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• Human process involves “how” things get done.

• Best developed area in the field of OD

• Team building interventions

• Conflict management

• The objective is to align the human processes with the strategic

• How to work effectively in teams?

• Many organizations are using team based approach to meet the market
driven goals.

• How do you say a team is effective? Characteristics

• A clear mission and action plan
• An informal and comfortable atmosphere
• Open communication
• Full participation
• Civil disagreement
• Clear role expectations
• Healthy external relationships
• Acceptance of style diversity
• Teams that are recognized as extraordinarily effective.
• Each team member demonstrate personal commitment to each
others’ goals and success.
• How to create one?
• Three types of interventions
• Diagnostic: Designed to create awareness of group problems and
opportunities (E.g: Group diagnostic meeting)
• Process: Designed to improve communication, role expectations,
decision making and goal setting (E.g: Role analysis)
• Relationship: Designed to build relationships between boss and
subordinates, peers or groups (E.g. Appreciations and concerns
• To conduct a general critique of group performance
• They ask questions like;
• What is the mission/purpose of group?
• How are we doing?
• What are our opportunities and threats?
• What are strengths and weaknesses
• Ishwar Dayal and John M Thomas
• NOT appropriate when there is conflict.
• Designed to clarify the role expectations for the job incumbent.
• It also says how other roles support the target job.
• The exercise work through differences of expectations.
• The steps involved are;
• Incumbent lists expectations of target role.
• Group members add and delete.
• Group members and incumbent agree on expectations.
• Incumbent lists expectations of other roles.
• Group members add and delete.
• Group members and incumbent agree on expectations.
• Incumbent writes the role profile.
• Group members approve.
• Three purposes
• To get people acquainted.
• Bringing problems to surface.
• Providing insight into problems (challenges) of others.
• It is appropriate when there is no/low level of conflict.
• Steps
• Sitting face to face (can use clusters in case of large group)
• Discussing issues.
• Then sharing it to next individual (cluster), repeated until one finishes entire
• Then deciding final plan of action.
• Beckhard and Harris
• Helpful in clarifying who is responsible for what.
• Steps
• A grid is constructed with left column indicating the tasks to be achieved and
on top, the list of actors who act on these tasks.
• The levels of responsibility are indicated as follows;
• R: Responsible for initiating action and seeing that it gets carried out.
• A: Must approve/veto
• S: Support or provide resource
• I: must be informed
• N: Not involved
• Other conditions
• Assign R only to one person
• Avoid too many As
• S should be explained with all specificities.
• James C Collins and Jerry I Porras
• Usually takes place at strategic planning retreat (hence, it can even be
seen as strategic intervention.)
• It is also a team building exercise, as sharing vision helps people to
understand their colleagues better.
• Steps;
• Individuals write down characteristics of the future they want to see (e.g.
products, services, HR practices, supplier relationships, leadership style and
organizational structure)
• Individual visions are written on a flip chart paper, then posted on walls.
• Subgroups extract themes from the individual visions, then develop a sub group
• Sub group visions are shared with entire group.
• Entire group agrees on a vision for the organization.
• Search conferences
• Beckhard’s confrontation meeting
• Strategic management Activities
• Real time strategic change
• Stream analysis
• Survey Feedback
• Appreciative Inquiry
• Grid OD
• Schein’s Cultural analysis
• High performance systems
• Trans organizational Development
• Mergers and Acquisitions
• Two major types: both influenced by Kurt Lewin’s works
• Search conference
• Emerged with consulting practices in Great Britain, Europe,
• Emery and Purser model is popular
• Three phases
• Phase 1: Environmental Appreciation
• Phase 2: System analysis
• Phase 3: Integration of system and environment
• Future Search conferences
• American phenomena
• Psychotherapeutic view of humanity
• Weisbord model
1. Consultants meet with a voluntary committee (6-4 participants)
2. Conference time” 50-60 people are invited from diverse
backgrounds, stakeholders (customers, suppliers, union leaders)
3. Participants sit at table-action groups (6-8 people)
4. Action groups will (a) build a database (b) look at it together (c)
interpret it (d) draw conclusions
5. Data base is prepared following three activities on Self, company
and society
1. Past (Trends)
2. Present (External and internal alignment)
3. Future (desired state, visioning)
• Richard Beckhard
• One day meeting of the entire management of an organization
• Reading of their own organizational health
