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• WHAT ARE YOUR EXPECTATIONS/OBJECTIVES IN ATTENDING THIS

LECTURE/CLASS?
• WRITE DOWN AT LEAST THREE ANSWERS ABOUT
1. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADULT LEARNERS
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF A TEACHER WHO TEACH ADULT
LEARNERS

ukrida.ac.id
Adult Learning,
Learning Style
&
Motivation

Rose Feri
Medical Education Unit
Fakultas Kedokteran UKRIDA

ukrida.ac.id
LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this presentation, students shall:


• Know and understand categories of adult learning
theories
• Know and understand the principles of adult learning
• Become more effective medical students by utilizing
independent learning and study skills as well as adult
motivation
AGENDA

• Adult learning theories


• Andragogy versus pedagogy
• Independent learning and study skills
• Adult Motivation -Transformation of motivation
theory: quantitative to qualitative theory
1. Adult Learning Theories

ukrida.ac.id
Adult Learning Theories in Medical Setting
Instrumental learning theories focus on
individual experience, the behaviorist & cognitive overlapping
learning theories
Humanistic theories focus on individual Knowles (1980)- Andragogy
development & learner-centered Self-directed learning (SDL)
Transformative learning theory explores
critical reflection learner’s beliefs and
assumption
Social theories of learning  context and
community shape learner’s thinking & learning
Motivational models Quality of motivation –
1. Motivation to learn = Expectancy of success x Self-determination theory
Value of success (SDT)
2. Participation by adults in learning projects
Reflective models focus on reflection & feedback Self-reflection
 action & autonomous learning  change Constructive feedback
(reflection-change models)

Taylor, DCM & Handy, H. Adult learning theories: implication for learning and teaching in medical education. AMEE Guide No.83.Medical Teacher.
2013;35 (11):e1561-72
2. Andragogy vs Pedagogy

ukrida.ac.id
Andragogy
Andragogy
• Term introduced by Malcom Knowles
• Andragogy  Greek “MAN-LEADING”
• The art and science of helping adults
learn
• Model: Student-centered
• Focus  facilitating the acquisition of &
critical thinking about content & its
application in real-life practical settings

Pew S. Andragogy and Pedagogy as Foundational Theory for Student Motivation in Higher Education. InSight: a collection of faculty scholarship.
2007;2:14-25.
Koons DC. Applying adult learning theory to improve medical education [Master Theses]. Connecticut [United States]: UCHC Graduate School Masters
Theses.2004.
Pedagogy

• Greek = Paidagogos  “paidos” (child) & “agogos”


(leader)  “CHILD-LEADING”
• One who instructs in a pedantic or dogmatic manner
(Pew, 2007)
• Model: teacher-directed or teacher-centered
• Focus: transmitting, teacher-controlled environment,
and content subject matter

Pew S. Andragogy and Pedagogy as Foundational Theory for Student Motivation in Higher Education. InSight: a collection of faculty scholarship.
2007;2:14-25.
Koons DC. Applying adult learning theory to improve medical education [Master Theses]. Connecticut [United States]: UCHC Graduate School Masters
Theses.2004.
The Difference Between Adult vs Child
Learners – Malcom Knowles
Child Learners Assumption Adult
(Pedagogy) Learners(Andragogy)
Less concerned with the The need to know Why do I need to know this?
reason
Dependent personality Learner’s concept I am responsible for my own
decisions
Less experience Role of experience I have experiences – should
be respected
• Less ready to learn Readiness to learn I need to learn for new
• Uniform by age-level & knowledge and skills to
curriculum address real-life situation
Subject- or content-centered Orientation to learning Life-; task; or problem-
centered
External Motivation Internal incentives, self-
rewards/punishments: esteem, job satisfaction,
grades, instructor, peer or quality of life, curiosity
parent approval

Koons DC. Applying adult learning theory to improve medical education [Master Theses]. Connecticut [United States]: UCHC Graduate School Masters
Theses.2004.
3. Independent Learning & Study Skills

ukrida.ac.id
What are independent learning and study
skills?

• What are independent learning and study skills?


• Why are they important for you as medical students?
• Study skills may include learning how to
• Assess needs
• Plan learning
• Manage study time
• Locate and use appropriate resources
• Evaluate outcomes of learning

3rd meeting
Taylor, DCM & Handy, H. Adult learning theories: implication for learning and teaching in medical education. AMEE Guide No.83.Medical Teacher. 2013;35
(11):e1561-72
What are independent learning & study
skills?
Independent learning concept  6 KEY PRINCIPLES:
1. You learn on your own
2. You have a measure of control over your own learning:
Where to
What to learn How to learn When to learn
learn

3. You need to develop your personal study plans


4. You are able to recognize and respond your own needs
appropriately
5. Your learning is supported by learning resources and study
guides prepared specifically for this purpose
6. Your teacher is a manager of your learning process

