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THE CELL

LESSON 1
QUARTER 1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• illustrate the structure of the endomembrane system,
label its parts, and understand how the system works
• illustrate the structure of the mitochondria, label its
parts, and understand the importance of the enfolding
of the inner mitochondrial membrane
• illustrate the structure of the chloroplast, label its parts,
and relate these parts to photosynthesis
• understand the connection of the endomembrane
system to other cell parts such as the lysosomes,
peroxisomes, endosomes, and cell membrane
• understand how the extracellular components or
matrix determine the appearance and function of the
tissues
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

• Organism –highly organized form of li


nature. This term first appeared in Fren
dictionary (1729) and the stated meani
ensemble of organs that constitutes a li
• 1. Organization

• One of the most distinctive features of life is that, it is


highly organized into a hierarchy of structural levels.
Each level is made of components of lower level and
itself becomes a component of higher level.
• The study of life extends from the entire planet earth to
the microscopic units of cells and molecules.
• 1. biosphere –consists of all the environments on earth that
support life-most regions of land, bodies of water and the
lower atmosphere
• 2. ecosystem- consists of all the organisms living in a
particular area and the non- living, physical components of
the environment with which the organisms interact(ex. air,
soil, water, sunlight).
• 3. community – entire array of organisms inhabiting an
ecosystem (ex. coastal/marine ecosystem-fish, insects,
mollusks, worms, many different kinds of plants, fungi, and
microscopic organisms such as protists, algae and bacteria.
• 4. population – interacting group of individuals of one
species
• 5. organism – an individual living thing
• 6. organ system – consists of several organs that work
together in performing a specific function(s)
• 7. organ – made-up of several tissues, each with specific
function and made-up of similar cells
• 8. tissue – made-up of cells with similar structure and
function(s)
• 9. cell – unit of living matter separated from its
environment by a boundary called a membrane or
wall
• 10. organelle – a structure that performs a specific
function in a cell
• 11. molecule – a cluster of atoms held together by
chemical bonds (ex. DNA, protein, glucose, amino
acid)
WHO DISCOVERED THE CELL?
• In the 1660s there was a man named Robert
Hooke. Robert lived in Britain and was a scientist.
He was the first person to observe cells.
• Robert took a piece bark from an old oak tree and
looked at it through a microscope.
• The bark looked like it was made up of many small
rooms (kind of like a house with many bedrooms).
He named the rooms, or structures, he saw under
the microscope cells.
• The cell is the smallest unit of life able to control its
own activities, but it relies on the rest of the organism
(if multicellular) or the surroundings (if unicellular) to
provide it with raw materials like nutrients and
removal of metabolic wastes.
COMPARING PROKARYOTIC AND
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
• Basic features of all cells:
• Plasma membrane
• Semifluid substance called cytosol
• Chromosomes (carry genes)
• Ribosomes (make proteins)

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


A. IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE DISCOVERY OF
CELLS
• 1665-Robert Hooke-physicist and botanist; looks at
cork under the microscope; calls the chambers he
observed as “cell” (Latin word cellulae-meaning small
room)
• Appeared in Micrographia
• 1667- Anton van Leeuwenhook, the person
incorrectly given the credit for the invention of the
microscope giving way to the study of cells, He was
given the credit as the inventor of the microscope;
Father Of Bacteriology And Protozoology
• Robert Brown- identified the nucleus in cells
• 1805 Lorenz Oken – first speculated that cells are
the fundamental units of life
• 1830 Matthias Scleiden and Theodor Schwann –
German scientists summarize the findings of many
scientists and conclude that all living organisms are
made of cells. This forms the basis of the Cell
Theory Of Biology( central unifying theory for
biology)
• 1858 Rudolf Virchow-also a German scientist
who states that except for the origin for of life
all “cells arise (thru cell division) from pre-
existing cells”
B. THE CELL THEORY OF BIOLOGY

