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Industrial Process Control

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


What is
Industrial Process Control (IPC)?
IPC is an area of engineering that deals with the
automation of tasks/processes in the industry.

It is also known by the following names


– Industrial Automation
– Industrial Control
– Instrumentation and control

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


What is Industrial Automation?

Industrial Automation simply means


to automate machinery, tasks, or
processes in an industry.

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Manual vs Automated

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Manual vs Automated

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Benefits of Automation
• Increased production
• Higher yield
• Improved quality
• Lower production cost
• Better safety
• Data logging
• Better quality assurance

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Examples of Automated Industry:
Oil & Gas sector

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Examples of Automated Industry:
Cement Plant

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Examples of Automated Industry:
Packaged Food

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Examples of Automated Industry
Almost every industry that you can think of is
automated to some extent.
• Automotive
• Plastics
• Power generation & distribution
• Textile
• Medicinal drugs
• Paper
• Water treatment
• Many more ….

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Why study automation
• High demand: Due to application in almost
every industry, there is a high demand for
automation engineers through out the world.
• Well paid jobs: Automation jobs usually offer
lucrative salary packages.
• Useful knowledge: Even if your main job/area
is not directly related to automation, it is likely
that at some point in time your knowledge of
automation would help you in your career.

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Some common terms for
Industrial Automation

Sometimes this area of study is also referred as

• Industrial control
• Industrial instrumentation and control
• Industrial process control

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Classifications of Industrial Control
• Motion Control
• Process Control
– Batch Process
– Continuous Process

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Motion Control
• An automatic control system that controls the
physical motion or position of an object
• Response time of motion
control systems is in
milliseconds
• Example: Industrial robot arm
which performs welding
or assembly operations

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Process Control
• In process control one or more variables are
regulated during the manufacturing of a
product
• These variable may include temperature,
pressure, flow rate, level, pH, humidity etc.
• Response time of process control systems is
usually slow ranging from few seconds to
hours
• Further two types: Batch and Continuous

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Batch Process
• Batch processing is a sequence of timed
operations executed on the product being
manufactured.
• Batch process is also known as a sequential
process

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Batch Process Example:
Cookie manufacturing
Powdered Chocolate
Water Milk Eggs Flour Sugar Margarine Nuts chips Vanilla Shortening

Compressor

Mixer

Outlet jets To packaging machine

Conveyer belt Oven

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Batch Process Example:
Cookie manufacturing
Powdered Chocolate
Water Milk Eggs Flour Sugar Margarine Nuts chips Vanilla Shortening

Compressor

Mixer

Outlet jets To packaging machine

Conveyer belt Oven

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Continuous Process
• In a continuous process one or more
operations are being performed as the
product is being passed through a process

• Examples: paper production, wastewater


treatment, oil refining etc.

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Continuous Process Example: Paper

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Continuous Process Example: Cement

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Classification by type of control
• Open-loop systems (manual control)

• Closed-loop systems (automatic control)

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Open-loop systems
• Simplest way of control

• Variables kept at set point/ desired value


manually

• No feedback is employed

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Open loop example: water reservoir
Manual Valve
Water from source Inlet pipe

Desired water level

Storage tank
Outlet pipe

• Objective is to keep water at desired level


• Human operator periodically inspects the tank

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Open loop example: water reservoir
• Water level may change if
–Substantial rainfall
–Excessive evaporation

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Open loop example: Heat exchanger

• Hot steam flows into the heat exchanger through


pipes
• The steam heats the cold water entering the heat
exchanger
• Hot water is pumped out
• Objective is to maintain hot water’s temperature
Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation
Open loop example: Heat exchanger
• Temperature may vary if
– Temperature of entering cold water drop
– Hot water demand increases
– Inlet steam flow rate changes

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Issues in open loop control
• Desired value of a variable / Set point cannot
be maintained in presence of disturbances

• Requires Human operator

• Cannot be used in critical systems

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Closed loop control
• Based on feedback

• Automatic (do not require human operator)

• Maintains set point / desired value in


presence of disturbances

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Closed loop example: water reservoir
• Float device used for feedback

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Closed loop example: Heat exchanger
• Thermal sensor used for feedback

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Structure of closed loop system
Fuel or energy

Controller
Set Point Error Signal Output Signal
+ Controller Actuator
-
Manipulated variable

Feedback Manufacturing Disturbance


Signal
Process

Measurement
Devices Measured
variable Output or
controlled variable

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Topics in Industrial Automation
• Control techniques
• Industrial electronics
• Motion control – Actuators & Drives
• Instruments (sensors and actuators)
• Process Control
• Instrumentation Symbology
• Motion control – Sensors
• PLCs

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Topics in Industrial Automation
• Control techniques (Linear Control Systems)
• Industrial electronics (Electronics courses)
• Motion control – Actuators & Drives (Machines)
• Instruments (sensors and actuators) (Instrumentaton)
• Process Control
• Instrumentation Symbology
• Motion control – Sensors
• PLCs

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Pre requisite
• EE332 Linear Control Systems
• You are expected to know the basics i.e.
– basic purpose of control
– concept of feedback/open loop
– purpose of sensors/actuator
– Transient response characteristics
• No need to know PID, root locus, Nyquist etc.

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Difficulty level

• Unlike LCS/DCS, it doesn’t include difficult


concepts or mathematics
• This course is more oriented towards
imparting information/knowledge/general
practices
• You will need a good memory to pass this
course

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


What is the relation/difference
between IPC and control theory?

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Distribution of Marks
• Theory
– 5-6 Quizzes 10%
– 2-3 Assignments 5%
– OHTs 17.5% + 17.5%
– Final Exam 50%
• Lab
– Lab work 70%
– Lab exam 30%

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Text Book
• Industrial Electronics by Terry L. Bartelt (2006)

• Industrial Automated Systems: Instrumentation and Motion


Control by Terry Bartelt (2011)
• Industrial Control Electronics by Terry Bartelt (2005)

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


How to contact me
• Try to ask questions during the class so that
everyone can benefit from the answer
• After lectures
• By Email

• Never call me on my mobile phone

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation


Class Rules
Avoid disruptive activities/behavior
-mobile phones
-talking in lectures
-being late
-etc.

Dr. Ammar Hasan’s Workshop on Industrial Automation