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
What are independent learning & study
skills?
Many terms are used to describe independent learning
Term Highlights
Independent learning Students work on their own to meet their own learning
needs
Self-managed learning/ Students control their own learning, diagnose their
Self-directed learning/
The conceptlearning
is needs, identify
students study & measure the degree of
Self-regulated learning learning by themselves.
Resource-based learning
individually on their own and take
Freedom given to students using resource material in
charge of theprint
learning process
or multimedia format
Just-for-you/flexible learning Students’ right to decide how, where or when learning
takes place.
Open learning Students are given more access to reach their education
preference
E-learning Learning is simplified by information & communication
technology.
Distance learning Teacher interacts with students at a distance & acts as a
facilitator.
Just-in-time learning Resources are made available to learners when required

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
What are independent learning & study
skills?
Study skills  a student must have in order to carry out
independent learning effectively & efficiently.
Components of study skills:
1. Self-directed learning (SDL)
2. Deep learning (with understanding) leading to long-
term retention
3. Seeking & retrieving information from an increasing
variety
4. Critically reviewing what is read
5. Integrating new learning with existing knowledge
6. Students do learning assessment to guarantee
themselves  they can remember and apply to
situation in practical settings.

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Why is independent learning important?

• Learning is continuous (whatSDLhas already been learned


 new learning)
• Medical education  undergraduate ---- professional
practice (continuum)
• Undergraduate  consumes a small partSDL but
important  molds future doctor’s habit  “learning
to cope with the over-expanding body of knowledge in
a lifetime of continuing practice.
Natural maturation toward SDL as compared with the culturally permitted
rate for growth of self-direction. (The Adult Learner p.63 M.S. Knowles,
1998)

Koons DC. Applying adult learning theory to improve medical education [Master Theses]. Connecticut [United States]: UCHC Graduate School Masters
Theses.2004.
Study Skills – How to
• Assess needs - ????
• Plan learning
• Manage study time
• Locate and use appropriate resources
• Evaluate outcomes of learning

Activist Theorist Reflector Pragmatist

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65.
Taylor, DCM & Handy, H. Adult learning theories: implication for learning and teaching in medical education. AMEE Guide No.83.Medical Teacher.
2013;35 (11):e1561-72
Study Skills –Assess Needs
Medical school provides a variety of learning
experiences for helping students learn a given topic

Yes Distance &


Small PBL ANATOMY FOR
Student centered

Blended
Groupl FUN
Learning Content
Learning strategies
Prescribed Rates of learning
No Lecture reading or
study

No Yes
Working on own

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Study Skills –Assess Needs
Recognize type of learners, learning styles /+ learning strategies

Activists Reflectors

Pragmatists Theorists

Taylor, DCM & Handy, H. Adult learning theories: implication for learning and teaching in medical education. AMEE Guide No.83.Medical Teacher.
2013;35 (11):e1561-72
Laeeq K, Weatherly RA, Carrott A, Pandian V, Cummings CW, Bhatti NI. Learning styles in two otolaryngology residency programs. The
Laryngoscope. 2009 Dec;119(12):2360-5.
Study Skills –Assess Needs
Recognize type of learners = learning styles /+ learning strategies
There is a difference of opinion about whether
“strategic” is a third learning style.
Sometimes deep understanding is needed, and
sometimes it is enough to know “the facts” – the
surface (AMEE Guide No.83)

• Deep learning  to diagnose a patient with


osteomyelitis (infection in a bone) requires a deeper
understanding of how the pathophysiology of bone
infection

• Surface learning  to know normal blood gas


value/blood pressure/electrolyte level
Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Study Skills –Plan Learning

Developing a study plan, one must:


• Identify the focus of study  Learning objective
Set your priorities based on their importance for progressive
learning and future application.
• Specify the depth of studying one topic  understanding.
Avoid memorizing  plan study time for difficult subject as
experienced previously
• Understand the interrelationships of topics  a series of topics
for study (e.g. clinical skill)
A three-stage process of observation – practice under
supervision – independent practice until perfect.

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Study Skills –Manage Study Time
You can Courtesy
manage your
of Orientation study
Lecture Series time
LEARNING easily
TO LEARN, Strategies forif youLearning
Successful recognize your
© Learning Centre

learning styles and strategies.


Simple tips for time management in medical school by Patricia
Chaney (UCLA, 2018)

Chaney, P. Time management in medical school: 3 simple tips. UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine Prospective Students [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018
Sep 1]; Available from: https://medschool.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=1158&action=detail&ref=1015
Study Skills –Locate & Use Appropriate
Resources
Skills needed to locate and use appropriate resources:
• Using library filing systems, textbooks, e-learning resources, &
skills laboratories
• Referring to indices
• Scanning reading material (relevance-importance)
• Referencing for subsequent easy retrieval
• Increasing use of computers (MANDATORY FOR MED. STUDENTS)
1. Locating & retrieving information from internet
2. Evaluating information & source critically

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Study Skills –Locate & Use Appropriate
Resources
SO….

What is the role of a teacher HERE?


