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Biology EOC Highlight

Review

2019 review
Organic Compounds
• All living things are made of organic
compounds.
• Contain the element Carbon
• Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic
Acids
Carbohydrates
• Monomer-
monosaccharide
• Function- energy source
and structure
• Tests: glucose-Benedicts
starch- Iodine fructose
• Ex. Cellulose, glycogen,
starch
Lipids
• Made of fatty acids and glycerol
• Function- energy storage and insulation
• Tests: brown paper test
• Examples: fats and steroids

Lipid vs. water


Nucleic Acids

• Monomer- nucleotide
• Function- carry
genetic information
• Ex. DNA and RNA
Proteins
• Monomer- amino acids
• Function- building and repairing cells,
communication, transport, and regulation
• Tests- Biurets
• Examples: enzymes,
hemoglobin
Enzymes
• Enzymes are proteins
• Catalysts in living things
• Specific to a particular substrate
• Reusable
• Affected by temperature and pH
being denatured
Cells
Prokaryotes
• Simple, no membrane bound
organelles, no nucleus DNA
called plasmid
• Bacteria only
• One circular chromosome
• Includes: chromosome,
ribosomes, and plasma
membrane
• Movement cilia and flagella Eukaryotes
• Membrane bound
organelles
• Plants and Animals
• True nucleus containing
chromosomes
The Cell Theory
• 1. all organisms are made of cells
• 2. the cell is the basic unit of life
• 3. all cells come from preexisting
cells
Nucleus
• “Control Center” tells the cells to make
proteins
• Contains chromosomes
Mitochondria
Singular: Mitochondrion
• “Powerhouse”
• Produces energy in
the form of ATP
• Folds increase
surface area which
increases ATP
• Site of Aerobic
cellular respiration
• Muscle cells contain
the most
mitochondria
Chloroplast
• Site of
photosynthesis
uses CO2
produces O2
• Plant cells
Some bacteria and
protist
• Contains the
pigment
chlorophyll
• Reflects green
light
Vacuole
• Storage of excess
materials a water
sac
• Plant cells usually
contain one large
vacuole in animal
cells very small
Ribosomes
• Site of Protein synthesis (builds
proteins) translation occurs
• Found in both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes
Plasma Membrane
aka: Cell Membrane
• A boundary
surrounds the cell
• Regulates what
enters/leaves the
cell
• Helps maintain
homeostasis
• Made of
phospholipids with
embedded proteins
• Made mostly of
lipids
Cell Wall
• Plant cells
• Rigid boundary surrounds cell and
provides support and protection.
• Made of cellulose
• Viruses enter plants
when cell wall is damaged
Eukaryotes
Plant Animal
• Cell wall Centrioles
• Chloroplast Cleavage furrow
• Large central vacuole Glycogen sugar in liver
• Cell Plate
• Cellulose
Cell Organization
Cell smallest unit of life

Tissue

Organ

Organ System

Individual organism
Cell Specialization
• cells develop from the same DNA to
perform different functions
• Regulated by genes being turned on and off
which controls function
Cell to Cell Communication

• Chemical Signals
(hormones) can be
sent from one cell to
another
• Receptor proteins on
the plasma membrane
receive the signal
Diffusion (passive transport)
• Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY
NEEDED) across a membrane
• Solutes (particles/gases O2,Co2 move
from high concentration to low
concentration
Osmosis (passive transport)
• Diffusion or movement of water
• High to Low (salt sucks water out or in
cell)
Facilitated Diffusion
• Passive transport no energy needed
• Uses carrier proteins and protein
channels to move glucose across
membrane.
• Moves from high to low concentrations
Active Transport
• Particles moving against
the concentration
gradient which
REQUIRES ENERGY
(ATP)
• Low concentration to
high concentration
Active Transport
• Endocytosis- engulfing food into the cell
• Phagocytosis- cell eating
• Pinocytosis – cell drinking
• Exocytosis- out of the cell (removal of
waste)
• Sodium- Potassium Pump
• Ion Pump
• ALL USES ENERGY!!!
ATP

• Energy storing
molecule
• Can be used for
quick energy by the
cell
• Energy is stored in
the phosphate bonds
Photosynthesis
• Water and Carbon
Dioxide used to produce
Glucose and Oxygen
• H2O+CO2C6H12O6+O2
• Occurs in the
chloroplast
• Stores Energy
Aerobic Respiration
• Used to release
energy (ATP) for
cellular use
• C6H12O6+O2H2O+CO2
• Occurs in the
mitochondria
• Releases the most
energy (ATP)
Anaerobic Respiration
aka Fermentation

