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# PHYSICS 12 – Midterm Selected Topics

## References: Serway et. al, Physics for Scientists 8th Ed.

Bauer and Westfall, Univ. Phys. With Mod. Phys.
Van Heuvelen et. al, College Physics

##  Geometric Optics  Image Formation: Thin Lenses

 Light as a ray  Thin Lens Equation
 Law of Rays  Types of Thin Lenses
 Reflection and Refraction  Combination of Lenses
 Total Internal Reflection
 Image Formation: Mirrors Prepared by:
 Plane Mirror Mr. Norodin A. Rangaig
 Concave and Convex Mirrors Faculty, Physics Department
 Ray Diagrams for Curved Mirrors
 Mirror Equation
Geometric Optics
PHYSICS 12-MIDTERM TOPICS
How do rainbows
are formed??

Due to the
REFLECTION and
REFRACTION of
light in raindrops.
GEOMETRIC OPTICS
 Light is characterized as rays.
LIGHT
Young’s Double Slit Exp’t Photoelectric Effect
and Compton Effect

WAVE PARTICLE
• Diffraction • Can be bend by
• Transfer of gravity
Energy • Means it has a
• No mass mass
• Energy is
quantized
Duality of Light!
Wavefront

Rays
• Light rays are always perpendicular to
wavefronts
• The undulating red lines represent the
Simplest model of Light
vibration.
• Vibrations of light wave is simply
represented by RAYS
• We will treat light as a ray traveling in
a straight line while in homogeneous
medium.
Planes representing the
wavefronts and the traveling
rays
Early Interpretations of light

## Early ancestors thought that we emit special rays from

our eye.
Rays will reach to the object and wrapped around
them.

## We can see in total DARKNESS??

We can see objects because light is reflected
off of objects into our eyes.
One ray model object where no light
reaches
• Shadow is also known as
“UMBRA”
light is intercepted.
Multiple ray model
where some light reaches
and some does not.
One ray model known as “PENUMBRA”
Analysis:
There is a relationship on
the height of the shadow, the
distance of the object to the
Multiple ray model wall and the distance of light
to the object .
LAW OF RAYS

## The ratio of the height of the

object and its distance to the light
source is equal to the ratio of the
height of the shadow and the
distance of the shadow to the
source.
Example
Reflection of Light
Reflection of Light
Angle of Reflection
Angle of Incidence

## Reflected ray Incident ray

• Mirror – a surface that reflects
light.
• Incident ray – light striking the
Mirror
mirror.
• Normal line – line perpendicular
to the mirror.
• Angle of incidence – angle
between the incident ray and
normal line.
Reflection of Light
Caution!
The angle of incidence
and the angle of reflection
are always the angles that
the light beams form with
the normal line.

𝜃𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝜃𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
(Law of Reflection)
Types of Reflection
LASER produces a monochromatic light!

plane
Rays

## According to law of reflection, RAY will be

reflected monochromatically. So only one
person can see it.

## Why everyone in the room can see it? Is the

law of reflection wrong?
Types of Reflection
We must examine if the surface is smooth or rough.

Specular Reflection –
Phenomenon in which a
light beam is reflected by
smooth surface

Diffuse Reflection –
Phenomenon in which a
light beam is reflected by
rough or bumpy surface.
Why can’t we see what’s inside the
tinted car when the light inside the car is
off??
How many image of object we can see if
it is placed between to plane mirrors?
Refraction of light

## “Shine Bright like a Diamond”

-Rihanna-
Refraction of light
Concept: Light travels at different speeds in different
optically transparent medium

## 𝑐 𝑐 is the speed of light in a vacuum

𝑣= 𝑛 the index of refraction
𝑛
Refraction of light
Refraction simply means that the light rays do
not travel in a straight line across an interface
of two different medium, but it rather change
its direction.
Medium 1: 𝑛1
Normal line

Refracted ray
Medium 2: 𝑛2
Refraction of light
Refraction of light

𝑛1 sin 𝜃1 = 𝑛2 sin 𝜃2

## Law of Refraction: Snell’s law

Example 1
A light ray strikes an air/water surface at
an angle 46𝑜 with respect to the normal.
The refractive index of water is 1.33. Find
the angle of refraction when the
direction of the rays is a) from air to
water and b) from water to air.
Refraction of light: Fermat’s Principle
Can Snell’s Law be proven by ray
optics alone?

