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FRENCH GARDEN

GROUP MEMBERS:

AJAY

ARCHANA

AQIL

HANA

NEHA

ALSALAMA INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE


 The French gardens were inspired by the “Italian renaissance garden”.

 Symmetry and geometry are the keywords when designing such gardens.

 The whole of garden like a painting reaching for pure aesthetical qualities.

 Most French gardens were designed to be looked at from specific places ,such as terraces or
balconies.

 The overall impression of the French landscaping style is one of harmony ,one of power of
man over nature, where every tree and every bush is given a chosen location and shape.
COMPONENTS OF FRENCH GARDEN
PARTERRE: A planting bed usually a square or EMBROIDERY: A very curling ALLEE: A straight path, often
rectangular, containing a ornamental design decorative pattern within a lined with trees
made with low closely clipped hedges, colored parterre, created with trimmed
gravel, and sometimes flowers. yew or box or made by cutting
 Parterres were usually laid out in a the pattern out of a lawn and
geometric patterns, divided by gravel path. filling it with colored gravel.
 They were intended seen from above from
a house or a terrace.
BOSQUET: A small group of trees, usually TOPIARY: Trees or bushes GOOSE FOOT “PATTE
some distance from the house, designed as trimmed into ornamental D’OIE”: Three or five paths
an ornamental backdrop shapes in French gardens, they or which spread outward
were usually trimmed into from a single point.
geometrical shapes.
THE PRINCIPLES OF THE FRENCH GARDEN
 A geometrical plan using the most recent discoveries of perspective and optics.

 Terraces-located in the landscape where the entire garden and all of its details can be
viewed
OVERVIEW FROM TERRACE
 Trees are planted in a straight line ,and carefully trimmed at a set height.

 The house/palace/chateaux serves as a central point of the garden, and its central
ornament.

 No trees are planted close to the house; rather, the house is set apart by low parterres
and trimmed bushes.

 The principle axis is crossed by one or more perpendicular perspectives and alleys.
PALACE AS
CENTRAL POINT
PRINCIPLES…….

 Water-is incorporated as a number one element within the


landscape.Reffered to as ‘reflecting pools’ in circular, oval and
rectangular.

 The most elaborate parterres, or planting buds are placed


in a regular and geometric order close to the house, to
complement the architecture.

 The parterres near the residence are filled with broderies,


designs created with low boxwood to resemble patterns of
a carpet, and given a polychrome effect by planting of
flowers, or by colored brick, gravel or sand.
ELEMENTS WITHIN FRENCH GARDEN

CONCRETE BALUSTRADE FOUNTAINS


CAST IRON SEATING

PEA GRAVEL CAST NATURAL STONE


IRON
ELEMENTS……

BIRDBATH TRELLISES

COLUMNS
PLANTS AND TREES TO USE IN FRENCH FORMAL DESIGN
Trees are planted in straight lines and clipped to keep a perfect shape and size. They may be formed into
shapes to form topiary.

HEDGES:- The clipped hedges are usually box, lavender, rosemary and occasionally santoline .
Regular trimming to stop them going ‘leggy’ and ‘woody’ is important.

VEGETABLES:- Many Frenches chateaux have wonderful vegetable gardens with the vegetable laid out in
patterns and parterres in the style of the ornamental formal gardens.

PLANTS:- Bedding plants and bulbs are popular choices for partteres with for example, parterres filled with
bulbs in formal patterns for spring flowering and then taken out and replaced with bedding plants for the late
spring and summer.
Jardin de Versailles
Introduction
• The Chateau de Versailles with its
magnificent gardens is in Versailles on
the western edge of Paris.
• It is designed by Andre Le Notre
• The garden covers 800 hectares which
includes 300 hectares of forest and two
'French' gardens, the 'Petit Parc' and the
'Trianon'
• The canals and fountains and water
features are a key feature of the
gardens. With 372 statues, 55 water
features, 600 fountains and 35km of
canals
Plan
GRAND CANAL