• Does not require Oxygen


• also used to release energy, but not as
efficient as aerobic respiration (less ATP)
• Products include CO2 and lactic acid or
alcohol
• Two Types: Alcoholic Fermentation and
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Early Earth
• No oxygen
• Organisms anaerobic
• Bacteria started Photosynthesis
releasing oxygen making atmosphere
Autotroph vs. Heterotroph
• Obtain energy from • Obtain energy from
the environment other living things
• Photosynthesis or • “Consumers”
chemosynthesis
• “Producers” Plants
DNA / RNA
• Carry genetic information
• Made of a chain of nucleotides
• Nucleotides contain a sugar, phosphate,
and a nitrogen base
DNA / RNA
DNA
• Double stranded
• “Double Helix”
• Four base pairs: ATGC
• Sugar is Deoxyribose
• Found in nucleus
RNA
• Single stranded
• Four base pairs:
AUCG
• Sugar is Ribose
Base Pair Rule

• In DNA,
Adenine always pairs with Thymine, and
Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
SEMI-Conservative- one original
(old)Strand one new strand
Replication
• Making of an
identical strand of
DNA
• Occurs in nucleus
• “semi” conservative
• 30% A =30% T
• 20% C = 20% G
• All 4 = 100%
Central Dogma
DNA(replication)  RNA(mRNA)
transcription ribosome builds
protein AA chains codes for
traits
Transcription

• DNAmRNA
• Occurs in nucleus
• Complementary
mRNA strand is
produced from a
segment of DNA
Translation
• Connects amino acids in the correct
order to make a protein
• Occurs in the cytoplasm within the
ribosomes
A- amino acid
B- tRNA
C- anticodon
D- codon
E- mRNA
F- Ribosome
G-polypeptide
Protein Synthesis
• Occurs at Ribosome
• Two processes Transcription and
Translation makes up Protein Synthesis
Codon -three nucleotide
• Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides
that code for an amino acid
• Always use mRNA on chart
Mutations
• ANY Change in DNA code
• May cause a change in protein
produced
• NOT always harmful
• Frameshift-causes
most change by c deletion
or addition of a base
Sickle Cell
Mutation
Mitosis
• Cell division of
nucleus
• Produces two (2)
identical diploid
daughter cells
• Occurs in body cells
to grow and repair
• Somatic Cell
The Cell Cycle
• Interphase includes
• Cycle includes • G1-growth
• Interphase • S phase- replication
• Mitosis • G2- Growth rest
• Cytokinesis Division—PMAT
Prophase-
Cell Division includes: Metaphase -middle
• Mitosis –division of Anaphase- with sister
nucleus Telophase
• Cytokinesis-division Cytokinesis-splits
of cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Cancer
• Error in cell growth which causes
uncontrolled cell growth
• Has environment and genetic variables
• Carcinogens-chemical from tobacco
Meiosis

• Sexual reproduction
• Cell division
• Produces four (4)
different haploid
daughter cells
(gametes)
• Occurs in sex cells
to form gametes
• Eggs and Sperm
Crossing Over
• Causes Genetic
Variation
• Meiosis
• Occurs in Prophase 1
• Homologous
chromosomes
exchange parts of
their DNA
• Creates variation in
gametes
Nondisjunction
• Homologous
chromosomes fail to
separate during
meiosis (abnormal #
• Of chromosomes!)
• Can lead to Down
Syndrome, Turners
Syndrome, and
Klinefelters
Syndrome
Asexual vs. Sexual
Reproduction
Asexual Sexual
• One parent • Two parents
• Identical offspring • Offspring different
• Variation only thru from parents
mutations (cancer) • More variation
• Examples: budding, • Fertilization (fusion
fragmentation, of gametes)
fission
Inheritance
• Traits are specific
characteristics
inherited from parents
• Genes are the factors
that determine traits
• The different forms
of a gene are called
alleles
Dominant/Recessive Alleles
• Dominant alleles are expressed, if
present, and recessive are hidden
Genotype in boxes
actual alleles an individual has for a trait

Homozygous
• Both alleles are the
same
• Ex. BB or bb

Heterozygous
• Both alleles are
different
• Ex. Bb
(carrier)
Phenotype
• The actual characteristic displayed by
the individual (ex. brown eyes,
Hemophiliac) Physical Traits what you
look like
Incomplete Dominance