• Quick, simple, and reliable way in which to generate data about an
organization and to set the action plans
• Steps
• Climate setting (freedom of speech)
• Demotivators such as poor procedures, policies or unclear goals found out in
action groups
• Information sharing
• Publishing to the total group
• Priority setting and action planning
• Discussing to prioritize and planning the action
• Immediate follow-up by Top team
• Finalizing actions
• Progress Review
• Follow up meeting after six weeks
• External focus
• To check alignment/synchrony with its environment
• The concept is described by Schendel and Hofers as- It
comprises of six major tasks as:
i. Goal Formulation- Defining Mission & purpose
ii. Environmental analysis- SWOT Analysis
iii. Strategy formulation
iv. Strategy evaluation
v. Strategy implementation
vi. Strategic control
• Charles E summer method
• A top management team works on these three steps for six
months with an intermittent meeting schedules
• Reviewing current strategy
• SWOT analysis
• Future policies to be adopted
• Open system planning
• Charles Krone and G.K.Jayaram
• Makes scenarios
• Present scenario
• Realistic scenario
• Idealistic future scenario
• Robert Jacob
• Real time refers to simultaneous planning and implementation of
individual, group or organization wide changes.
• Critical mass of organizational members come together for three-
day meeting to discuss organization wide issues
• Six steps
• Identification and clarifying basic, important issues facing the
organization as a whole
• Agreeing on an overall purpose for the change effort
• Deciding who and how to be involved
• Deciding on people power and influence over this strategy
• Information sharing for quality of work
• Exploring methods, processes and approaches to execute the plan
• Jerry Porras
• It is a system for graphically displaying the problems of an
organization, examining the interconnections between the problems,
identifying core problems and graphically tracking the corrective
actions taken to solve the problems.
• Porras categorized organization work in four classes-
a) Organizing arrangements- goals, structure, policies etc.
b) Social factors- Culture, management style, interaction process etc.
c) Technology- tools, equipment, job design, technical systems.
d) Physical Setting- space configuration, physical ambience, interior
design etc.
• Brain storming, interviews etc. categorizes all issues to any of these
• Then inter connections have been made. Issue that has more
interconnections are the core problem
• Rationale behind survey feedback
• Individuals are rational, cognitive, information processing people
• Human beings are goal oriented
• New information changes the existing perception
• Two major steps
• Climate or attitude surveys
• Feedback workshops
• Survey feedback is based on System 1-4 management style
• Cost effective technique
• Involves everybody in organization
• Broader than appreciations and concerns
• Frank Barrett and David Cooperrider proposed, refined by
Gervase Bushe
• Action group discussion on four issues
• Peak moments in the life of this organization
• What people value about themselves, tasks and the organization as a
• What has realized excellence
• Realistic possibilities for an ever better organization
• Robert R Blake and Jane S Mouton
• Six phase program, lasting for three to five years
• Reviewing the present style to idealistic management style in six
• Pre-phase: Selection of possible managers for the program
• Phase 1: The managerial grid: grid seminar is given, self-
assessment of styles, readiness to become 9,9 managers
• Phase 2: Team work development: learning about team culture,
workings and nature
• Phase 3: Intergroup development: win-win relationships are built
• Phase 4: Developing an ideal strategic corporate model :
• Phase 5: Implementing the ideal strategic model
• Phase 6: Systematic critique
Artifacts Visible, but not always
obvious, recognized initially,
Behaviors or associated with values

Generally a higher level of

Values awareness of what is valued in
the organization

Basic Invisible, not usually stated,

Assumptions taken for granted
Like Artifacts & Behaviors
layers of i.e., Relaxed, creative atmosphere
an Onion

i.e., Value for innovation

Basic Assumptions
i.e., Change is good

i.e., Value adaptability

i.e., bonuses for new ideas

i.e., suggestion boxes
• Conduct a culture audit

• Cultural assessment and need for change

• Assess cultural risk

• Unfreezing the prevailing cultural pattern

• Elicit support from cultural elite (Cultural setters)

• Selecting an intervention strategy (usual human process interventions)

• Monitoring and evaluation

• Trans organizational systems are business alliances,
consortia, network alliances
• Formed for a purpose of coordinating services to public,
exchange of technology, to gain access to world wide
• Connections are loose or indirect
• Power and leadership are distributed
• Three phases
• Potential member organizations are identified
• Member organizations are convened
• The TS is organized