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Chapter 4 Controllers

 Controller detects the error between the set point
values and measured value and implement some
methods of control.

 Control system convert the error signal to

control signal.

 This control signal reduces the error.

Control Law /Control Modes/Control Methods

 The way in which the controllers react to error changes

are called as control law .

System lags :

in any feedback system, the system can not respond

instantly to any changes and there will be some delay
in the response.

This delay is called as system lags.

The Different Control Methods Suitable
For Different Control Systems
Discontinuous Controller
The ON/OFF Mode

Continuous Controller
 Proportional control ( P control)
 Integral control ( I control)
 Derivative control (D control)
 proportional + integral control (PI control)
 Proportional + derivative control (PD control)
 Proportional+integral+derivative control(PID )
1.ON/OFF control mode
• Also called as two step mode.
• The control action is either ON (100%) or OFF (0%)

Example for ON OFF control system:

A space heater is a common example. If the temperature drops
below a set point, the heater is turned ON. If the temperature
rises above the set point, it turns OFF.
Electronic ON OFF controller

Vin  reaches VH, -- ON State [Vo]

Vin  below a value VL, OFF state, [ 0 V]. 𝑅1
𝑉𝐿 = 𝑉𝑆𝑃 − 𝑉
𝑅2 0
Applications :

• Room heating or air-conditioning system

• Liquid bath-temperature control
• Level control in large-volume tanks
Proportional control

• Definition: Controller output is proportional to

input (error ) .

• Controller equation:
Controller Output α Controller Input

Controller Output =KP ep + Po

Where, ‘KP’ is called as gain constant.

Output graph :

% Controller Output

% Error 100

The range of error to cover the 0% to 100% controller

output is called the proportional band(PB)
𝑃𝐵 =
Electronic P controller

Vout = GP Ve + V0

V0 = output with zero error

Ve = error voltage
GP = R2/R1 = gain
Vout = output voltage

•It is relatively simple and easy to design and tune

•It provides good stability
•It responds very rapidly


Integral control(Reset control)
definition : Integral action gives an
output which is proportional to the
time integral of the error.

Controller equation :
controller output α integral of error with
Controller output =𝐾𝐼 ‫׬‬0 𝑒𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑃(0)
Electronic Integral controller

𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐺𝐼 න 𝑉𝑒 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 (0) Where 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒

𝐺𝐼 = = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛
Ve =error voltage
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 0 =Initial output voltage
No offset error

Large overshoot (large oscillation)
Derivative controller –anticipatory
• The change in controller output is proportional to the
rate of change with time of the error signal.
• Controller equation :
Controller output α rate of change of error.
D controller output = KD X rate of change of error

For a constant error signal, the derivative
controller cannot take any control action.
Electronic D controller

Stable output
High gain 𝑑𝑉𝑒
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = −𝑅𝐶
Faster response 𝑑𝑡

For constant error there is no
controller output.
Proportional + Integral (PI) Control
When integral action is added to a proportional control
system the controller output is given by:
Controller Output = KP * error + Kp KI * integral
of error with time.
Controller Output = 𝐾𝑃 𝑒𝑃 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐼 ‫׬‬0 𝑒𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑃0
Electronic PI controller

𝑅2 1
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑉 + න 𝑉 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 (0)
𝑅1 𝑒 𝑅1 𝐶 0 𝑒
No offset error
Longer response time
Large oscillations
Proportional + Derivative (PD) Control

• The controller output equation of a PD

controller is :
Controller Output = KP * error + Kp KD * rate of
change of error.

Controller Output = 𝐾𝑃 𝑒𝑃 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐷 + 𝑃0
Electronic PD controller

𝑅2 𝑅2 𝑑𝑉𝑒
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑅 𝑉𝑒 + 𝑅 𝑅3 𝐶 + 𝑉0
1 +𝑅3 1 +𝑅3 𝑑𝑡
Reduce the excessive

Disadvantages :
Cannot eliminate offset
Proportional + Integral + Derivative
(PID) Control Mode:
• which has no steady state error and reduces the
tendency for oscillations. Such a controller is known
as a three-mode controller or PID controller.
• The controller output equation is :
Controller Output = KP ( error + KI * integral of
error with time + KD * rate of change of error )
𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑃
Controller Output =𝐾𝑃 𝑒𝑃 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐼 ‫׬‬0 𝑒𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐷 + 𝑃0
Electronic PID controller

𝑅2 𝑅2 1 𝑅2 𝑑𝑉𝑒
−𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑉𝑒 + න 𝑉𝑒 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑅𝐷 𝐶𝐷 + 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 (0)
𝑅1 𝑅1 𝑅1 𝐶1 𝑅1 𝑑𝑡
• Advantages :
• Eliminates the offset
• Reduce the maximum deviation
• Reduce the time of oscillation
Time-domain Analysis of Control
• The dynamic behavior of a system is
compared under application of standard test
 an impulse,
 constant velocity (Ramp signal )
constant acceleration.(Parabolic signal)
Unit impulse signal

Unit step signal

Unit ramp signal

Parabolic signal
The time response of any system has two
• transient response
• steady state response
 Transient response
Transient response is the response of a system
from rest or equilibrium to steady state.
 Steady-State response.
The response of the system after the transient
response is called steady state response.
Time domain specifications:

• Delay time, td
• Rise
• Peak time, tp
• Maximum overshoot, Mp
• Settling time, ts .
• Steady state error e ss
Delay time :It is the time required for the response to
reach 50% of the final value in first attempt.

Rise time : It is the time required for the response to rise

from 0 to 100% of the final value for the underdamped
Peak time : It is the time required for the response to reach
the peak of time response or the peak overshoot.
Settling time : It is the time required for the
response to reach and stay within a specified
tolerance band ( 2% or 5%) of its final value.
Maximum (percent) overshoot/Peak
It is the normalized difference between the time
response peak and the steady output and is
defined as,
c(t p )  c()
%M p  100%
• Steady-state error : It indicates the error
between the actual output and desired output
as ‘t’ tends to infinity.

ess  lim[r (t )  c(t )]

t 
Performance Index
• System is considered an optimum control system
when the system parameters are adjusted so that the
index reaches an extremum value, commonly a
minimum value.