GROVES AND GARDENS APOLLO FOUNTAIN


ROYAL AVENUE

WATER PARTERRE
LATONA FOUNTAIN
ORANGERY NEPTUNE FOUNTAIN
DRAGON FOUNTAIN
SOUTH PARTERRE WATER AVENUE

NORTH PARTERRE
L’histoire
• In 1661 Louis XIV entrusted André Le Nôtre with the
creation and renovation of the gardens of Versailles,
which he considered just as important as the Palace.
• Work on the gardens was started at the same time as the
work on the palace and lasted for 40 or so years. During
this time André Le Nôtre collaborated with the likes of
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Superintendant of Buildings to the
King from 1664 to 1683, who managed the project, and
Charles Le Brun, who was made First Painter to the King in
January 1664 and provided the drawings for a large
number of the statues and fountains.
• Last but not least, each project was reviewed by the King
himself, who was keen to see “every detail”.
• Not long after, the architect Jules Hardouin-
Mansart, having been made First Architect to
the King and Superintendant of Buildings,
built the Orangery and simplified the
outlines of the Park, in particular by
modifying or opening up some of the groves.
• Creating the gardens was a monumental task. Large amounts of soil
had to be shifted to level the ground, create parterres, build the
Orangery and dig out the fountains and Canal in places previously
occupied solely by meadows and marshes.

• Trees were brought in from different regions of France.


Thousands of men, sometimes even entire regiments, took part
in this immense project.
• To maintain the design, the garden
needed to be replanted approximately
once every 100 years. Louis XVI did so at
the beginning of his reign, and the
undertaking was next carried out during
the reign of Napoleon III.
• Following damage caused by a series of
storms in the late 20th century,
including one in December 1999, which
was the most devastating, the garden
has been fully replanted and now
boasts a fresh, youthful appearance
similar to how it would have looked to
Louis XIV.
Parterre
• The embroidery parterre, or a formal
flowerbed garden, is a theme specific to
French gardening that harks back to a
veritable tradition.
• This type of garden is geometric in nature
and traces symmetric, arabesque lawns in
front of buildings. There’s no such thing as a
French-style garden without an embroidery
parterre.
• Those that currently exist at Versailles are
reconstructed ones that date from the 1920s
and are therefore not entirely faithful to the
originals.
• Old etchings show that rather than lawns
bordered by a hedge of small bushes, as is
the case today, parterres were the outlines
of lawns traced directly onto gravel.
The Grand Canal
• The Grand Canal at the Palace of
Versailles is without a doubt André Le
Nôtre’s most famous work.
• The landscape artist’s task was to
create a perfect visual harmony.
However, the Grand Canal has two
lateral canals that are not the same
size; one measures 62 meters and
the other 80 meters wide. The main
bassin in the form of a cross
measures 23 hectares.
• On paper, the cross appears
asymmetrical but when the King
would arrive at the bassin -- or more
specifically at the Latone part of the
bassin -- everything appeared
perfectly harmonious and
symmetrical.
Fontaines
• Water features of all kinds are an important
part of French gardens, even more so than
plant designs and groves.
• At Versailles, they include waterfalls in some
of the groves, spurts of water in the
fountains, and the calm surface of the water
reflecting the sky and sun in the Water
Parterre or the Grand Canal.
• At Versailles' peak, there were 2,400
fountains in use, including the fabulously
complicated Machine de Marly that pumped
water from the Seine.
• Today there are only fifty fountains still
functioning and the mile-long Grand Canal
supplies the never-ending supply of water
required.
MARLY MACHINE USED FOR WATER PUMPING
• THE FOUR SEASONS FOUNTAINS:
• The Palace garden is designed around alleys running parallel or
perpendicular to the Royal Way and marking out groves.
• At the four crossroads of the principle alleys stand four fountains,
built in the 1670s and dedicated to the four seasons.
• The Spring Fountain or Flora Fountain (1674) and the Summer
Fountain or Ceres Fountain (1673) are to the north, while to the
south are the Autumn Fountain or Bacchus Fountain (1674) and
the Winter Fountain or Saturn Fountain (1677).
• From a viewpoint at the end of Latona’s Parterre and the
entrance to the Royal Way all four fountains can be admired at
once.
Fountains of the fight of the animals
• They are composed of fighting
animals and demonstrate
impressive realism.
• To the north, the Diana or
Evening Fountain features a lion
bringing down a wolf (by
Cornelius Van Cleve) and a lion
bringing down a wild boar (by
Jean Raon); to the south, the
Daybreak Fountain features a
tiger bringing down a bear and a
bloodhound bringing down a
stag (by Jacques Houzeau).
• In each piece, the water jet of the
victorious animals falls into the
upper basin, while the jet of the
defeated animals falls into the
lower basin.
Dragon fountain
• The Water Walk ends in a
semi-circle at the Dragon
Fountain.
• This piece represents an
episode from the legend of
Apollo, in which the serpent
Python was killed by an arrow
shot by the young Apollo. The
reptile is surrounded by
dolphins and Loves armed with
bows and arrows and riding
swans.
• The main water jet reaches a
height of 27 metres and is the
tallest among the fountains in
the gardens of Versailles.
Neptune fountain
• At the time it was called
the Lake below the Dragon
Fountain, or Lake of the
Pines.
• It was greatly admired for
the number, size and
variety of water jets falling
around the lead
sculptures. It currently has
99 jets, constituting an
extraordinary hydraulic
system.
Latona’s Fountain Apollo Fountain
Mirror pool
The Groves
• Groves form small gardens closed off by walls of
greenery or trellises and reached by discreet paths
up to their gates.
• Adorned with fountains, vases and statues, they
introduces an element of surprise or fantasy within
the greater garden and served as veritable open air
salons
• Consisted of 15 groves. But some of the groves
deteriorated rapidly, as they were costly and
difficult to maintain, like the Labyrinth.
N Queen’s Grove Ballroom grove
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g Girandole grove Colonade grove