## A more qualifier statement: The path taken by a ray

of light between two points in space is the path that
takes the least time.
Example 2
A searchlight on a yacht is being used at night
to illuminate a sunken chest. The light beam is
incidence at an angle 31o wrt to normal. The
actual depth of the water is 4.7m. a) What is the
angle of refraction b.) What is the apparent
depth where the sunken chest can be seen from
the vintage point of yacht. c.) What is the
distance of the sunken chest to the normal line?
Assignment 1
One efficient method in measuring the glucose content
of the blood is through the measurement of the
refractive index. The normal range of refractive index of
the blood’s glucose concentration is 1.34 to 1.36. Using
a hypothetical process, a petri dish filled with a sample
blood was hit by a laser beam at an angle 40o. What is
the index of refraction of the sample blood if the angle
of refraction is 63.2o? Is the concentration of glucose
higher than the normal range?
Assignment 2
Pure blood plasma has a higher index of refraction than
blood. Suppose the refractive index of the patient’s
plasma is 1.43 instead of 1.37 for her blood. What then
would be the refraction angle if the incident angle is
42o?
Total Internal Reflection: Refraction and Reflection
Total Internal Reflection

## • When a ray travels from a

higher index of refraction to
lower index of refraction,
some ray will be reflected
and refracted.

## • When the angle of incidence

reaches a certain value, called
CRITICAL ANGLE 𝜃𝑐 . The angle of
refraction becomes 90o.
Total Internal Reflection
• When the angle of
incidence exceeds the
critical angle, there is no
refracted light.
• All the incident light is
reflected back into the
medium of origin.
• This phenomenon is
called TOTAL INTERNAL
REFLECTION
Total Internal Reflection
Using the Snell’s law:

𝑛2
sin 𝜃𝑐 = 𝑛1 > 𝑛2
𝑛1
Critical angle
Example 1

## A beam of light is propagating through diamond (n1 =

2.42) and strikes a diamond-air interface at an angle 0f
28o. a) will part of the beam enter the air? Or will the
beam be totally reflected at the interface? b) Repeat
a), assuming that the diamond is surrounded by water.
Assignment 3/ Written report 1

## Explain the reasons why diamond is

sparkling?
(Encoded: 12pts, double space, roman,
short bond paper. Include some figures to
forget to cite the source properly.)
Applications: Optical fiber

## • Optical fiber has wide range of application.

• Fiber optics is very useful in data transmitting,
signal distribution, etc.
• It is widely used in communication because it
has zero interference.
Optical fiber: Principle and Structure

##  The basic principle behind fiber optics is the

incorporation of total internal reflection.
 Light can travel in the core with a total reflection
because the incidence angle of light outside the core
is greater than the critical angle.
Optical fiber: In Surgery

 An endoscope is a device
used to look inside the
human body using fiber optic
cable.
 It uses a small lens to
produce an image of the
area of interest.
 The image produced by the
lens is focused on one end of
a bundle of thousands of
optical fiber.
ENDOSCOPE
Optical fiber: In Surgery
Optical fiber: In Surgery

Athroscopic surgery
Assessment questions

## CHAPTER QUIZ NEXT MEETING!!

Mirrors and Lenses: Image Formation
PHYSICS 12-MIDTERM TOPICS
 How do we see images? or pictures?
 Light travels to the object and bounce back to our
eyes.
 In this case we can see the image.
 What will happen if the light that carries the
information on an object encounter a curved surface?
 We will assume that light travels in a straight line
(ray).
 We will apply the concepts of reflection and
refraction of light ray.
IMAGE FORMED BY PLANE MIRROR

