Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

Erikson's Theory of

Psychosocial Development
The theory

 ErikErikson’s theory of psychosocial


development is one of the best-known
theories of personality in psychology.
 Itdescribes the impact of social experience
across the whole lifespan.
 Personality develops in a series of stages.
Assumptions
 One of the main elements of Erikson’s
psychosocial stage theory is the
development of ego identity.

 Ego identity is the conscious sense of


self developed through social
interaction.
Assumptions
 Ego identity is constantly changing due to
new experience and information we
acquire in our daily interactions with
others.
 In addition to ego identity, Erikson also
believed that a sense of competence also
motivates behaviors and actions.
Assumptions
 Each stage in Erikson’s theory is
concerned with becoming competent in an
area of life.
 Ifthe stage is handled well, the person will
feel a sense of mastery, which he
sometimes referred to as ego strength or
ego quality
 Ifthe stage is managed poorly, the person
will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.
Stage 1:
Trust vs. Mistrust
 Infants must rely on others for
care
 Consistentand dependable
caregiving and meeting infant
needs leads to a sense of trust
 Infants who are not well cared
for will develop mistrust
Stage Basic Important Outcome
Erikson's Conflict
Psychosocial Events
Stages Summary Chart

Stage-1 Children
develop a
sense of trust
-infancy Trust vs. Feeding when
birth to 18 mistrust caregivers
months) provide care
and affection. A
lack of these
will lead to
mistrust.
Stage 2: (18 mos–3 years)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

 Children are discovering their own


independence
 Testing more independence by
assuming more self-responsibilities
 Those given the opportunity to
experience independence will gain
a sense of autonomy
 Children that are overly restrained
or punished harshly will develop
shame and doubt
Stage-2 Children need
to develop a
sense of
personal
Early Childhood Autonomy vs. Toilet Training control over
(1 ½ 2 to 3 Shame and physical skills
years) Doubt and a sense of
independence.
Success leads
to feelings of
autonomy,
failure results
in feelings of
shame and
doubt.
Stage 3: (3–5 years)
Initiative vs. Guilt

 Preschoolers learn to plan out and carry out


their goals
 Sense of accomplishment leads to initiative
 Feelingsof guilt can emerge if the child is
made to feel too anxious or irresponsible
Stage-3 Children need
to begin
asserting
control and
power over the
Initiative vs. Exploration environment.
Preschool
Guilt Success in this
(3 to 5 years) stage leads to a
sense of
purpose.
Children who
try to exert too
much power
experience
disapproval,
resulting in a
sense of guilt.
Stage 4: (5–12 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority

 Stage of life surrounding mastery


of knowledge and intellectual
skills
 Senseof competence and
achievement leads to industry
 Feeling
incompetent and
unproductive leads to inferiority
Stage-4 Children need
to cope with
new social and
academic
demands.
Industry vs. School
School Age (5 Success leads
Inferiority
to 12 years) to a sense of
competence,
while failure
results in
feelings of
inferiority.
Stage 5: (Adolescence)
Identity vs. Confusion

 Developing a sense of who one is and where one is


going in life
 The adolescent’s path to successful identity
achievement begins with identity diffusion.
 This is followed by a moratorium period.
 Gradually, the adolescent arrives at an integrated
identity
 Successful resolution leads to positive identity
 Unsuccessful resolution leads to identity confusion or
a negative identity
Stage-5
Teens needs to
Adolescenc Identity vs. Social
Role Relationships develop a sense of
e (12 to 18
Confusion self and personal
years)
identity. Success
leads to an ability to
stay true to yourself,
while failure leads
to role confusion
and a weak sense of
self.
Stage 6: (Young adulthood)
Intimacy vs. Isolation

 Timefor sharing oneself with another


person
 Capacity to hold commitments with others
leads to intimacy
 Failureto establish commitments leads to
feelings of isolation
Stage-6 Young adults
need to form
intimate, loving
young
Adulthood
intimacy vs. relationshi relationships
(19 to 40 isolation ps with other
years people. Success
leads to strong
relationships,
while failure
results in
loneliness and
isolation.
Stage 7: (Middle adulthood)
Generativity vs. Stagnation

 Caringfor others in family, friends, and work


leads to sense of contribution to later
generations
 Stagnation
comes from a sense of boredom
and meaninglessness
Stage-7 Adults need to create
or nurture things that
will outlast them,
Middle Generativity Work and often by having
Adulthood
vs. Parenthood children or creating a
(40 to 65
Stagnation positive change that
years)
benefits other
people. Success leads
to feelings of
usefulness and
accomplishment,
while failure results
in shallow
involvement in the
world.
Stage 8: (Late adulthood to Death)
Integrity vs. Despair

 Successful resolutions of all


previous crises leads to
integrity and the ability to see
broad truths and advise those
in earlier stages
 Despair arises from feelings
of helplessness and the bitter
sense that life has been
incomplete
Stage-8 Older adults
need to look
back on life and
feel a sense of
Maturity(65 to Ego Integrity Reflection on fulfillment.
death) vs. Despair Life Success at this
stage leads to
feelings of
wisdom, while
failure results
in regret,
bitterness, and
despair.
stagnation