• Cells are the basic units of life


• All organisms are constructed of cells. Every living
organism on earth is at least a single cell or a
population of cells
• Except for the origin of life itself, all cells arise from
pre-existing cells. Cells arise only by division of
living cells, never by aggregation of cell parts and
cell chemicals
• Cells of multicellular organisms are sometimes
interconnected, enabling the resultant populations to
function as single units
• Cells of multicellular animals must stick to solid
surfaces to divide, move, assume specialized shapes
and carry the necessary functions of life
C. PROPERTIES OF A CELL
• 1. Cells are complex and highly organized.
• A. They contain numerous internal structures
• B. Some are membrane bound (ex, organelles) while
others do not.
• 2. Cells contain genetic blueprint and machinery to use
it
• Genes are instructions for cells to create specific
proteins
• All cells use the same type of information
• The genetic code is universal
• The machinery used for synthesis is interchangeable
• However, for this to function properly, the information
must be error free ( errors are called mutations)
• 3. Cells arise from the division of other cells
• Daughter cells inherit the genes from the mother cells
• Bacteria multiply by binary fission
• Eukaryotic cells divide thru mitosis where the
genetic complements of each daughter cell is
identical to the other and to the mother cell. This
is asexual reproduction
• Reproductive cells or gametes divide thru meiosis
where the genetic complement of each daughter
cell is reduced by half and each daughter cell is
genetically unique. This is used in sexual
reproduction
• 4. Cells acquire and utilize energy
• Plant cells undergo photosynthesis; convert light
energy and CO₂ to chemical energy (ATP and glucose)
• Most cells respire
• Release energy found in organic compounds
• Convert organic compounds to CO2 and O2
• Make ATP
• Cells can perform a variety of chemical reactions
• Transform simple organic molecules into complex
molecules (anabolism)
• Breakdown complex molecules to release energy
(catabolism)
• Undergo metabolism (all reactions performed by
cells)
• 5. Cells can engage in mechanical activities
• Cells can move
• Organelles can move
• Cells can respond to stimuli
• Chemotaxis –movement towards chemicals
• Phototaxis – movement towards light
• Hormone responses
• Touch responses
• 6. Cells can regulate activities
• Cells control DNA synthesis and cell division
• Gene regulation –cells make specific proteins only
when needed
• Turn on and off metabolic pathways
• 7. Cells contain the following structures
• Plasma membrane – separates the cell from the
external environment
• Cytoplasm-fluid-filled cell interior
• Nuclear material –genetic information stored as
DNA
• 8. Most cells are small, about 5 to 20 micrometers
(0.00019 to 0.00076 in) in length
• The smallest cell of the
microorganisms, Mycoplasma are 0.2 micrometer
(0.0000076 in) but some giant cells are several
centimeters long
• 9. All cells are of composed of similar chemicals and
carry out the same biochemical processes
PRACTICE
• Construct a concept map about the concept of a cell based o
properties and the postulates of the cell theory. Explain thei
output after.
ENRICHMENT:
• Identify five scientists involved in developing the cell
theory by researching five scientists and demonstrate
this knowledge by completing a concept map on a paper
or on http://bubbl.us.
• Given the postulates of the cell theory and properties of
the cell, provide evidences/examples on the
manifestation of cell’s properties to the life of an
organism.
• Ex. Cells arise from the division of other cells. ----
growth and development of an organism.
• Cells acquire and utilize energy
• Plant cells undergo photosynthesis; convert light
energy and CO₂ to chemical energy (ATP and
glucose)
• Most cells respire
• Release energy found in organic compounds
• Convert organic compounds to CO2 and O2
• Make ATP
• Cells can perform a variety of chemical reactions
• Transform simple organic molecules into complex
molecules (anabolism)
• Breakdown complex molecules to release energy
(catabolism)
• Undergo metabolism (all reactions performed by
cells)
• Cells can engage in mechanical activities
• Cells can move
• Organelles can move
• Cells can respond to stimuli
• Chemotaxis –movement towards chemicals
• Phototaxis – movement towards light
• Hormone responses
• Touch responses
EVALUATION
• Explain each of the postulates of the cell theory.
DIFFERENTIATE MEMBRANE-BOUND AND
NON-MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLE
• allows conflicting functions (i.e., synthesis vs.
breakdown) and several cellular activities to occur
simultaneously without interference from each
other
• separates the DNA material of the nucleus,
mitochondria, and chloroplast
• increases the surface area-volume ratio of the cell
NOTE:
• Not all organelles are surrounded by a membrane.
• The plasma or cell membrane is different from the cell wall.
• Not all cell parts are present in all kinds of cells.
• Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having

