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Stage Emission
Pollution may be defined as the addition of undesirable
material into the environment as a result of human
activities. The agents which cause environmental pollution
are called pollutants.

A pollutant may be defined as a physical, chemical or

biological substance released into the environment which is
directly or indirectly harmful to humans and other living

Pollution may be of the following types: Air pollution,
Noise pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Thermal
pollution and Radiation pollution.

In order to control environmental pollution, the

Government of India has passed the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986 (Bhopal disaster) to protect and
improve the quality of our air, water and soil
Air pollution may be defined as the presence of any
solid, liquid or gaseous
substance including noise and radioactive radiation in
the atmosphere in such concentration that may be
directly and/or indirectly injurious to humans or other
living organisms.

Air Pollution
An ever-increasing use of fossil fuels in power plants,
industries, transportation, mining, construction of
buildings, stone quarries had led to air pollution.

Fossil fuels contain small amounts

of nitrogen and sulphur.
These gases react with
the water vapour present in
Acid rain corrodes the marble
the atmosphere to
monuments like Taj Mahal.
form sulphuric acid and nitric
This phenomenon is called
acid. The acids drop down with
as Marble cancer.
rain, making the rain acidic.
This is called acid rain.

Air Pollution The combustion of fossil fuels

Presence of high levels of all
these pollutants causes
also increases the number of
visibility to be lowered,
suspended particles in the air.
especially in cold weather
These suspended particles
when water also condenses out
could be unburnt carbon
of the air. This is known
particles or substances called
as smog and is a visible
indication of air pollution
Air pollution is one of the
greatest threats in the world
right now, and in a country like
India is facing some serious air
India with a population of
pollution issues since last 10
almost a 130 million(17% of
years and it is increasing at an
world’s population), it is
alarming rate.

Air pollution
already getting difficult to
breathe in most of the
metropolitan cities.

in India Researchers say that if the

pollution level keeps on
increasing at the present rate,
the life expectancy would drop
at least 10 years in some parts india/
of the country by 2022
 India leads the pack in the top number of
polluted cities in the world with home to 13 in
the top 20 and 33 in the top 100 most polluted
cities. The statistics are mind-boggling and the
effects are catastrophic.
 The most polluted cities are spread across
North India, starting from Rajasthan and then
moving along the Indo-Gangetic belt to West
Bengal. While the discussions about air

Air pollution in
pollutions are centring around Delhi, other
cities are not very far behind.

 Predictably, Delhi tops the list of the most
polluted city but, it is followed closely by
Ghaziabad, Allahabad, Bareilly, Faridabad,
Alwar, Ranchi, Kanpur, Patna and Jharia,
Kusunda and Basacola in Jharkhand.

 Source:
The main cause of this exponential increase in the
pollution levels is the fuel-thirsty vehicles. Automobiles
are the primary source of air pollution in India’s major

Automobiles In India, transportation sector emits an estimated 261

tonnes of CO2, of which 94.5% is contributed by road
transport. The transport sector in India consumes about

and Pollution
17% of total energy and responsible for a 60% production
of the greenhouse gases from various activities.

The pollution from vehicles is due to discharge like CO,

unburnt HC, Pb, NO2 and SO2 and SPM mainly from
Automobiles and Pollution

 Vehicles in major metropolitan

cities are estimated to account for
70% of CO, 50% of HC, 30- 40% of
NOx, 30% of SPM and 10% of SO2 of
the total pollution load of these Type of Count in Count in Avg. annual
vehicle 2001-2002 2012-2013 growth rate
cities, of which two-third is
contributed by two-wheelers Passenger
669719 3233561 34.8%
162508 831744 37.4%
 These high levels of pollutants are vehicles
mainly responsible for respiratory 2-wheelers 4271327 15721180 24.0%
and other air pollution-related 3-wheelers 212748 839742 27.0%
ailments including lung cancer,
asthma, etc., which is significantly
higher than the national average.
 We all know what a vehicle needs to
run, Fuel. And we all also know when
fuel burns what is released, Exhaust
gases. We all know this as well, that
exhaust gases are harmful for us
 Exhaust gases from vehicles mainly
consist of these pollutants:

Automobiles  Carbon monoxide (CO)

and Pollution 

Nitrogen oxide
Sulphur dioxide
 Lead compounds
 Particulate matter
 Un-burnt hydrocarbons
 These pollutants are released into the
air in loads of amount daily
Automobiles and Pollution
 There are many gases that are listed as
harmful substances, but there are also
fine particulate matter that are
Automobiles emitted out of car exhausts. These
Particulate Matters (PM) remain
and Pollution directly suspended in air at low
altitudes and affect human health
Automobiles and
 The pie chart shown, displays the
concentration of the particulate
matter generated in a metro city
like Delhi.
 It clearly depicts that transport
contributes to 22.5 % of the PM
 These fine particles are
extremely harmful.
Effects on health

These enormous The PM2.5 (Particulate The effect of air Respiratory and lung
amounts of pollutants matter of 2.5 pollution involves a lot of diseases, including:
can lead to many health micrometres) and PM10 illnesses from irritation Asthma attacks
issues. Especially the (Particulate matter if 10 of eyes, nose, mouth and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
particulate matter which micrometre) has been throat or diminished Disease –COPD
is classified on the basis proved to cause energy levels, headache Reduced lung function
of their size, can be respiratory and and dizziness to Pulmonary cancer – caused by a
hazardous to human cardiovascular diseases. potentially more serious series of carcinogen chemicals
health. conditions like: that enter the body through
 Several efforts were made before the
establishment of the Environmental
Protection act of 1986, however none of
them were well structured.
 There were no measurement standards in
place, no restrictions on production of

The need for 

Co2 and other harmful gases.
Hence it was necessary to create emission
Emission standards that would monitor the level of
harmful gases and particles in the
Standards environment.
 These emission standard would also help
in systematically reducing the impact of
these gases on the environment.
 Hence the Central Pollution Control Board
came up with the Bharat Stage Standard
Emissions for automobiles in 2000
 Bharat stage emission standards (BSES) are
emission standards instituted by
the Government of India to regulate the output
of air pollutants from internal combustion
engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment,
including motor vehicles. The standards and
the timeline for implementation are set by the

Bharat Stage Central Pollution Control Board under the

Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate
Emission  The standards, based on European
regulations were first introduced in 2000.
Standards Progressively stringent norms have been rolled
out since then. All new vehicles manufactured
after the implementation of the norms have to
be compliant with the regulations.
 While the norms help in bringing down
pollution levels, it invariably results in
increased vehicle cost due to the improved
technology & higher fuel prices
 BSES focus on the reduction of
emissions mainly, Co2 and the
improvement of fuels to increase
 Emissions generated from vehicles are
measured in terms of C02/ltr or
Bharat Stage Co2/gallons.
 This indicates how many grams of Co2
Emission Norms is generated for every litre of fossil
fuel burned by vehicles.
 To understand the emission norms and
restrictions its important to understand
how vehicles burn fuel and what are
the products obtained out of this
 This is an octane ring of hydrocarbons ( Fossil Fuel). When this fuel is burnt ,
energy is produced along with substances such as Co2, Co, No2, and unburnt
 Majority result of this reaction is C02 however.
 The following equations describe how much Co2 is produced per Litre of petrol.
 This is the number used by emission standards to classify vehicles.

1 gallon = 5.624 lbs =2.55kg

For every 5.6 lbs of fuel burnt 17.4 lbs of Co2 is produced.

1 gallon of fuel produces = 17.4 lbs of Co2 is produced

1 litre of fuel produces = 2.08 kgs of Co2

 1991 – Idle CO Limits for Petrol Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles,
Mass Emission Norms for Petrol Vehicles.
 1992 – Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles.
 1996 – Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Petrol and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment
of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Petrol.
 1998 – Cold Start Norms Introduced.
 2000 – India 2000 (Equivalent to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat
Stage II Norms for Delhi.
 2001 – Bharat Stage II (Equivalent to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG
& LPG Vehicles.