## p – Object distance to the mirror

q – Image distance to the mirror
I - Image of the object O
Types of Images:
1.) Real Image – Formed when light rays
pass through and diverge from image point.
Ex: This presentation itself, movie theater,
etc.
2.) Virtual Image – Formed when light
rays do not pass through but appears to
diverge from that point.
Ex: Image in plane mirror is always virtual.
Example 1.) A tyrant King requires his subjects to buy him a
mirror in a way that he can see his entire body. What is the
height of the mirror required?
Solution: One subject proposed the figure below to solved
their problem
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR
Curved Mirrors are cut from spherically shaped piece of glass.

## Types of Curved Mirrors:

1.) Concave Mirror – They bulges away from the light it reflects.
Theses are often used for magnification, telescope, etc. It is
sometimes called CONVERGING MIRROR.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

Principal axis–
C – Center of curvature – Imaginary horizontal line
center of the sphere with connecting the center of
radius R. curvature with the center
of mirror’s surface.

Normal Line

## Diagram of curved mirror

IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## The Mirror Equation: Derivation

IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## The Mirror Equation:

1 1 1
+ =
𝑝 𝑞 𝑓
Sign conventions for Mirrors
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Ray Diagrams for Mirror:
 Position and sizes of images formed by mirrors can be
conveniently determined by ray diagrams.
 It is a pictorial representations that reveal the nature of
the image and can be used to check results calculated
from the mirror equation.
 To do this, you must know the position of the object
and the locations of focal point of mirror.
 This can be done using 3 rays.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Ray Diagrams for Mirror: Concave Mirror
1.) Ray 1 is drawn from the top of the
object parallel to the principal axis and Ray 1
is reflected through the focal point F.
Ray 2
2.) Ray 2 is drawn from the top of the Ray 3
object through the focal point F and is
reflected parallel to the principal axis. Object C F
3.) Ray 3 is drawn from the top of the Image
object through the curve center C and
is reflected back to itself.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Ray Diagrams for Mirror: Convex Mirror
1.) Ray 1 is drawn from the top of the
object parallel to the principal axis and
is reflected away from the focal point F.
2.) Ray 2 is drawn from the top of the
object toward the focal point on the
back side of mirror and is reflected
parallel to principal axis.
3.) Ray 3 is drawn from the top of the
object toward the curve center C and is
reflected back to itself.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## When the object is located so that the center of curvature

lies between the object and a concave mirror surface, the
image is REAL, INVERTED, and REDUCED in size.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## When the object is located between the focal

point and a concave mirror surface, the image
is VIRTUAL, UPRIGHT, and ENLARGED.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## When the object is convex mirror, the image is

VIRTUAL, UPRIGHT, and REDUCED in size.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## Example: Concave Mirror

A spherical mirror has a focal length of +10cm. a) Locate
and describe the image of an object with distance 30cm. b)
What if the distance is 10cm? and c.) 5cm?
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

## Example: Convex Mirror

An automobile rearview mirror shows an image of truck
located 10m from the mirror. The focal length of the
mirror is 60m. a) find the position of the image of the
truck. b.) find the magnification of the image.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

Example:
Suppose your face is 0.09m away from a mirror. What will
be the image size of a 0.50cm-diameter birthmark of your
face if you are using a.) concave mirror and b.) convex
mirror with radius of curvature 0.52m.
IMAGE FORMED BY CURVED MIRROR

Example:
A dentist uses a spherical mirror to examine a tooth. The tooth
is 1.00 cm in front of the mirror, and the image is formed 10.0
cm behind the mirror. Determine (a) the mirror’s radius of
curvature and (b) the magnification of the image.
Assignment
1.) A concave spherical mirror has a radius of curvature 20.0 cm. (a) Find
the location of the image for object distances of (i) 40.0 cm, (ii) 20.0 cm,
and (iii) 10.0 cm. For each case, state whether the image is (b) real or
virtual and (c) upright or inverted. (d) Find the magnification in each case.
2.) A convex spherical mirror has a radius of curvature of magnitude 40.0
cm. Determine the position of the virtual image and the magnification for
object distances of (a) 30.0 cm and (b) 60.0 cm. (c) Are the images in
parts (a) and (b) upright or inverted?
THIN LENSES
PHYSICS 12-MIDTERM TOPICS
Lenses

