD Cross- multiplexer
H
AT
M
IP SD SD M
IP
H H connect H

Regenera Regenera
tor tor
Section Section
Multiplex Multiplex
Section Section

Path
Numerous alarm and error messages are built into
SDH. They are known as defects and anomalies,
respectively. They are coupled to network sections
and the corresponding overhead information.
The advantage of the alarms monitoring are
illustrated as follows :
 Complete failure of a connection results, for
example, in a LOS alarm (loss of signal) in the
receiving network element.
 This alarm triggers a complete chain of
subsequent messages in the form of AIS.
 The transmitting side is informed of the failure
by the return of an RDI alarm (remote defect
indication).
 The alarm messages are transmitted in defined
Types of Alarms

 Equipment Alarms

 Facility Alarms
What is difference between a Defect
and a Failure?

 A defect is a detection of an alarm such


as loss of signals, loss of frames. AIS
loss of excessive errors.
 A failure is a defect that persists
beyond a maximum time allocated. It is
used to access to integrate Automatic
Protection Switching ( APS ).
Equipment Alarms
• Card Failure
• Card Mismatch
• Card Missing
• DCN Failure
• Fan Failed
• Disk 90% full
• Derived Voltage high/low
• I/p Voltage on PSU high/low
• LAN port down
• Memory usage exceeded
• SW download failed
• Temperature too high
Facility Alarms
• AIS E1/MS/P/STM
• LOS
• LOF
• OOF
• LOM
• LFD
• RDI MS/P
• REI MS/P
• RFI P
• LOP MS/P
• TIM RS/MS/P
• PLM P
Cont..

• Signal Degrade
• Signal Fail
• Timing Reference Failed
• Forced Switch Active
• Forced Switch to channel
• Manual Switch Active
• Manual Switch to channel
• Laser Bias Voltage high/low
• Derived I/p voltage high/low
LOS

Signal Degrade

Signal Fail
Loss Of Signals
( LOS ) :

 It could be due to cut cable, excessive attenuation of the


signal or an equipment fault.

 The LOS state will clear when 2 consecutive framing


patterns are received and no LOS condition is detected.
@ RSOH
OOF

LOF

TIM(J0)

DCC Fail
Out of Frame (OOF )
:

 This situation occurs when 4, or in some implementations, 5


consecutive SDH frames are received with invalid
framing patterns(A1 and A2 bytes)

 The maximum time to detect OOF is therefore 625Ms

 The OOF clears when consecutive SDH frames are received


with valid framing patterns
Loss Of Frame ( LOF
):

 The LOF occurs when the OOF state exists for a specified
time in msecs
 If OOFs are intermittent,the timer is not reset to zero until an
“in frame” state persists continuously for specified time
in msecs
 As the framing bytes are there in Regenerator section
overhead(RSOH) this alarm is sometimes known as
RS-LOF
@ MSOH

AIS/RDI(K1,K2)

DCC Fail

Timing Reference Signal Fail(S1)

REI(M1)
MS-AIS
:

This alarm is sent by a Regenerator Section Terminating


equipment(RSTE) to alert the downstream Multiplex section
Terminating Equipment(MSTE) of detected LOS or LOF
state
It is indicated by an STM-N signal containing valid RSOH and a
scrambled all 1’s pattern in the rest of the frame
The MS-AIS is detected by the MSTE when bits 6 to 8 of the
received k2 byte are set to “111” for 3 consecutive frames
Removal is detected by the MSTE when bits 6 to 8 of the
received k2 byte are set with a pattern other than “111” in
bits 6 to 8 of k2
AU-4 AIS :

This
This is sent by MSTE(Multiplex Section Terminating
Equipment) to alert the downstream higher order path
terminating equipment (HOPTE) of a detected LOP state or
a received AU path AIS
The
The AU-4 path AIS is indicated by transmitting an all 1’s pattern
in the entire AU-4(I.e an all 1‘s pattern in H1,H2 and H3
bytes pointer bytes plus all bytes of associated VC-4)
Removal
Removal of AU-4 path AIS is detected when three consecutive
valid AU pointers are received with normal NDF’s
TU-12 AIS :

 This is sent downstream to alert the Lower Order Path


Terminating Equipment(LOPTE) of a detected TU-12 LOP
state or a received TU-12 path AIS
 TU-12 path AIS is indicated by transmitting an all 1’s pattern in
the entire TU-12 (I.e all 1’s in pointer bytes v1,v2,v3and v4
plus all bytes of associated VC)
 The TU-12 AIS detected by the LOPTE when all 1’s pattern is
received in bytes v1 and v2 or three consecutive multi-
frames.
 Removal of TU-12 is detected when three consecutive valid TU-
12 pointers are received with normal NDF’s
REI &
RDI:
If network is failed due to fault in network
connection itself, breakup in path or fault in
terminal equipment then RDI (Remote
Defect Indication) alarm will appear.