• No nucleus
• DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid
• No membrane-bound organelles
• Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


Fig. 6-6

Fimbriae

Nucleoid

Ribosomes

Plasma membrane

Bacterial Cell wall


chromosome
Capsule
0.5 µm
(a) A typical Flagella (b) A thin section
rod-shaped through the
bacterium bacterium
Bacillus
coagulans (TEM)
• Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having

• DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope


• Membrane-bound organelles
• Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus

• Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


• The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient
passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell
• The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of
phospholipids

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


Fig. 6-7
(a) TEM of a plasma
Outside of cell membrane

Inside of
cell 0.1 µm
Carbohydrate side chain

Hydrophilic
region

Hydrophobic
region

Hydrophilic
Phospholipid Proteins
region
(b) Structure of the plasma membrane
COMPARE CELL INTO A BIG CITY?

What are the requirements in order for the city to function well?
• The city will need power. What generates power for the city? Relate this to the
function of the mitochondria and the chloroplast.
• The city generates waste. How does it minimize its waste? How does the city handle
its garbage? Relate this to the function of the lysosome.
• The city requires raw materials to process into food, clothing, and housing materials.
Where are these raw materials processed? Relate this to the functions of the Golgi
Apparatus.
COMPARING THE STRUCTURE OF PLANT AND
ANIMAL CELL (UNDER THE MICROSCOPE)
• For animal cell use cheek scrapings
• For plant cell use hydrilla leaf
A PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE
EUKARYOTIC CELL

• A eukaryotic cell has internal membranes that partition the cell into organelles
• Plant and animal cells have most of the same organelles

BioFlix: Tour Of An Animal Cell

BioFlix: Tour Of A Plant Cell

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


Fig. 6-9a

Nuclear
envelope
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
Nucleolus NUCLEUS
Rough ER Smooth ER
Flagellum Chromatin

Centrosome
Plasma
membrane

CYTOSKELETON:
Microfilaments
Intermediate
filaments
Microtubules
Ribosomes

Microvilli

Golgi
Peroxisome apparatus
Mitochondrion
Lysosome
Fig. 6-9b
Nuclear envelope Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
NUCLEUS Nucleolus
Chromatin
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosomes

Central vacuole
Golgi
apparatus
Microfilaments
Intermediate
filaments CYTO-
SKELETON
Microtubules

Mitochondrion
Peroxisome
Chloroplast
Plasma
membrane

Cell wall
Plasmodesmata
Wall of adjacent cell
WHY CELLS ARE GENERALLY SMALL IN SIZE. WHAT IS THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME.
• The logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on the size of cells
• The surface area to volume ratio of a cell is critical
• As the surface area increases by a factor of n2, the volume increases by a factor of
n3
• Small cells have a greater surface area relative to volume

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings


Fig. 6-8
Surface area increases while
total volume remains constant

5
1
1

Total surface area


[Sum of the surface areas
6 150 750
(height  width) of all boxes
sides  number of boxes]

Total volume
[height  width  length 
1 125 125
number of boxes]

Surface-to-volume
(S-to-V) ratio
[surface area ÷ volume]
6 1.2 6