0 views

Uploaded by Sami

source coding

- DCTS PBL 4 CHP.docx
- Lecture 9
- Mcp 2515
- canbus
- Data com
- Miller Ch03
- Polytechnic College
- 07-communicationReliability
- RAID (1)
- Crc 32 Calculator
- STM32F10xxx FSMC Controller
- sysmea_v2_n1_2009_2 (1)
- BE_2005
- ECC-1 (1)
- canbus.ppt
- ECE3073 P5 computer interfaces answers.pdf
- Peackock_A treatise on algebra vol 1(1842).pdf
- Fractions.text.Marked
- Hardware Stream Cipher Based on LFSR and Modular Division Circuit
- 11

You are on page 1of 35

Errors

Noise/interference

Limited bandwidth

Distortion

Errors – a consequence of imperfecton

Some bits send at the sender are received with different value

at the receiver

Sender Receiver

Value 0 ---------- 1 Value

sent received

1 ----------0

Note:

data unit has changed.

10.1 Single-bit error

Note:

in the data unit have changed.

10.2 Burst error of length 5

Types of Errors

Single-bit error

The value of a single bit in a data unit is changed

Does not occur very often in serial data transmission

Burst error

The value of two or more bits in the data unit is

changed

Usual type of error in serial data transmission

Errors and Error Effect

Errors and Error Effect (Cont.)

Errors and Error Effect (Cont.)

Two Strategies for Error Control

Enough redundancy (extra bits) is incorporated, so that at

the reciever the errors can be not only detected, but also

corrected

Not applicable to data communication, because too much

redundancy is needed

Error detection and retransmission

There is enough redundancy only to detect the error in a data

unit. If an error is descovered the sender is automaticly

required to retransmit the data unit

Applicabbble to data communication

Error Detection Methods

(redundant bits) to the data unit

Three most common methods are

Parity checking

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

Checksum

Note:

redundancy, which means adding

extra bits for detecting errors at the

destination.

10.4 Detection methods

Parity Checking

The sender and the receiver agree in advance whether

the data units will have even or odd number of 1s.

The sender adds extra bits to create the data units

according to the agreement

The receiver checks the parity of the 1s according to

the agreement.

If the data unit received has a number of 1s according

to the agreement, it is accepted as correct; otherwise

it is rejected as “in error”.

Simple Parity Checking

data unit

Even parity – the parity bit is 0 or 1 depending on which bit will

make the total number of 1’s even

Odd parity – the parity bit is 0 or 1 depending on which bit will

make the total number of 1’s odd

The sender and receiver know which scheme they are using

The receiver performs parity checking

Only a single error or odd number of errors can be detected

It is not convenient for use with data transmission

Even Parity Concept

Example

data unit.

0110100

1011010

Solution: 0110100 1

1011010 0

Two-dimensional Parity Check

Data units are arranged in two-dimensional array

Parity bit is added to the rows (each data unit)

and to the columns (an extra data unit is created)

The receiver checks the parity in the rows and in

the columns

Improved performance compared to single-parity

checking

Still not very often used with data transmission

Two-dimensional Parity Concept

Example

Perform a two dimensional parity check on the

following data unit by having blocks of 7 bits each.

01101001011010001011011101011001011

Solution 0110100 1

1011010 0

0010110 1

1110101 1

1001011 0

1000110 1

01101001101101000010110111101011100101101000110

Spring 2006 Computer Networks 21

Checksum

To compute the check sum, the sender treats the

data unit as a sequence of a certain number of

blocks, all with the same number of bits.

The sender and receiver agree on how long are the

blocks (usually 16 bits)

The sender adds the blocks using one’s

complement arithmetic and creates an additional

block with the same size

The additional block is complemented and

appended to the data unit as redundancy bits

Checksum (Cont.)

with the agreed number of bits.