If the received signal contains bit errors,


the receiving network element detects and
reports BIP errors. Since this is not the
same as a complete failure of the
connection, the alarm here is referred to as
an anomaly that is indicated back in the
direction of transmission. The return
@ HOPOH
TIM(J1)

PLM(C2)

REI,RDI,PLM,TIM,AIS,LOP(G1)

LOM(H4)

IEC,TC-REI/OEI/API/RDI/ODI(N1)
Loss Of Pointer (LOP
)

The LOP state occurs when ‘n’ consecutive invalid pointers are
received or ‘n’ New Data Flags(NDF) are received(other
than in a concatenation indicator)
The LOP state is cleared when 3 equal valid pointers or 3
consecutive AIS indications are received.This alarm is very
rare in steady state because the pointer is either valid or is all
1s
An AIS indication is all 1’s pattern in the pointer
bytes.Concatenation is indicated when the pointer bytes are
set to “1001XX1111111111” I.e NDF enabled(H1 and H2
bytes for AU LOP; v1 and v2 bytes for TU LOP)
Loss Of Multiframe (LOM )

 The LOM state occurs on SDH LOVCs & SONET VTs.


 LOM is detected by checking the 7 & 8 bit of H4 Byte.
 LOM is recovered when an error free H4 sequence is found
in 4 consecutive VC – n frames.
@LOPOH

REI,RDI,RFI,PLM,AIS,LOP(V5)

TIM/PLM(J2)

AIS,TC-REI/OEI/API/RDI/ODI(N2)
Some SDH alarms :
SDH SDH
SDH
MUX Cable Cut MUX
REGEN

Loss
RFI STM-1 of
STM-1 Signal

SDH Excessive SDH


SDH
MUX Errors MUX
REGEN
Loss
MS-REI of
STM-1 STM-1 Frame

SDH SDH
SDH MUX
MUX
Cable Cut REGEN

Loss
RFI STM-1 of Z STM-1 MS-AIS
Signal
PROTECTION SCHEMES
Failure Events
According to ATIS

Causes

1) Fiber cable dig-ups


2) Fiber cable non-dig-ups
3) Digital cross-connects
4) Synchronization timing
5) Internal power components
Protection
Schemes
 Linear Protection (1+1,1:1,1:N)

 Ring protection:

Unidirectional (UPSR/SNCP, MSP)


Bi-directional (2FMSSP, 4FMSSP)
1+1 Protection

 In 1+1 protection, for each of the working unit(Which


can be either unit or path)there will be a
corresponding protection unit
 Both the units will be carrying data all the time ,the
receiving end will select the better of the two signals
 In case of failure,there will be a switching from
working to protection
 Even if the fault in the working unit is rectified ,there
will be no automatic switching from protection unit
back to working unit
 This is called Non-Revertive type(because there is
no automatic reversion from working to protection
even when the working unit is functioning properly)
1+1 Protection

SDH Multiplexer Multiplex Section SDH Multiplexer

Working Section

Protection Section

SDH Multiplexer SDH Multiplexer


Working Section

Fault

Protection Section
1+1 Card Protection
1+1 Protected Linear Link
1 Protection(Dedicated Protection)
 Even in 1:1 protection, for each of the working
unit(Which can be either unit or path)there will be a
corresponding protection unit
 Only working unit will be carrying data all the time,in
case of the failure in the protection unit there will be a
switching to the protection unit
 Once the fault in the working unit is rectified there will
be a switching from protection unit back to the
working unit
 This is called Reversion type(because there is an
automatic reversion from protection back to the
working once the working unit is restored)
1: N
Protection

 1:N protection is very similar to 1:1


protection,except the fact that for N working
units there will be one protection unit
 This is also called revertive protection,because
as soon as the fault in the working unit is
rectified there will be an automatic reversion
from working to protection
1:N Card Protection
1:N Protected Linear Network
Path Protection
working path

B C
VC-n path protection VC-n
switching
within 30 ms
A D E

protection path
Unidirectional Operation
Bidirectional Operation
Unidirectional Path Switched
Ring/SNCP
UPSR/S
NCP

 In Uni-directional rings,signal is being carried in only


one direction that is either clockwise or anti-clockwise
 Only in case of failure there will be a switching in the
other direction also
 In the above example let us assume that there is an
interruption in the circuit between A and B.Direction y is
unaffected by this fault , an alternative path must
however,be found for direction X
 The connection is therefore switched to the alternative
path in the Network elements A and B
 The other network elements(C and D) switch through the
back up path
UPSR/SN
CP

 A simpler method is to use the so-called path switched


ring
 Traffic is transmitted simultaneously over both the working
line and the protection line
 If there is an interruption, the receiver (in this case
A)switches to the protection line and immediately takes up
the connection
Advantages of UPSR/SNCP

• Unidirectional protection switching is a


simple scheme to implement and does not
require a protocol.
• Unidirectional protection switching can be
faster than bidirectional protection switching
because it does not require a protocol.
• Under multiple failure conditions there is a
greater chance of restoring traffic by
protection
Unidir. MS Dedicated Protection Ring - normal State
Unidir. MS Dedicated Protection Ring - failed State
MSSP
• In this type bandwidth is segregated in to three ways

• Working Traffic

• Extra Traffic

• Non Pre-emptible unprotected Traffic (NUT)