## The Concept of lenses lies on the refraction in

optical mediums.
In contrast to mirrors, lens is a combination of two
spherically transparent medium that both have a
This means that lenses have two focal point. But
only one is relevant, of course.
Treatment of thin lenses is the same as to the
mirrors, don’t get confused!
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## The Thin Lens Equation:

1 1 1
+ =
𝑝 𝑞 𝑓
where
1 1 1
= 𝑛−1 −
𝑓 𝑅1 𝑅2
This is also called as Lens-Maker Equation
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

+ =
𝑝 𝑞 𝑓

## Sign Conventions for thin lenses

IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## Ray Diagram for Thin Lenses: Converging lens

1.) Ray 1 is drawn parallel to principal axis.
After being refracted by the lens, this ray
passes through the focal point on the back side
of the lens.
2.) Ray 2 is drawn through the focal point on
the front side of the lens and emerges to the
lens parallel to the principal axis.

## 3.) Ray 3 is drawn through the center of the

lens and continues in a straight line. The object is in front of F1
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## Ray Diagram for Thin Lenses: Diverging lens

1.) Ray 1 is drawn parallel to principal axis.
After being refracted by the lens, this ray
emerges directly away from the focal point
on the front side of the lens.
2.) Ray 2 is drawn in the direction toward
the focal point on the back side of the lens
and emerges from the lens parallel to the
principal axis.
3.) Ray 3 is drawn through the center of the
lens and continues in a straight line.
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## When the object is in front of and outside the focal point

of a converging lens, the image is REAL, INVERTED,
and ON THE BACK SIDE OF THE LENS.
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## When the object is between the focal point of

and a converging lens, the image is
VIRTUAL, UPRIGHT, ENLARGED and ON
THE FRONT SIDE OF THE LENS.
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## When an object is anywhere of a Diverging

lens, the image is VIRTUAL, UPRIGHT,
REDUCED and ON THE FRONT SIDE OF
THE LENS.
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

Types of Lenses

## Converging Diverging Converging Diverging Planar Planar

Meniscus Meniscus Converging Diverging
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

## Example: Converging and Diverging lens

A i) converging and ii) diverging lens has a focal length
10cm. a) an object is placed 30.0cm from the lens,
construct a ray diagram, find the image, the distance and
describe the image. b) The object is now placed 8cm from
the lens, describe the image.
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

Example: Projector
Light passes through a narrow slit, and then through a
lens and onto a screen. The slit is 20 cm from the lens.
The screen, when adjusted for a sharp image of the slit,
is 15 cm from the lens. What is the focal length of the
lens? What type of lens it is?
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

Example:
Kris wish to order a lens to stalk her crush living on the
other side of their house. The lens should produce an image
that is upright and magnified by a factor of 3.5 when held
35cm from her face. What type and focal length lens should
be ordered?
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

Combination of Lenses
1 1 1
+ =
𝑝 𝑞 𝑓
where
1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑓1 𝑓2
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

Example:
Consider a system of two lenses. The first lens has focal
length 21.4cm while the second lens has focal length
35cm. These lenses produced a final image that is
located at the back of the second lens. If an object is
placed at a distance 65cm w.r.t the first lens. Where is
the final image? What is the image distance w.r.t the
first lens?
IMAGE FORMED BY THIN LENSES

Example:
Two Converging lenses with focal length 5cm and
10cm, respectively. An object of height 5cm is placed
10cm to the left of the first lens. What will be the
position and the height of the final image produced by
this lens system.
Written report 2

## The Human Eye and its Conditions

(Encoded: 12pts, double space, roman,
short bond paper. Include some figures to