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Quadratic

A quadratic equation is
an equation containing the second power of
an unknown but no higher power.

The equation x2 + 5x+6 = 0


is a quadratic equation. A quadratic
equation has two roots, both of which
satisfy the equation.

The two roots of the quadratic equation


x2 + 5x+6 = 0 are x = 2 and x = 3.
Substituting either of these values for x in
the equation makes it true.
The general form of a quadratic
equation is the following:
 The a represents the numerical coefficient
of x2 , b represents the numerical coefficient of x,
and c represents the constant numerical term.
 One or both of the last two numerical coefficients
maybe zero. The numerical
coefficient a  cannot be zero.
 If b=0, then the quadratic equation is
termed a "pure" quadratic equation.
 If the equation contains both an x and x2 term,
then it is a complete quadratic equation.
Some examples of
quadratic
equations include:

3x2 + 9x - 2 = 0 6x2 + 11x = 7 4x2 = 13


 The name
quadratic
comes from
"quad" meaning
square, because
the variable
is squared (in
other words x2).
Solving Quadratic Equations
The four axioms used in solving linear equations are
also used in solving quadratic equations. However,
 there  are  certain  additional  
rules  used  when  solving  quadratic equations.   
There  are three different techniques used for
solving quadratic equations:
 taking the square root,

 factoring

 Using the Quadratic Formula.  

Of these three techniques, only the


Quadratic Formula will solve all quadratic
equations.   The other two techniques can be used
only in certain cases.   To determine which
technique can be used, the equation must be
written in general form: ax2 + bx + c = 0
To determine which technique can be used,
the equation must be written in general form:
ax2 + bx + c = 0
 If the equation is a pure quadratic equation (b=0)
it can be solved by taking the square root.
Ex. 4x2 -1 = 0, 4x
4 2 = +1, x2 = 1/4, taking
the square root of ¼ we get the two solutions
x= +1/2 and x= -1/2
 If the numerical constant c is zero, the equation
can be solved by factoring.
Ex. 4x
4 2 – 3x = 0 , x(4x- 3)=0, for the zero –
factor property[1] x = 0 , 4x-3 =0, so the two
solutions are x=0 and x=+3/4
Certain other equations can also be solved
by factoring and applying the zero – factor
property.
Ex. x2 + 5x+6 = 0, if we factor we have
(x+3) (x+2)= 0 then x+3 =0 , x+2 =0 so the two
solutions are x= -3 and x = -2
The solution(s) to a quadratic equation
can always be calculated using
the Quadratic Formula:
 The "±" means you need to do a plus AND a
minus, and therefore there are normally TWO
solutions ! You can try to solve any quadratic
equation by using the quadratic formula.

 The blue part Δ = b2 - 4ac is called the


"discriminant", because it can "discriminate"
between the possible types of answer. If it is
positive, you will get two real solutions, if it is
zero you get just ONE solution, and if it is
negative you get  no real solutions.

 This formula gives two solutions, although the


two solutions may be the same number.
(When solving any polynomial equation of
degree n, there are at most n solutions to that
equation.)
Graphing quadratic
equations
 When you graph a quadratic equation, you
get a parabola, and the solutions to the
quadratic equation represent where the
parabola crosses the x-axis.

 Every quadratic equation has at most two


solutions, but for some equations, the two
solutions are the same number, and for
others, there is no solution on the number
line (because it would involve the square
root of a negative number).
 If the discriminant Δ >0, the
quadratic equation has 2 distinct
solutions and there will be two
distinct x-intercepts.

 If the discriminant Δ = 0, the


quadratic equation has 1 solution and
there will be just one x-intercept.

 If the discriminant Δ<0, the


quadratic equation has no solutions
and there will be no x-intercepts.
The green parabola has 2 x-intercepts. Its corresponding
quadratic equation has 2 distinct solutions (x=1 and x=4). This
happens when the discrimant Δ>0

The yellow parabola has one x-intercept. Its corresponding


quadratic equation has 1 solution (x=-3). Δ = 0

The purple parabola has no x-intercepts. Its corresponding


quadratic equation has no solutions. Δ < 0