The blocks are added using one’s complement

arithmetic

The sum is complemented

If the result is 0, the data are considered without an

error, otherwise the data unit is rejected

Modulo One’s Arithmetic

right

The bits are carried in the respective column before

This is repeated for each column

If the number of bits in the sum is larger then

those in the blocks, they are added to the sum

obtained

Column: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Carry from column 5 1 0

Carry from column 4 1

Example Carry from column 3 1

Carry from column 2 1

The addition Carry from column 1 1

starts in the last 0 0 1 1 0

column 1 0 0 0 1

The bits are 1 1 0 0 1

carried in the 1 0 1 1 1

columns before 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

The 6th and 7th bit 1 0

are added sum 0 1 0 0 1

checksum

1 0 1 1 0

Spring 2006 Computer Networks 25

Complement of a Bit String

0s become 1s and all 1s become 0s

Example: Given the bit string 10111001, its

complement is 01000110

Cyclic Redundancy Check

data transmission.

Based upon treating bit strings as polynomials with

coefficients 0 and 1.

k bit message is represented as (k-1) degree

polynomial

Example: 1010110 has 7 bits

It can be represented as a polynomial of 6th degree

1·x6 + 0·x5 + 1·x4 +0·x3 + 1·x2 + 1·x1 + 0·x0

How CRC Operates?

The sender wants to send k bits message

The sender and the receiver must agree in advance

on n+1 bit string called generator polynomial

(divisor), G.

G can be represented as n-degree polynomial

n redundant bits are added to the k bits message.

They are called CRC bits.

k bits n bits

How CRC Operates? (Cont.)

the resulting k+n bit string is exactly divisible

(with a reminder=0) by G using modulo 2

arithmetic.

The receiver divides the received data together

with the CRC bits by G using modulo 2

arithmetic.

If the reminder is 0, then the string is considered to be

without errors

If the reminder is not 0, the data unit is with errors and

it is rejected

Generator Polynomial, G

For the purposes of calculating a CRC, the sender

and the reciever need to agree upon a generator

polynomial G in advance.

The choice of G has impact on what types of errors

can be reliably detected.

There are a handful generator polynomials that are

very good choices for various environments and

the exact choice is made as a part of protocol

design

Modulo 2 Arithmetic

identical to EXCLUSUVE OR (XOR) operation.

Multiplication and division are the same as in base-2

arithmetic without carries in addition or borrows in

substraction.

0 XOR 0 = 0 Examples:

0 XOR 1 = 1

1011 XOR 0101 = 1110

1 XOR 0 = 1

1 XOR 1 = 0 1001 XOR 1101 = 0100

Calculating the CRC Bits

Append n 0s to the data unit to obtain the extended

data unit.

Perform the modulo 2 division. The extended data unit

is a dividend and G is a divisor.

The quotient is not used

The reminder is the CRC bits

Add the CRC bits to the data unit

Example

The first bit in the quotient

is 1 and one times the

divisor results in this

is 1 and one times the The number of 0s is

divisor results in this one less than the

number of bits in G

Obtained by (divisor)