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Chestnut grove
S
o • Grove of the domes • Enceladus grove
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• Star grove • Water theatre grove

• Grove of the three fountains • Triumphal arch grove


The Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte is
a baroque French château located in Maincy,
near Melun, 55 kilometres (34 mi) southeast
of Paris in the Seine-et-
Marne département of France.

Built between 1658 to 1661 for the


superintendent of finances of Louis XIV, the
château was an influential work of architecture
in mid-17th-century Europe. At Vaux-le-
Vicomte, the architect Louis Le Vau,
the landscape architect André le Nôtre, and
the painter-decorator Charles Le Brun worked
together on a large-scale project for the first
time. Their collaboration marked the
beginning of the "Louis XIV style" combining
architecture, interior design
and landscape design. The garden's
pronounced visual axis is an example of this
style.
Vaux le vicomte was le notre’s first major
garden design to be created on entirely virgin
territory, Unencumbered by existing gardens
or buildings. Despite the design freedom
presented, the topography required
movement of waterways and extensive
leveling of slopes.

From the chateau to the forest , the garden


measures 3600 feet but it’s width never
exceeds 450 feet. From the chateau it is
difficult to comprehend the gardens full
extend as the major geometrics of design as
scaled to one another rather than related to
dimensions familiar to man.

The dimensions of vaux are designed so thst


the whole garden lies within the human field
of vision.
notre’s objective was to transform the great stretch into a more human scale via a
succession of terraces. These terraces of different height means the visitors discovered
the gardens in stages.
A garden of dynamic views rather than statics.
Le Nôtre’s original goal was to design a formal garden that remained the same
throughout the seasons (non seasonal shrubs – boxwoods, hornbeams and evergreens)
, and he achieved this with large, dramatic parterres framed with low boxwood hedges,
wide pebble alleys, statues, fountains, basins, grottoes, and a canal. He played with
symmetry, scale, and perspective, using a technique called “hidden distortion” to create
a sweeping view from the château’s Terrace de Diane that makes the garden appear
longer and larger than it actually is.