1. Guide on the side
2. Foster deep learning
3. Create learning resource material
4. Give assignments  to compel students to reflect on their
learning
5. Enhance motivation  to relate learning to their personal
goals
6. Challenge students with problem-solving exercise based on
what they know and what they should know but do not know

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Study Skills –Evaluate Outcomes of Learning
• Review of learning
1. Must take place periodically to build your cognitive framework
2. Memory enhancement through learning, experience, & logical
association
3. Technique: break information into pieces, write down the principles,
generalization or cues.
“E.g. You are learning about central connections of the cranial nerves. Break information
into pieces  categorizing cranial nerves based on functional sets and position in
developing neural tubes. It will be easy for you to recall or work out the positions of its
central connection.”
• Assessment of learning
1. Skill needed for effective study.
2. A process of learning one’s strength and weaknesses through self-
analysis
3. Frequent reviews  help you to follow your own progress
4. Formative assessment produces constructive feedback identify
deficiencies in learning & motivate you to learn more

Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA & Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed.
London: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65
Adult Motivation -Transformation of Motivation
Theory: Quantitative to Qualitative Theory
Classical Theories of Motivation Self-Determination Theory
Point of view One dimension Three dimensions
Quantity – high & low Quality - continuum
Type of motivation Extrinsic (low) & intrinsic (high) Amotivation, extrinsic (degree of
autonomy), & intrinsic (autonomy,
competence, relatedness)
Influential theories White, Skinner, Hull, Knowles Cognitive evaluation theory &
organismic integration theory
Academic IM >>  AA >> Fulfillment of basic psychological
achievement (AA) needs (highest IM) AA >>
Teacher’s support  IM  inborn motivation  Student-teacher relationship
 Thru reward/punishment   creates or undermines IM
Extrinsic motivation (EM)   Thru autonomy support  IM
IM
Certain condition Increases students’ IM Facilitates or undermines
students’ IM

Feri, R. Hubungan motivasi otonomi mahasiswa dan dukungan otonomi tutor dengan prestasi akademik mahasiswa pada blok Fundamental Medical
Science Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Pelita Harapan [Thesis]. Jakarta [Indonesia]: Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia; 2016.
Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Edu Psych.2000;25:54-67.
Adult Motivation -Transformation of Motivation
Theory: Quantitative to Qualitative Theory

Feri, R. Hubungan motivasi otonomi mahasiswa dan dukungan otonomi tutor dengan prestasi akademik mahasiswa pada blok Fundamental Medical
Science Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Pelita Harapan [Thesis]. Jakarta [Indonesia]: Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia; 2016.
Take Home Message

An effective medical student must:


• Understand the role of independent learning in the
medical school curriculum
• Have study skills training such as how to assess needs,
plan learning, manage study time, locate & use
appropriate resources and evaluate outcome of learning

LIFELONG PHYSICIAN LEARNER

PROFESSIONALISM
Assignment

ukrida.ac.id
1. Discussion 30 minutes
• What kind of learner are you? What is your primary learning style?
• Visit this website: http://www.emtrain.eu/learning-styles/
• Make a group (five students) and present your primary learning style, learning
methods, & study plan
2. Form a Group (10 students)
• Write an essay about “Critical Thinking and Medical Students”
• (Essay max 2000 words or 2 pages + 1 page (reference) , paper A4,
margin 1”, line spacing “1.5”, Font Arial -11)  5W + H
• Reference: journal, book, or article (e-news)
(blogspot….or social media ….not included as a reference)
• Present it on Thursday (10 minutes  max 20 slides) and submit your
assignment in “microsoft words” on Wednesday before 2 p.m. (Email:
rose.feri@ukrida.ac.id.)
• Q & A  5 minutes
3. Self-Directed Learning – Discuss with
your peer mentoring group
• White, Hull, Skinner, & Knowles  Theories of motivation
• All about self-determination theory (SDT)
References
1. Taylor, DCM & Handy, H. Adult learning theories: implication for learning and teaching in
medical education. AMEE Guide No.83.Medical Teacher. 2013;35 (11):e1561-72.
2. Pew S. Andragogy and Pedagogy as Foundational Theory for Student Motivation in Higher
Education. InSight: a collection of faculty scholarship. 2007;2:14-25.
3. Koons DC. Applying adult learning theory to improve medical education [Master Theses].
Connecticut [United States]: UCHC Graduate School Masters Theses.2004.
4. Bandaranayake, RC & Harden, RM. Independent learning and study skills, in Dent , JA &
Harden, RM (Eds) A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers.4th ed. London: Churchill
Livingstone; 2014.p.157-65.
5. Chaney, P. Time management in medical school: 3 simple tips. UCLA David Geffen School
of Medicine Prospective Students [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Sep 1]; Available from:
https://medschool.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=1158&action=detail&ref=1015
6. Feri, R. Hubungan motivasi otonomi mahasiswa dan dukungan otonomi tutor dengan
prestasi akademik mahasiswa pada blok Fundamental Medical Science Fakultas
Kedokteran Universitas Pelita Harapan [Thesis]. Jakarta [Indonesia]: Faculty of Medicine,
University of Indonesia; 2016.
7. Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new
directions. Contemporary Edu Psych.2000;25:54-67.