XOR-ing 1001

and 1101

Obtained by XOR-ing

1000 and 1101

Another Example

11010110111110

Spring 2006 Computer Networks 34

CRC Performance

polynomial, G, is made, CRC method shows very

good performance

Can detect all burst errors that affect odd number of

bits

Can detect all burst errors of length less than or equal

to G

Very high probability on detecting errors with length

higher than the length of G

- DCTS PBL 4 CHP.docxUploaded bywirdina
- Lecture 9Uploaded byAli Ahmad
- Mcp 2515Uploaded byNamigtle Jiménez Jesús
- canbusUploaded bycarrizoloco
- Data comUploaded byMuhammadwaqasnaseem
- Miller Ch03Uploaded byAmador Medina
- Polytechnic CollegeUploaded bypcpolytechnic
- 07-communicationReliabilityUploaded bySam Shoukat
- RAID (1)Uploaded byAadityaIche
- Crc 32 CalculatorUploaded byyqqwe
- STM32F10xxx FSMC ControllerUploaded byMayam Ayo
- sysmea_v2_n1_2009_2 (1)Uploaded byMahmood Adel
- BE_2005Uploaded bySocaciu Viorica
- ECC-1 (1)Uploaded byRiajimin
- canbus.pptUploaded byhakman
- ECE3073 P5 computer interfaces answers.pdfUploaded bykewancam
- Peackock_A treatise on algebra vol 1(1842).pdfUploaded bymavrogiannis
- Fractions.text.MarkedUploaded byperu
- Hardware Stream Cipher Based on LFSR and Modular Division CircuitUploaded byanon020202
- 11Uploaded byapi-240724606
- lesson plan 6Uploaded byapi-315856092
- ECSS-E-70-41A(30Jan2003)Uploaded byjsadachi
- 9 2 14 6th grade lesson plan week ofUploaded byapi-261109282
- final industrial training (2).docxUploaded byShalini Gupta
- Data Transmission and NetworkingUploaded byAmran Anwar
- A Multimode Area-Efficient SCL Polar Decoder - 2016Uploaded bymtechprojects
- KomunikasiData -- Teknik DigitalUploaded byTri Hardyansyah
- pt1384412(dcs)Uploaded byNIRAJ KUMAR Singh
- Hindu Arabic and ChineseUploaded byEdi Yanto
- lab.pdfUploaded byVindian Force

- CDC UP Project Charter TemplateUploaded bySami
- CDC UP Project Charter TemplateUploaded byDurán Jose
- Bussiness Architecture Group 4Uploaded bySami
- Rfp Final DraftUploaded bySami
- MIT - Engineering Systems - An Enterprise PerspectiveUploaded bySami
- Rfp Final DraftUploaded bySami
- Rfp Final DraftUploaded bySami
- Developing an organizational structure.docxUploaded bySami

- 2g KPI FormulaUploaded byChandan Pal
- Java AssignmentUploaded bySindhuCitra
- iGO Primo EU UserManual UKUploaded byPredrag Arsić
- InterBase and Firebird Recovery GuideUploaded byManoel_Jr
- PracticeProblems-Crypto7eUploaded byp0go
- User Guide.pdfUploaded byyuyu
- ALL_APIUploaded byPiyush Kulkarni
- EWP3200Uploaded byAdvantec Srl
- Chapter 6 Production Activity ControlUploaded byKamble Abhijit
- Glacier RaceUploaded byChufoP
- Proteus IntroductionUploaded bymhemara
- HPSA UNIX Certified ScriptsUploaded byKiran Velu
- RECON-0xA-Shooting the OSX El Capitan Kernel Like a Sniper Chen HeUploaded byjames wright
- 112013 AX2012-TechDomain M05 MoveEnvironment Edited (1)Uploaded byGabriel Ortega Pino
- FS-C2526MFP-C2626MFP Service ManualUploaded bymason757
- Vehicle TrackingUploaded byNarendran Kishore
- Computer World - 21 February 2011-TVUploaded byOvidiu Dragusoiu
- cvUploaded byAlaa K. ElBehery
- visual c++Uploaded byYashwanth Kumar
- technology and communicationUploaded bySohaib Khan
- G2170-90041 Chemstation Operating ManualUploaded bymichaelbesho12345
- MSP Tutorial StillLife Complete v1.4Uploaded byFaz Diapason
- Fpga Implementation of Memory Controller Fsm Using Simulink2Uploaded byAK
- DIKTAT AUTOCAD by Mochammad Machmud RifadilUploaded byrarizalarif
- Quartiles iTSSUploaded byChristine Rivera
- Essential Guide XML PDFUploaded byrachmat99
- Motherboard Manual Ga-945gcm(x)-s2 eUploaded byJuanCar No Los Se
- Ashish BilawneUploaded byRohit Kapade
- Varma Qtp NotesUploaded byBalaSai Varma
- QGNPUploaded byAfonso Tsukamoto