The gardens only movement is provided by fountains, the slow changing of shadows
casts on gravelled walks and the clouds moving on the terraces.

Though the gardens length was immense , it remains inclusive that is rarely
acknowledging the scenery outside. This was done inorder to keep the garden from
merging into the countryside. It also give the owner the feeling of him being the master
of all the land he could see.
The sensation of seclusion is also achieved through the placement of entire garden
within the dense area of trees. That is a veritable void in the surrounding forest
landscape.
The manipulation of perspective is notable in this garden. A view from the platform of the
house seems to reveal the garden in it’s entirety. Only by travelling through does one
find the reality.
A series of terraces do well integrated that the break from one to next is imperceptible.
From the house the canal is not seen and the vista seems to suggest a progression
directly towards the statue of Hercules on the flat plane across.
The use of perceptive not only allows construction of special devices but also means of
unifying vast areas of lands via use of an axis to amalgamate a mosaic of territories.
Upon travelling down the central axis, disymmetries and different levels reveal
themselves. The vast space reveals itself as much larger than it initially appeared and
the pool which appeared circular when viewed from the château becomes oval and one
must walk around it. Once the spectator has moved around the oval pool, a transversal
canal becomes apparent, previously hidden from the terrace viewpoint.

As the spectator continues down the central axis the pool originally viewed as
rectangular reveals itself to be square and appears poised on the edge of the grotto;
undoubtedly the centrepiece of the scheme. After advancing further into the garden, it
becomes apparent that the grotto does not feed the square pool, it is in fact lower and
further back away from the pool. In the void that opens beneath one’s feet an immense
canal appears which is perpendicular to the primary axis. This canal constitutes a
second major transverse axis; a ribbon of water half a mile in length stretching in a
straight line until visually lost at both ends in dark green shadows of dense forest. Two
glimpses outside the realms of the garden present themselves at either end of this
canal; the previously definite edge is broken through to invade nature.
where one finds the statue is actually six metres in height rather than life size as
previously thought when approaching from before the canal. This imposing presence
reinforces an awareness of scale and serves as an illusion that the garden is less vast
than the reality.
The central axis is no longer the focus when looking back towards the château from the
sloping lawn; instead the horizontal terraces dominate with the château appearing on a
pedestal of successive terraces. Irregularities of level and diversity of components in the
overall composition become instantly discernible and the pools, lawns, steps, ramps and
yew trees create a mostly orthogonal composition oflines and planes. From the final
vista, the view seems also telescopic when considering the original wide angle view from
the château steps akin to a panorama.
Axonometric view of the central
part of the Vaux le Vicomte garden
3D model.
A. Parterre de broderie;
B. 1: Château. B. Parterre de
gazon;
C. 2: Confessional and reflecting
pond; 3: Grandes cascades and
path. C. Grotto; 4: Grand canal.
D. . Tapis vert; 5: La Gerbe; 6:
Hercules.
Vanishing point of certain parts of the garden clearly define their inclinations
(deceleration and acceleration of linear perspective): from the view point V1 (a); same
from V4 (b). Marks A, B, C and D are the parts of the garden under a variety of slopes.
VP: central projection of infinity point of parallel lines are parallel to the longitudinal axis
belonging to the parts of the garden.
Transformation of the anamorphic mesh which in its base has orthogonal grid on view
plane from ocular points V1 (a) and V4 (b): vertical lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 are projections of
the vertical view planes, and letters (a, b, c, d) denote the characteristic points on the
planes. A, B, C and D are parts of the garden.