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ROTATIONAL FRICTION WELDING

ON MILD STEEL 12MM RODE WITH


THE HELP OF LATHE MACHINE
Guided By : Dr.Vishvesh J.
Badheka

Jay Borad(150130121005)
Jaynish Idhariya(150130121014)
Darshan Solanki(150130121052)
Friction Welding
• Definition: Friction welding is a solid state
welding process where in coalescence is
produced by the heat obtained from
mechanically induced sliding motion
between rubbing surfaces. The work parts
are held together under pressure.
• Material-Plain Carbon Steel
• Diameter-12mm
• Variable-Speed(welding has been done at
three different rotating speed)
• Work piece was drilled 4-5 mm away from
the weld area and One K-type
thermocouple was attached to record
temperature data.
Chemical Composition
Carbon 0.170
Silicon 0.200
Sulphur 0.007
Phosphorus 0.016
Manganese 1.140
Nickel 0.006
Chromium 0.020
Moly Nil
Vanadium 0.002
Copper 0.005
SET-UP
Steps Of Friction Welding
• Firstly,work piece was drilled 4-5 Away
from the Weld area and one K-type
Thermocouple was attached to record
temperature data.
• Then, The two components to be friction
welded are held in axial alignment.
• One component that is held in chucking
spindle of the machine is rotated and
accelerated to three different desired
speed.
Steps Of Friction Welding
• The other component that is held in the
movable clamp is moved forward to come
into pressure contact with the rotating
component.
• Pressure and rotation are maintained until the
resulting high temp makes the component’s
metal plastic for welding with sufficient metal
behind the interface becoming softened to
permit the components to be forged together.
During this period metal is slowly extruded
from the weld region to form an upset.
Steps Of Friction Welding
• Data of temperature was collected and
graph of temperature vs. time was plotted
for three different rotating speed.
• Then,microhardness of three different
components was checked with vickers
hardness machine.
• Then,microsturucture was seen with the
help of optical microscope at 2 different
magnifications.
a b c

Fig : a) sample b)cut sample c) cross section of sample


Time Vs Temperature
1200

1001
1000

800
Temperature

616
600 630 RPMTemperature(°C)
536 1000 RPM Temperature(°C)
1600 RPM Temperature(°C)

400

200

575, 60

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time
MICROHARDNESS
Welded Test Samples MicroHardness
MicroHardnessHV Average
1600 rpm (HV-0.2) 224 218 222 221.33
1000 rpm (HV-0.2) 194 196 196 195.33
630 rpm (HV-0.2) 233 233 235 233.67
Analysis of microhardness
• Temperature was recorded highest at
1600 rpm( 1001˚C) and least was at 630
rpm(536˚C).
• Microhardness was measured by vickers
hardness machine highest is for 630 rpm
and least is for 1000 rpm.
1600 RPM

BASE metal HAZ

Pearlite

Ferrite

WELD Zone
1000 RPM

BASE metal HAZ

Pearlite

Ferrite

WELD Zone
630 RPM

BASE HAZ
metal

Pearlite

Ferrite

WLDE Zone
ASTM grain size number
Weld Test Sample Base Weld
1600 rpm 8 10
1000 rpm 8 10
630 rpm 8 9
ANALYSIS
• Observation : Microstructure shows fine
grains of ferrite and pearlite structure for all
three different rotation speed.
• Etchnat:2%Nital
• There is no difference between test sample 1
and 3 in grain size number but in test sample
2 number of grains are low respect to sample
1 and 2 irrespective of their rotation speed.
Conclusion
• We Can see the trend in temperature vs time
graph the temperature gets increased with
increase in rotational speed.
• In Grain size we can see as the rpm gets
decreased the grain becomes coarser so we can
conclude that in higher rpms recrystallization takes
place whether in lower rpms no recrystallization
takes place.
• In microhardness we cannot see any proper trend
so we can say that it depend on the microstructure
of weld and the ferrite percentage in weld.
Applications
• Friction welding is use for joining steels ,
super alloys, nonferrous metals and
combination of metals.
• Among its varied applications are :
Production of steering shafts and worm
gears, control shafts, axle shafts, engine
valves, transmission shafts etc.,
for automobile indus.
Advantages

• Simplicity of operation.
• Low power requirements.
• Less time for welding.
• Compare to flash and resistance butt welding
friction welding produce improved welds at
higher speed and lower cost, less electrical
current is required.
• Fully automated.
• There is no flux, filler metal or slag presents.
Disadvantages
• The use of this process is restricted to flat
and angular butt welds,where one part is
normal to the other part.
• So far the process has been applied only to
the joining of small pieces in the form of bar
stock
• Sometimes, quite a heavy flash is forced out
in all inertia and friction welds.
• If tubing is welded, flash may have to be
removed from inside the joint.
Reference
1. To study the mechanical behaviour of friction welding of aluminium alloy
and mild steel by Sandeep kumar,rajeshkumar and Yogesh kumarsingla.
2. Fabrication of friction welding on center Lathe by Jagroop sing and
karamdeep sing.
3. Analysis of friction welding in conventional lathe machine by
B.Parandhaman , E.Indhumathi.
4. Effect on speed on Harness in Rotary Friction Welding Process by
P.Koteswara Rao, V.Mohan , G.Sai Krishna Prasad.
5. Experimental Investigation of Rotary Friction Welding Parameters of
Aluminum and Mild steel by B.Sehagiri Rao, V. Sivarama Krishna
Thank You