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# Chapter 4 Controllers

Controller
 Controller detects the error between the set point
values and measured value and implement some
methods of control.

control signal.

##  This control signal reduces the error.

Control Law /Control Modes/Control Methods

##  The way in which the controllers react to error changes

are called as control law .

System lags :

## in any feedback system, the system can not respond

instantly to any changes and there will be some delay
in the response.

## This delay is called as system lags.

The Different Control Methods Suitable
For Different Control Systems
Discontinuous Controller
The ON/OFF Mode

Continuous Controller
 Proportional control ( P control)
 Integral control ( I control)
 Derivative control (D control)
 proportional + integral control (PI control)
 Proportional + derivative control (PD control)
 Proportional+integral+derivative control(PID )
1.ON/OFF control mode
• Also called as two step mode.
• The control action is either ON (100%) or OFF (0%)

## Example for ON OFF control system:

A space heater is a common example. If the temperature drops
below a set point, the heater is turned ON. If the temperature
rises above the set point, it turns OFF.
Electronic ON OFF controller

## Vin  reaches VH, -- ON State [Vo]

Vin  below a value VL, OFF state, [ 0 V]. 𝑅1
𝑉𝐿 = 𝑉𝑆𝑃 − 𝑉
𝑅2 0
Applications :

## • Room heating or air-conditioning system

• Liquid bath-temperature control
• Level control in large-volume tanks
Proportional control

## • Definition: Controller output is proportional to

input (error ) .

• Controller equation:
Controller Output α Controller Input

## Where, ‘KP’ is called as gain constant.

Output graph :
100

% Controller Output

% Error 100

## The range of error to cover the 0% to 100% controller

output is called the proportional band(PB)
100%
𝑃𝐵 =
𝐾𝑃
Electronic P controller

Vout = GP Ve + V0

## V0 = output with zero error

Ve = error voltage
GP = R2/R1 = gain
Vout = output voltage

## •It is relatively simple and easy to design and tune

•It provides good stability
•It responds very rapidly

•Offset
•overshoot
Integral control(Reset control)
definition : Integral action gives an
output which is proportional to the
time integral of the error.

Controller equation :
controller output α integral of error with
time
𝑡
Controller output =𝐾𝐼 ‫׬‬0 𝑒𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑃(0)
Electronic Integral controller

𝑡
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐺𝐼 න 𝑉𝑒 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 (0) Where 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒
0

1
𝐺𝐼 = = 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛
𝑅𝐶
Ve =error voltage
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 0 =Initial output voltage
No offset error

Large overshoot (large oscillation)
Derivative controller –anticipatory
control
• The change in controller output is proportional to the
rate of change with time of the error signal.
• Controller equation :
Controller output α rate of change of error.
D controller output = KD X rate of change of error

𝑑𝑒𝑃
=𝐾𝐷
𝑑𝑡
For a constant error signal, the derivative
controller cannot take any control action.
Electronic D controller

Stable output
High gain 𝑑𝑉𝑒
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = −𝑅𝐶
Faster response 𝑑𝑡

For constant error there is no
controller output.
Proportional + Integral (PI) Control
Mode:
When integral action is added to a proportional control
system the controller output is given by:
Controller Output = KP * error + Kp KI * integral
of error with time.
𝑡
Controller Output = 𝐾𝑃 𝑒𝑃 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐼 ‫׬‬0 𝑒𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑃0
Electronic PI controller

𝑡
𝑅2 1
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑉 + න 𝑉 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 (0)
𝑅1 𝑒 𝑅1 𝐶 0 𝑒
No offset error
Longer response time
Large oscillations
Proportional + Derivative (PD) Control
Mode:

## • The controller output equation of a PD

controller is :
Controller Output = KP * error + Kp KD * rate of
change of error.

𝑑𝑒𝑃
Controller Output = 𝐾𝑃 𝑒𝑃 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐷 + 𝑃0
𝑑𝑡
Electronic PD controller

𝑅2 𝑅2 𝑑𝑉𝑒
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑅 𝑉𝑒 + 𝑅 𝑅3 𝐶 + 𝑉0
1 +𝑅3 1 +𝑅3 𝑑𝑡
Reduce the excessive
oscillation

Cannot eliminate offset
Proportional + Integral + Derivative
(PID) Control Mode:
• which has no steady state error and reduces the
tendency for oscillations. Such a controller is known
as a three-mode controller or PID controller.
• The controller output equation is :
Controller Output = KP ( error + KI * integral of
error with time + KD * rate of change of error )
𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑃
Controller Output =𝐾𝑃 𝑒𝑃 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐼 ‫׬‬0 𝑒𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐾𝑃 𝐾𝐷 + 𝑃0
𝑑𝑡
Electronic PID controller

𝑅2 𝑅2 1 𝑅2 𝑑𝑉𝑒
−𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑉𝑒 + න 𝑉𝑒 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑅𝐷 𝐶𝐷 + 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 (0)
𝑅1 𝑅1 𝑅1 𝐶1 𝑅1 𝑑𝑡
• Eliminates the offset
• Reduce the maximum deviation
• Reduce the time of oscillation
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Time-domain Analysis of Control
Systems
• The dynamic behavior of a system is
compared under application of standard test
signals
 an impulse,
step,
 constant velocity (Ramp signal )
constant acceleration.(Parabolic signal)
Unit impulse signal

## Unit step signal

Unit ramp signal

Parabolic signal
TYPES OF TIME RESPONSE
The time response of any system has two
components:
• transient response
 Transient response
Transient response is the response of a system
from rest or equilibrium to steady state.
The response of the system after the transient
response is called steady state response.
Time domain specifications:

• Delay time, td
• Rise time.tr
• Peak time, tp
• Maximum overshoot, Mp
• Settling time, ts .
• Steady state error e ss
Delay time :It is the time required for the response to
reach 50% of the final value in first attempt.

## Rise time : It is the time required for the response to rise

from 0 to 100% of the final value for the underdamped
system.
Peak time : It is the time required for the response to reach
the peak of time response or the peak overshoot.
Settling time : It is the time required for the
response to reach and stay within a specified
tolerance band ( 2% or 5%) of its final value.
Maximum (percent) overshoot/Peak
overshoot:
It is the normalized difference between the time
response peak and the steady output and is
defined as,
c(t p )  c()
%M p  100%
c()
• Steady-state error : It indicates the error
between the actual output and desired output
as ‘t’ tends to infinity.

## ess  lim[r (t )  c(t )]

t 
Performance Index
• System is considered an optimum control system
when the system parameters are adjusted so that the
index reaches an extremum value, commonly a
minimum value.