• Heterozygote shows a
blending of the
dominant and
recessive phenotypes
• NEW Color! Red X
White makes Pink
Codominance
• Heterozygote expresses BOTH
dominant and recessive traits
• Ex. Roan animals SPOTS both colors
express
Polygenic Traits
• Traits are influenced by more than one
gene
• Ex. skin color
• Eye Color
• Hair Color
Multiple Alleles
• More than two alleles for a trait (an
individual still only inherits two)
• Ex. Blood Type (IA,IB, i)
type A = IAIA or IAi
type B = IBIB or IBi
type AB= IAIB
type O = ii
Sex Linked Traits
• Sex Chromosomes
– Female = XX
– Male = XY
• Sex linked traits
are carried on the
X chromosome
• Ex. recessive
Hemophilia, red-
green
colorblindness
Diseases
• All are recessive
• except Huntington's Disorder is
dominant.
• PKU recessive-controlled by diet
• Type 2 diabetes – diet
Hemophilic blot will not clot
Test Cross (Punnett square)
• used to determine the phenotype and
genotype of an unknown or offspring
uses a homozygous recessive individual
as the “test”
Pedigree
• similar to a family tree
• Shows pattern of inheritance of a
specific trait or diseases through a
family
Karyotype
• Picture of someone's
chromosomes
• Can detect abnormal #
of chromosomal
disorders
Ex. Down Syndrome,
Klinefelter’s Syndrome, and
Turners Syndrome
Genetics
• Gene Flow- migration /immigration
• Genetic Drift- isolated chance of
mutation due to small populations
breeding within small groups.
• (AMISH People)
• Kentucky Blue People
Human Genome Project

• Sequencing of human
DNA
• Being used to
develop gene
therapies
• ID diseases carried
on chromosomes
Gel Electrophoresis
• Technique used to
separate molecules
(DNA or proteins)
based on their size
• Sometimes called a
DNA fingerprint
most reliable test
• Used to analyze and
compare DNA
Recombinant DNA
• Cell with DNA from
another source
• Bacteria used to
produce human
insulin
• Human gene inserted
into bacterial
plasmid
Transgenic Organism
• An organism with a
gene from another
source
• used to improve food
supply, research, and
healthcare
• GMO’s
Clone
• An organism made from one cell of
another organism
• A genetically identical copy
Origin of Life
• Abiotic earth LACKED Oxygen
• Early organims anaerobic prokaryotes

Miller and Urey


Experiment recreating
The abiotic atomospere
Endosymbiotic Theory
• Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes
• Early prokaryotes engulfed other
prokaryotes and developed symbiotic
relationships
• Evidence includes mitochondria and
chloroplast have prokaryotic type DNA
Abiogenesis Biogenesis
• Living from non-living or • Living from Living
spontaneous generation
• Disproved by Redi and
Pasteur’s experiments
Natural Selection
• Theory of Evolution
• Fit organisms Requirements:
survive, reproduce, • Variation
and pass on traits to • Competition
offspring
Adaptations
• Trait that increases
survival
• For Example,
– Beaks that make it
easier to eat insects
– Bright flowers to
attract pollinators
– Vascular tissue in
plants to adapt to life
on land
– Adaptive radiation
– Divergent evolution
– Common ancestors
Evidence for Evolution
• Fossil Record
• Biochemical Similarities
(DNA)
• Common ancestors Shared
anatomical structures
(homologous)
evolution
• Analogous
structures
• No relation
• Same Function
• Wings in birds and
butterfly Both fly no
ancestor
Speciation
Common ancestor
• Evolution of a new
species
• must be isolation
between populations
• Divergent Evolution
• Adaptive Adaption
Antibiotic and Pesticide
Resistance
• Populations will
eventually
become resistant
to pesticides and
antibiotics with
overuse
• Causes mutations
passed to
offspring
Adaptations
• Adaptation: inherited traits that increase an
organism’s chance of survival
• Phototropism: plants growing towards light
• Thigmotropism: plants response to touch
• Geotropism/ gravitropism: plants response due to
gravity
• Mimicry: acting like/ looking like another organism
• Camouflage: blending in with one’s surroundings
Coevolution
• Two organisms evolve in response to
each other

