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Students with Special Needs

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Identify the . Discuss the role
different of teachers in
categories of educating
children with children with
special needs.
special needs.
Discuss the
educational
programs for
children with
special needs.
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After studying this unit, answer the following questions:

1.How are physical disabilities defined and classified?

2.Explain what are the psychological and behavioral


characteristics of individuals with physical disabilities?

3. Discuss the causes of physical disabilities?

4. Discuss how the disabilities can be prevented.

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3. Social and 1.Physical
emotional and sensory
problems Categories disabilities
Of students
with special
needs 4.Specific
2. Delayed
cognitive and learning
social difficulties
functions
5.Gifted
and
talented 4
 Physical impairment
 Due to accident or cerebral
palsy
 Cerebral palsy
• Limb deficiency
• Movement problem

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Types of physical impairment

Monoplegia - only one limb


Hemiplegia - one limb either hand or leg is disabled
( right or left)
Diplegia -leg is more disabled than the hand
Quadriplegia - both legs and hands
Paraplegia - both legs
Triplegia - three limbs
Double - Both left and right limbs
hemiplegia

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 Spastic Athetosis
–movements – involuntary
very stiff
movements are
and not in
harmony. uncontrolled.

 Ataxia  Tremor

– movements - uncontrolled
movements e.g.
disrupted by trembling
impairments of
balance. 8
 Two Categories of epilepsy:

-Grand mal:
- Petit mal:
Body stiffens
and jerks; may Consciousness
fall, lose not lost; unable
consciousness, to control body
lose bladder movements;
control, erratic experiences
breathing, last feelings, visions,
several sounds and
minutes. smells that are
not real.
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Discuss the following:
 What are the major causes of visual
disabilities?

 What are some ways in which the


learning environment can be modified
to accommodate students with visual
disabilities?

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Visual disabilities is measured by using
the Snellen Chart
- Normal vision : 20/20
- low vision : 20/70
- Blind : 20/200

Possible signs of visual abilities:

Eyes look swollen, difficulty in reading


small print, dizziness or headaches after
reading, holds object close to the eyes
etc.

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 Discuss the major causes of hearing
loss.

 Can some hearing losses be corrected


or prevented? Discuss.

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1. Have little
2 categories: useful hearing
even if they used
1-Deaf
hearing aids
2-Hard of
Hearing
2. Can process
information from
sound, usually with
the help of a
hearing aid. 13
Possible signs:
behavior of children: not paying
attention, not following instruction,
daydreaming, unusual spoken words.

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 What are the major causes of mental
retardation?

 How can mental retardation be


prevented?

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Mental Retardation is a
disability characterized by
significant limitations both in
intellectual functioning and in
adaptive behavior as
expressed in conceptual, social
and practical adaptive skills.
This ability originates before
age 18.(Luckasson,et al,2002)
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 Mild Mental retardation: IQ range 50
to 69.

Outcomes: learning difficulties; able to


work, maintain good social
relationships, contribute to society.

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Outcomes: marked developmental
delays in childhood, some degree
of independence in self-care,
adequate communication and
academic skills, require varying
degree of supports to live and
work in the community.

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 Profound mental retardation: IQ under
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Outcomes: severe limitation of self- care,
communication and mobility, continuous
need of supports.

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3. Social and Behavioral Problems

i. Emotional and behavioral disorder


- Emotional and behavioral conditions are
not stable continuously for a period of time
which can interfere with learning.
- normally referred as psychiatric problem.

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Symptoms
Low achievement – cause not known
Fail in communication with teachers and
peers.
Behavior not consistent with situation.
- e.g. smile when in pain
Sad and not happy
In stressful situation show extreme behavior
e.g. tremble when name is called (Bower,
1982).
Show deviant behavior
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 What are the characteristics that are
likely to be exhibited by an autistic
child?

 How do you define ADHD and what


are the characteristics associated with
ADHD?

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3. Social and Behavioral problems

ii. Autism Spectrum Disorder


 Disorder in cognition, social skills and
interactions.
-e.g.: no eye contacts, regard other people as
objects
 Repetition of idiosyncretic behavior and speech
(echolalia).

