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Department of Computer Science

& Engineering

Computer Networks
Unit - 1

•The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a

multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement
on international standards.

•An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network

communications is the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model.

•It was first introduced in the late 1970s.

Seven layers of the OSI model
A handy way to remember the seven layers is the sentence
"All people seem to need data processing"

•All-Application layer
•People-Presentation layer
•Seem-Session layer
•To-Transport layer
•Need-Network layer
•Data-Data link layer
•Processing-Physical layer
Characteristics of the OSI Layers
• The seven layers of the OSI reference model can be divided
into two categories:
– Upper layers and
– Lower layers
• The upper layers of the OSI model deal with application issues
and generally are implemented only in software.
• The highest layer, the application layer, is closest to the end
• Both users and application layer processes interact with
software applications that contain a communications
• The lower layers of the OSI model handle data transport
• The physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in
hardware and software.
• The lowest layer, the physical layer, is closest to the physical
network medium (the network cabling, for example) and is
responsible for actually placing information on the medium.
• At Application, Presentation and Session layers, data is simply
called “DATA”.
• At the Transport layer, data is placed into Segments.
• At the Network layer, data is placed into Packets.
• At the Data Link layer, data is placed into Frames.
• Finally at the Physical layer, data takes the form of Bits, and
its all 1s and 0s !
The interaction between layers in the OSI model
An exchange using the OSI model

7 types of layers are:

•Physical Layer
•Data Link Layer
•Network Layer
•Transport Layer
•Session Layer
•Presentation Layer
•Application Layer
Physical layer

• Functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical

• Procedures and functions – physical devices and
interfaces have to perform
• Physical characteristics of interfaces and media - types of
• Representation of bits – bits must be encoded into signals
• Data Rate – No. of bits per second
• Synchronization of bits – Sender and receiver must be
• Line configuration – point to point, Multipoint
• Physical topology – topology how the devices connected to a
• Transmission mode – direction of transmission -> simplex,.,
Data link layer – Node to node(Hop) delivery and error free
data delivery to the upper layer
1. Framing – stream of bite into manageable units
2. Physical Addressing – the address of the sender and receiver
are placed in header
3. Flow Control – Sender and receiver rate -> Flow control Mechanism
4. Error Control – to detect and retransmit damaged or the lost frames.
5. Access control – Device that has control over the link
at the given time.
Hop-to-hop delivery
Network layer - The network layer is responsible for the
delivery of individual packets from the source host to the
destination host.

1. Logical Addressing- Logical address of the sender and receiver .

2.Routing – Route the packets to their final destination
Source-to-destination delivery
Transport layer
• The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message.
• The whole message should be in order.
Reliable process-to-process delivery of a message
1. Service point addressing - to deliver the packets to particular
2. Segmentation and reassembly – message is divided into
transmittable segments with a sequence number
3. Connection Control – Connectionless or connection oriented.
4. Flow Control – Sender and receiver rate -> Flow control
5. Error Control – to detect and retransmit damaged or the lost
Session layer
The session layer is responsible for
• Dialog control – allows the communication between two process
• Synchronization – add checkpoints
Presentation layer
The presentation layer is responsible for

• Translation – exchanging the information in common format

• Compression – reduces the no. of bits
• Encryption – to assure privacy
Application layer - The application layer is responsible for
providing services to the user.
1. Network virtual terminal – allows the user to log onto remote host
2. FTAM- to access the files in a remote computer
3. Mail Services- basis for e- mail forwarding and storage.
4. Directory Services – Distributed data sources for global information
Summary of layers
Internet Architecture

Alternative view of the

Internet architecture. The
Internet Protocol Graph “Network” layer shown here
is sometimes referred to as
the “sub-network” or “link”
• Lowest Level – wide variety of network protocols
denoted as NET1, NET2,…
• Implemented by a combination of hardware and software
• Second Layer – Internet Protocol (IP)
• Interconnection of multiple networking technologies into
a single logical network
• Third Layer – TCP (reliable byte stream channel) and
UDP(unreliable datagram delivery channel)
• Upper layer – application protocols used for file transfer,
e-mail, networking support, remote host management..,
Features :
• It doesn’t imply strictly layering
• IP – Focal point for the architecture
• New protocol – must process both protocol specification
and at least one implementations of the specifications
Thank You!