Ex. Flowering
plants and their
pollinators
Binomial Nomenclature
• Two word naming system
• Scientific name
• Uses Genus and Species names
• Genus is capitalized species lowercased
• Ex. Dogs: Canis familiaris
Dichotomous Keys
• Used to identify organisms
• Paired set of questions with two choices
Levels of Organization
King Phillip Came Over For Green Spaghetti
Phylogenic tree closest ones
are most related

B and C closest related


A and E least related
Protists
• Unicellular Eukaryotes
• Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
• Reproduce mostly asexually
Euglena eyespot
Paramecium
Amoeba
Contractual vacuole
Pseudopod
Releases excessive
False foot
water looks like a
Used to
star!
engulf food
and
movement
Fungi decomposers
• Multicellular
eukaryotes
(yeast are the
only unicellular
fungi)
• Gets nutrients
from ground
• Reproduce
asexually and
sexually
Animals
• Multicellular
eukaryotes
• Heterotrophs
• Reproduce
sexually and
asexually
• Kidney gets rid of
waste
Plants
• Multicellular eukaryotes
• Autotrophs
• Reproduce sexually and
asexually
• producers
Non Vascular Plants
• Also called
Bryophytes
• No true roots or
vascular tissue
causing them to be
small in size
• Must live in moist
environments
• Reproduce with Ex. Mosses, liverworts
spores
Vascular plants
Has leaves, stems, trunks, bark and roots
Ex: gymnosperms
angiosperms
Gymnosperms “gym likes seeds”
• Non-flowering vascular
plants
• Reproduce with
cones that contain
seeds
• Ex. Conifers (pine
trees)
Angiosperms
• Flowering vascular
plants
• Flower is main
reproductive organ
• Seeds are enclosed
within a fruit
• Ex. Deciduous
plants
Plant Organelles
• WXYZ– Xylem moved water through
trees and plants to leaves
• MNOP- Phloem transports nutrients
throughout the trees and plants
• Leaves location of most chloroplast
Plant Gametes (Sex Cells). Pollen
Moved to other plants by wind, water,
insects and animals (pollination)
Plants
• Dormancy – growth and activity decreases or stops.

• Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of


the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and
is spread by the elm bark beetle.

• Pfiesteria is a genus of heterotrophic dinoflagellates


that has been associated with harmful algal blooms
and fish kills
Insects
• Transport through open
circulatory system
• Exchange gases through
spiracles and tracheal
tubes
• Most reproduce sexually
with internal
fertilization
• Develop through
metamorphosis
Annelids
(segmented worms)
• Transport through closed circulatory
system
• Exchange gases through moist skin
• Reproduce asexually and sexually with
internal fertilization
Amphibians
• Transport through a closed
circulatory system involving a
three chambered heart
• Gas exchange in young with
gills, adults lungs and moist
skin
• Reproduce sexually with
external fertilization
• Develop through
metamorphosis
Mammals
• Transport though closed circulatory
system involving a four chambered
heart
• Gas exchange through lungs
• Reproduce sexually with internal
fertilization
• Young develop in a uterus and exchange
nutrients and oxygen through the
placenta (placental mammals)
Viruses
• Not living needs HOST
• Pathogens that can mutate to resist
vaccines
• Ex. HIV, Influenza,
Smallpox, rabies, colds,
warts, chicken poxs
Prevention Vaccines!!!!
(active immunity)
Genetic Disorders and the
Environment
• Many diseases have
both genetic and
environmental
factors
• Ex. Cancer, diabetes,
PKU
Heart Disease
• Can be caused by • Genetics- can cause
environment high blood pressure
• Diet of high fats increase heart
• Clogs arteries attacks
• Causes heart attacks
Immune Response
B-cells T-cells

• Fight antigens • Fight pathogens


in body fluids inside living
• B-cells make cells
antibodies • May help B-
• Make memory cells to make
cells after antibodies
exposure to • Make memory
antigen cells after
exposure to
pathogen
Immunity
Passive Immunity Active Immunity
• Antibodies are • Antibodies are acquired
introduced into the when an immune
body response is activated in
• Short term the body
• Such as mother • Long term
transfers antibodies to • Ex. Vaccines are
infant through breast weak/dead antigens that
feeding are introduced to the
body
Parasites
• Lives on or within a
host
• Benefits while
causing harm to the
host
• Ex. Plasmodium
causes malaria
(genetic influence-
carriers of sickle
cell are resistant to
malaria)
Toxins