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 Like to arrange objects
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 Unusual memory on things he is obsessed in.

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 Hyperactivity
Characteristics  Inattention
– Unable to sit or
– difficulty in
concentrate for
listening, follow
very long. Display
instructions and
excessive
 Impulsivity easily distracted
movement and
unable to control – Cannot control self
their behavior. from doing something
spontaneously.

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An ADHD child does not have
the ability to control himself
from doing something which
is inappropriate.

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 What is it meant by ‘specific learning
difficulties’?

 What are the different types of


‘specific learning difficulties’?

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Specific learning difficulties

 Speech and  Learning


communication Difficulties (LD)
disorder - dysgraphia
- aphasia - dyscalculia
- dyslexia

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 Aphasia
Difficulty in understanding or using
speech.
Expressive aphasia – Difficulty
in producing speech but
Two types understand the meaning of
of Aphasia words.

Receptive aphasia – Difficulty in


understanding verbal information
but able to speak.

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Means difficulty in learning speech,
reading, calculation and reasoning.
Cause is related to perception
process.
Children with learning disabilities are
physically normal and have normal
intelligence.

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Dylexia is ‘a disorder among children who
went through the same learning
experience in the conventional classroom,
but fail to acquire language skills such as
reading, writing and spelling appropriate
for their intellectual ability”.

World Federation of Neurology


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Difficulty in showing
directions

Difficulty in spelling
and reading

Dropping letters in
writing or writing in
opposite directions

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Example of a 9 year old
child’s writing. Look at
no. 5, 4 dan 9.

Writing and
spelling of a 15
year old student
(Form 3) in
answering exam
question.

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Brain of a child Brain of achild with
without Dyslexia Dyslexia.

Visual nerves sending


messages to the language Confusion of messages sent
processing area for to the language areas.
interpretation. ( Hornsby, 1995 )
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Difficulty in learning
mathematical calculation and
concepts.
Not necessarily cannot read.

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Better not to eat today
2 curry puffs
maybe they will laugh at
.30 sen
me if I am wrong… or
each…..
they will scold me…….
RM2.enough
or not???!!!

Unable to understand the concept of


money
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 Difficulty in producing writing
Writing of a 9
year old child.
First line is
teacher’s writing.
Addition of ‘a ‘or
‘9’ and problem in
writing on the
line.

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Exercise

Discuss with a friend and state


which type of disorder is
relevant for the following case.

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 Daphne is quite an intelligent child and
often produce creative and bright ideas.
However she is rather slow in writing notes
and often does not complete her
homework. Daphne often did not follow
instructions and made mistakes in her
written answers. Many regard her as
careless and does not focus while learning
and this is stress for Daphne.

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 1.What factors can inhibit giftedness
and talent development?

 What are the two major approaches to


education of the gifted, and how do
they differ from one another?

 Discuss the roles of teachers in


educating children with special needs.

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Characteristics:
Active and alert
Long attention span
Learn to read at an
early age
Good at many things

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• Like school and like
learning

• Subject to the same


psychological and
physical problems like
other students.

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Have unique
learning needs
perfectionist
At risk dropping out
if needs are not
looked into
At risk not achieving
achievement
potentials
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Should be suitable to
their needs and abilities

< Examples: >


- Ability Grouping
- Inclusive Education
- Remedial Program
- Enrichment and Acceleration 47
Acceleration
An approach in Enrichment
which students An approach in
with special gifts or which additional
talents are placed learning experiences
in grade levels are provided for
ahead of their age students with special
peers in one or gifts or talents while
more academic the students remain
subjects. in the grade levels
appropriate for their
ages.

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There are children
They need to be who experienced
identified early in physical/
order for their
special needs to be
psychomotor,
fulfilled and their cognitive and
potentials can be psychosocial
fully developed. development
different from the
normal children.
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 Smith,D.D. (2006). Introduction to
Special Education. Boston:Pearson
Education.

 Hallahan,D.P. & Kauffman, J.M. (2006).


Exceptional Learners, Boston: Pearson
Education.

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