2F Multiplexer Section Shared Protection
2 Fiber MSSP – Normal condition
A F

Tributary
Tributary
B E

C D
ADM
One Fiber
2 Fiber MSSP - Fault

A F

Tributary
Tributary
B E

ADM C D
2F
MSSP
Node A Node B Node C
Fiber 1

Fiber 2
working
protection

Node F Node E Node D


2F
MSSP
Node A Node B Node C
Fiber 1

Fiber 2
MS Protection
Switching
within 50 ms

Node F Node E Node D


2F MSSP (Multiplexer Section
Shared Protection)
 In this network connection between network elements
are bi-directional.the overall capacity of the network can
be split up for several paths each with one bi-directional
working line
 While for unidirectional rings,an entire virtual ring is
required for each path
 If a fault occurs between neighboring elements A and
B,network element B triggers protection switching and
controls network element A by means of the k1 and k2
bytes in the SOH
4F MSSP
4 Fiber MSSP - Normal
A F

Tributary
Tributary E
B

ADM C D
4 Fiber MSSP (Span Switch) - Fault
A F

Tributary
Tributary
B E

C D
Working Fiber 1+2 Protection Fiber 3+4
4 Fiber MSSP (Ring Switch) - Fault
A F

Tributary
Tributary
B E

C D
Working Fiber 1+2
Protection Fiber 3+4
NODE A NODE B NODE C

NODE D NODE E NODE F


STS-n
NODE A NODE B NODE C

NODE D NODE E NODE F

STS-n
NODE A NODE B NODE C

NODE D NODE E NODE F


NODE A NODE B NODE C

NODE D NODE E NODE F


NODE A NODE B NODE C

NODE D NODE E NODE F


NODE A NODE B NODE C

NODE D NODE E NODE F


4F MSSP
 Even greater protection is provided by bi-directional rings
with 4 fibers
 Each pair of fibers transports working and protection
channels
 This results in 1:1 protection, i.e.100% redundancy
 This improved protection is coupled with relatively high
costs
Advantages of MSSP
• With bidirectional protection switching operation, the
same equipment is used for both directions of
transmission after a failure.
• With bidirectional protection switching, if there is a fault in
one path of the network, transmission of both paths
between the affected nodes is switched to the alternative
direction around the network. No traffic is then transmitted
over the faulty section of the network and so it can be
repaired without further protection switching.
• Bidirectional protection switching is easier to manage
because both directions of transmission use the same
equipments along the full length of the trail.
OMBINATIONS PROTECTIONS
otected Add/ Drop With MSP on 1 Pair of
Dual trib to aggreagate with MSP
on aggregates and MSP on 2 tribs
Protected Add/Drop with Card
Protection on 1 Trib
Unprotcted Trib to Trib with Card
Protection on 2 Tribs
Protected Trib to Trib with cp on 1
trib and MSP on 2 tribs
Node Element Ring
Types of Traffic Matrix
Advantage of
SDH :

 The SDH is based on global international standard.


 Faster provision of services by remoter control.
 In service performance monitoring of signals.
 Possibility of control of circuit routing by customers.
 Easier management of bandwidth.
 Remote test access and maintenance from a central location.
 Optical Transmission interfaces.
 It will allow existing PDH hierarchies to be transported in
the SDH.
Advantage of SDH
(Contd.):

 Reduced amount of equipment in the network and hence


savings on accommodation and power consumption.
 Greater equipment reliability due to advanced electronic
circuitry and 1+1 protection.
 Improved protection facilities for transmission failures.
 Advance network management features.
 Single stage multiplexing into the higher bit rates.
 Cross connect functionality can be distributed around the
network.
Advantage of SDH
(Contd.):

 Software and configuration information can be


downloaded to network elements.
 Reliability of ring networks using path protection.
 Implementation of new broadband services such as
ATM is made easier.
 There are cost saving and increased revenue to the
network operation.
 Equipment from different manufacturer can be
connected together in the same network.
COMPARISION OF SDH / PDH
PDH SDH

The reference clock is not The reference clock is synchronized


synchronized throughout the throughout the network.
network
Multiplexing / Demultiplexing The synchronous multiplexing
operations have to be performed results in simple access to SDH
from one level to the next level step system has consistent frame
by step. structures throughout the hierarchy.
PDH system has different frame SDH system has consistent frame
structures at different hierarchy structures throughout the
levels. hierarchy.
Physical cross-connections on the Digital cross- connections are
same level on DDF are forced if any provided at different signal levels
and in different ways on NMS
Comparison (Contd.)
PDH SDH

G.702 specifies maximum 45Mpbs G.707 specified the first level of


& 140Mpbs & no higher order SDH.That is, STM-1, Synchronous
(faster) signal structure is not Transport Module 1st Order &
specified higher. (STM-1,STM-4,STM-
16,STM-64)
PDH system does not bear capacity SDH network is designed to be a
to transport B-ISDN signals. transport medium for B-ISDN,
namely ATM structured signal.
Limited amount of extra capacity for It will transport service bandwidths
user / management Sufficient number of OHBs is
available
Bit - by - bit stuff multiplexing Byte interleaved synchronous
multiplexing.