• Chemical that causes


harm to the body
• Can be man-made or
produced by
microorganisms
• Ex. Mercury and
Lead
Toxins
• Lead Poisoning: condition caused by breathing
or swallowing substances that contain lead
• Mercury Poisoning: condition caused by
breathing or swallowing mercury
• Malnutrition: lack of proper nutrition
• Vitamin deficiency: ex. Low iron causes anemia
• White blood cells- fights off infections
• UV Rays- causes skin cancer
Ecosystems
• Collection of
abiotic (nonlivng)
and biotic (living)
factors in an area
• Together they
influence growth,
survival, and
productivity of an
organism
Symbiotic Relationships
• Relationship
between two
organisms in which
one benefits
• Types:
– Mutualism (+,+)
– Parasitism (+,-)
– Commensalism (+, o)
Predation
• Predator eats prey
• Evolve in response to
one another
Carrying Capacity
• Maximum number of
individuals that an
ecosystem can
support
• Limiting factors:
– Food availability
– Competition
– Disease
– Predation
– Natural Disasters
Carbon Cycle

Carbon Cycle: process of carbon being


recycled (every living thing is made of carbon)
(obtained by plants , animals you eat)
Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle: nitrogen is consumed by humans when


they eat plants, bacteria fixes nitrogen in the soil so
plants can absorb the nitrogen
Trophic Levels
• Steps in a food
chain/web
• Energy passes from
one organism to
another
• About 10% of the
energy at one level
passes to the next
Human Population
• Growth= birth rate-death rate
Human Impacts
Positive Negative
• Reforestation • Acid Rain
• Cover Cropping • Deforestation
• Recycling, reuse,reduce • Habitat Destruction
• Sustainable practice • Invasive Species
• Ozone depletion from
the release of CFCs
Global Warming burning of fossil
fuels

• Increase in the
average temperature
of the earth
• Caused by the release
of too much CO2 into
the atmosphere which
amplifies the
greenhouse effect
• Burning of fossil fuels,
volcanic eruptions
Depletion of Ozone Layer
• CFC’s Chlorofluorocarbons a chemical
that depletes ozone
Bioaccumulation
• An increase in
environmental
toxins at higher
tropic levels
• Ex. DDT and
birds of prey
• Top of food
chain collects
most toxins
Density Dependent
• Limiting factors for a population
• Depends on population size
• Larger populations effected the
fastest.
• Disease, food, predators prey
relationship, overcrowding
Density Independent
• Limiting factors
• Natural disasters
• Fire, flood, earthquake, volcanoes,
hurricanes
Succession
• Succession- natural changes and replacement
of different species
• Primary Succession- first arrival of
communities
• Secondary Succession- changes community
by natural disaster (fire, flood)
• Pioneer species- first species to colonize
( Lichens)
• Climax community- a stable old community
• Biodiversity- number of different
species
• Habitat loss- biggest threat to
biodiversity
• Invasive species- non- native to an area
(KUDZU)
Innate Behavior!
• Behaviors an animal is
born with
• Includes suckling,
migration, hibernation
• Ex. weaving of spider
webs
Imprinting!
• Following the first thing a new born
sees
• Ex. Ducks following their mother or
another animal “dog” thinking it is the
mother.
Learned Behavior
• Behavior an animal
acquires during its
lifetime (taught)
• Includes
– Habituation
– Conditioning
– Trial and error
– Insight
Social Behavior
• Communication
between individuals
of the same
species
• Can be courtship,
territorial or
chemical (pheromones
chemicals use as warnings
or attraction methods)
Behaviors
• Reflex: quick automatic response to a
stimulus
• Estivation: Inactivity during the warm
summer months
• Hibernation: Inactivity during the cold
winter months
• Migration: continuous movement from
one place and back again
Behavior
• Phototaxis: attraction and movement
towards light
• Chemotaxis is a migratory response
Communication Behaviors includes
• Courtship ritual: animal sends out stimuli to
attract a member of the opposite sex
• Territoriality: behavior in animals that
defines and defends a territory
• Parenting: raising and caring for a baby
organism
Thank you for reviewing!
You are going to do GREAT!
• Get some rest the night before your test
• Eat Breakfast
• Send me an email after you complete this study
session for extra credit. In subject line of email
write REVIEW COMPLETED
• Email must be sent the day before your exam Monday
1st, Tuesday 2nd , Thursday 4th unless you are testing
on a different day than your class.

bicard@burke.k12.nc.us