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UNIT III- SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION

Techniques of box jacking- pipe jacking- under


water construction of diaphragm walls and
basement Tunnelling techniques- piling
techniques -well and caisson -sinking
cofferdam -cable anchoring and grouting, sheet
pile-Shoring for deep cutting-well point-
Dewatering and stand by plant equipment for
underground open excavation
JACKING

 It is nothing but the thrust forward


horizontally using jacking technology with
excavation taking place from inside the
box.
 Types of structures under jacking

 Box jacking

 Arch jacking

 Pipe jacking
BOX JACKING
BOX JACKING
 Box jacking is jacking a large precast reinforced
concrete box (rectangular or other shaped
sections) horizontally through the ground,
usually beneath a road or railroad that must
not be interrupted.

 Box jacking requires high pressures to push the


concrete boxes into place and a series of
hydraulic rams is used to accomplish the task.

 Simultaneously the earth is excavated from


within.
BOX JACKING

 Main application:
 Box jacking is a well-established under rail
embankments or waterways to
accommodate road or rail traffic.
NECESSITY OF THIS TECHNIQUE
 When the increasing demands for various
forms of transport infra structure to be
constructed in congested locations or below
existing facilities the need to be able to install
large structures without destruction is a
growing need.

 The jacking of large boxes to create an


underpass below a railway track or road
without destruction
R.C.C BOX JACKING

 First the box section is designed and cast at the site or can be

transported to the site according to the requirement.

 The foundation boxes are jacked into the ground designed to carry

the dead and the live loads.

 Then the high capacity jacks are placed at the back and it pushes the

box into the ground.

 Then the box is jacked carefully through the earth.

 Excavation and jacking are done in small increments in advance.


ARCHED JACKING
THRUST BORING METHOD
 Thrust boring, or auger boring, is a jack and bore
drilling method typically used for installing steel pipe
casing beneath an existing surface

 It is a process of simultaneously jacking the pipe through


the earth while removing the earth inside the box by
means of a rotating auger.

 This can be successfully used in any kind of soil conditions.


THRUST BORING METHOD

Thrust boring can be used for:


Railways
Roads
Structures
ADVANTAGES
 Timely completion of project.

 No disruption of traffic.

 No need to divert the traffic.

DISADVANTAGES
 Cost of project increases.

 Skilled personnel required.

 Safety precautions to be done properly.


PIPE JACKING
PIPE JACKETING

• Pipe jacking (PJ) is a trenchless technology


method for installing a prefabricated pipe through
the ground
• Utilities networks like water supply lines,
sewerage disposal networks, gas supply & cable
systems for power & communication are the
backbone of the urban development.
• Powerful hydraulic jacks are used to push
specially designed pipes through the ground
behind a shield at the same time as excavation is
taking place with the shield.
PIPE JACKETING
• The soil is transported out of the jacking pipe and shaft
manually or mechanically.

• Both the excavation and soil removal processes


require workers to be inside the pipe during the jacking
operation.

• Therefore, the minimum recommended diameter for


pipes installed by PJ is 1,075 mm (42 in).

• However, it is feasible to install Reinforced Concrete


Pipes (RCPs) with 900 mm (36 in) (I.D.) and 1,100 mm
(44 in) (O.D.)
PIPE JACKING
 About pipe:
 The pipes made of  high strength concrete to
withstand the high jacking forces.

 Their wall thickness and weights are


determined by maximum compression force
occurring. They weight more than 50tons,
and they are made on or off site.
PIPE JACKING
 Procedure:
 In the pipe jacking operation, jacks located in
the drive shaft propel the pipe. The jack force
is transmitted through the pipe-to-pipe
interaction, to the excavating face.

 When the excavation is accomplished by


manual or mechanical means
ABOUT THE TECHNIQUE CONT…

 No theoretical limit to the length of individual pipelines.


 Pipes range from 150mm to 3000mm diameter can be
installed in straight line or in curvature.
 Thrust wall is provided for the reaction of the jacks.
PROCEDURE CONT…

 The number of jacks vary upon the frictional resistance of


the soil, strength of pipes etc.,
 The size of the reception pit is to be big enough to receive
the jacking shield.
 To maintain the accuracy of alignment a steer able shield is
used during the pipe jacking.
 In case of small and short distance excavations, ordinary
survey method is sufficient.
 But in case of long excavations, remote sensing and other
techniques can be used.
GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS
PIPE JACKING MACHINE
PIPE JACKING MACHINE
PIPE JACKING MACHINE…
Laser Guidance

■ Real-Time Level and Line Checks

■ Maintains Accuracy in Difficult Ground


■ Allows Remote Operations
INTERMEDIATE JACKING STATIONS (IJS)

Intermediate Jacking Stations will be introduced for jacking


span of more than 120m

Installed into the pipeline at defined distances (Approx. every


100m depending on jacking force)
INTERMEDIATE JACKING STATIONS (IJS)
COMPUTER GUIDANCE SYSTEM

 The computer system


enables us to control the
work remotely.
ADVANTAGES

 It avoids the excavation of trenches. So it is also called as


“Trench less Technique”.
 There won’t be any leak problems in the future.
 Timely finish of projects.
BENEFITS OF PIPE JACKING…
Environmental Benefits
Reduce Disruption
Reduces Damage to Services
Highway Protected
90 % Less Vehicle Movement
DISADVANTAGES

 Very costly method.


 Skilled personnel is required.