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 What Is Malocclusion?
 Uses Of Classification
 Types And Terminolodies Of Classification
 Angle’s Classification
 Drawbacks
 Modification
What Is Occlusion?
The Relationship Of The Maxillary And
Mandibular Teeth When The Jaws Are Closed In
Centric Relation Without Strain Of Musculare Or
Displacement Of Condyles In Their Fossae.
What Is Malocclusion?

A Condition In Which There Is A Deflection

From The Normal Relation Of The Teeth To Other
Teeth In The Same Arch Or To Teeth In The
Opposing Arch.
Uses Of Classification
 It Helps In Daignosis And Planning Treatment For
 It Helps In Visualizing And Understanding The
Problem Associated With That Malocclusion.
 It Helps In Communicating The Problem.
 Comparison Of The Various Malocclusion Is
Made Easy By Classification.
 Used For Epidemiological Studies.
Intra-arch Problems
 Saggital Problems
• Labioversion
• Linguoversion
• Mesioversion
• Distoversion
 Vertical Problems
• Supraversion
• Infraversion
 Rotation
 Transposition
Inter-arch Problems
 Saggital
• Class 2 Malocclusion.
• Class 3 Malocclusion
 Transverse
• Crossbites
• Midline Shift
 Vertical
• Deep Bite
• Open Bite
Angle’s System Of Classification
• Given By Edward H. Angle in
1899 Was Considered The
Father Of Modern
• Based On The Mesio-distal
Relation Of The Teeth, Dental
Arches And The Jaws.
• According To Angle, The
Maxillary First Permanent
Molar Is The Key To Occlusion.
 Class 1 Malocclusion
 Class 2 Malocclusion
• Division 1
• Division 2
• Sub-division
 Class 3 Malocclusion
• Class 3
• Pseudo Class 3
• Sub-division
Angle’s Class-1
• Characterized by normal inter-arch
molar relation.
• The mesio-buccal cusp of the
maxillary first permanent molar
occludes in the buccal groove of
mandibular first permanent molar.
• Patient may exhibit dental
irregularities such as crowding,
spacing, rotations, missing tooth etc.
• These patient exhibit normal skeletal
relation and also shoe normal muscle
Bimaxillary Protrusion
Another malocclusion that is most often
categorized under class 1 is bomaxillary
protrusion where the patient exhibits a
normal class 1 molar relationship but both
the upper and lower arches are forwardly
Angle’s Class 2

• These group is characterized by

class 2 molar relation.
• The disto-buccal cusp of the
upper first permanent molar
occludes in the buccal groove of
the lower first permanent molar.
• Angle has sub classified class 2
malocclusion into 2 division
1. Class 2 division 1
2. Class 2 division 2
Class 2 Division 1
• These is characterized by proclined
upper incisor with a resultant increase
in overjet.
• Characteristic feature is the presence
of abnormal muscle activity.
• The upper lip is usually hypotonic, short
and fails to form a lip seal. The lower lip
cushions the palatal aspect of the
upper teeth, a typical feature is ‘Lip
• The arch is narrow at the premolar and
molar region thereby producing a v-
shaped upper arch.
• Hyperactive mentalis activity.
Class 2 Division 2
• It also exhibit the class 2 molar
• The classic feature is presence of lingually
inclined upper central incisors and labially
tipped upper lateral incisors.
• The patient is exhibits a deep anterior
• The lingually inclined upper incisors give
arch a squarish shape.
• The mandibular labial gingival tissue is
often traumatized by the excessively
tipped upper central incisors.
• The patient exhibit normal muscle activity.
Class 2 Subdivision
• In these class 2 molar relation exists on one side
and a class 1 relation on the other, it is refered to
as class 2 subdivision
Angle’s Class 3
• These group is characterized by class 3
molar relation.
• Mesio-buccal cusp of the maxillary first
permanent molar occlude in the
interdental space between the
mandibular first and second molar.
• It is classified into two group:
1. True class 3
2. Pseudo class 3
True Class 3
• This can occur due to following causes:
1. Excessively large mandible
2. Forwardly placed mandible
3. Smaller than normal maxilla
4. Retropositioned maxilla
5. Combination of the above causes
• The patient can present with a normal overjet, an
edge to edge incisor relation or an anterior crossbite.
• The space available for tongue is usually more. Thus
the tongue occupies a lower position, resulting in a
narrow upper arch.
Pseudo Class 3
• This type of malocclusion is produced by a forward
movement of the mandible during jaw closure, thus it is
also called ‘postural’ or ‘habitual’ class 3 malocclusion.
• Following are some causes of pseuso class 3
1. Presence of occlusal prematurities may deflect the
mandible forward.
2. In case of premature loss of deciduous posteriors, the
child tends to move the mandible forward to
established contact in the anterior region.
3. A child with enlarged adenoids tends to prevent the
tongue from contacting the adenoids.
Class 3 Subdivision
 This is a condition characterized by a class 3
molar relation on one side and a class 1 relation
on the other side.
Drawbacks Of Angle’s
1. Angle considered malocclusion only in the antero-
posterior plane. He didn’t consider malocclusion in
the transverse and vertical planes.
2. Angle considered the first permanent molars as fixed
points in the skull. But this is not found to be so.
3. The classification can’t be applied if the first
permanent molars are extracted or missing.
4. The classification can’t be applied to the deciduous
5. The classification does not differentiate
between skeletal and dental malocclusion.
6. The classification does not highlight the
etiology of the malocclusion.
7. Individual tooth malposition have not been
considered by angle.
Isabela brandao Angle The influence of Malocclusions
magalhaes; Orthodontist malocclusion on cause
Luciano jose masticatory decreased
Pereira; Leandro performance masticatory
silva marques; performance,
Gustavo hauber especially as it
gamerio relates to
reduced occlusal
contacts area.
The influence of
treatment on
performance is
only measurable
5 years after