2003 – Bharat Stage II (Equivalent to Euro II) Norms for 13 major cities.
2005 – From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Equivalent to Euro III) Norms for 13 major cities.
 2010 – Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 2-wheelers, 3-wheelers and 4-wheelers for entire
country whereas Bharat Stage – IV (Equivalent to Euro IV) for 13 major cities for only 4-
 2017 – Bharat Stage IV Norms for all vehicles.
 2018 - BS-VI fuel norms from April 1, 2018 in Delhi instead of 2020
 2020 – Proposed date for country to adopt Bharat Stage VI norms for cars, skipping Bharat
Stage V
Classifications of Vehicles

Trucks and Buses

Light duty diesel vehicles

Light duty petrol vehicles

4 wheelers

2 wheelers
Classifications of Vehicles

 The emission norms for each segment of vehicles are

decided in the BSES.
 2 wheelers are more efficient and lighter with smaller
capacity engines, hence their emissions are lower.
 Trucks and buses with large diesel engines have higher
emissions and hence the emission norms are
implemented accordingly.
 2 stroke engines emit more gases and unburnt
hydrocarbons as they do not burn the fuel completely
, hence 2 stroke engines are banned.
 4 wheelers have the most stringent norms as they
have a variety of engines with variety of emissions.
 The Emission norms were implemented
in stages, with the norms getting
stricter every few years, allowing the
manufacturers to make changes and
reduce emissions of the vehicles. The
first strict norm to be implemented
nation wide was Bharat Stage 2.
 These emissions were enforced in Delhi
Bharat Stage 2 in 2000 and later throughout the
country by 2005.
 This made it compulsory for the
vehicles on the road to have a catylitic
converter. This doesn’t let harmful
gases such as Co2, carbon monoxide
and nitrogen dioxide to pass through
the exhaust.
 This stage limited the emissions of
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and
unburnt hydrocarbons.
 For Petrol :
CO – 2.2 g/km
HC+ NOx – 0.5 g/km
Bharat Stage 2 PM – no limit
 For Diesel:
CO – 1.0 g/km
HC+ NOx – 0.7 g/km
PM – 0.08 g/km
 This stage was implemented in 10 cities in 2005 and
nationwide by April 1st 2010.
 The emission norms led to phasing out of two stroke
engines of two-wheelers. The electronic controls were
also introduced keeping in view vehicular emissions.
 As per ARAI, the exhaust emissions for BS-III two-
wheelers direct that the petrol-powered engine should
Bharat Stage 3 have carbon monoxide (CO) restricted to 1.00 g/km and
Hydrocarbon + Nitrous oxide (HC + NOx) emission level
should also not be more than 1.00 g/km.
 The diesel models emitted a peak carbon monoxide of
0.64 g/km, a nitrous oxide of 0.50 g/km, and Hydro
carbons+Nitrogen Oxides discharge of 0.56 g/km.
Furthermore, the Sulphur content in the Bharat Stage
III-compliant fuels was restricted to 100 PPM.
 This was the biggest shift so far in terms of
stringent norms and changes required by the
 BS4 was made mandatory across the country in
April 2017
 The pollutants from petrol-powered passenger
vehicles were restricted to a Carbon Monoxide
emission of 1.0 g/km, Hydro carbons+Nitrogen
Oxides discharge of 0.18 g/km, and Respirable
suspended particulate matter discharge of 0.025.
 The diesel models emitted a peak carbon
Bharat Stage 4 monoxide of 0.50 g/km, a nitrous oxide of 0.25
g/km, and Hydro carbons+Nitrogen Oxides
discharge of 0.30 g/km. Also, the Sulphur content
in the Bharat Stage IV-compliant fuels was
restricted to 50 PPM.
 In order to convert BSIII-compliant engines to BSIV
units, car manufacturers added bigger catalytic
converters to minimise nitrogen-based emissions.
Additionally, the carmakers tweaked the ECU to
ensure more efficient combustion. BSIV motors
also received modified air intakes and exhaust
 In order to comply with the BSIV
norms, 2- and 3-wheeler manufacturers
will have to fit an evaporative emission
control unit, which should lower the
amount of fuel that is evaporated when
the motorcycle is parked.
 BS IV standards introduced several new
Bharat Stage 4 requirements, including
 tightened NOx+HC emission limits,
harmonization of the emission testing
cycle and the definition of motorcycle
classes with the UNECE Global
Technical Regulation 2 (GTR-2).
 BS IV can be achieved by either of 2
technologies :
 EGR - Exhaust gas recirculation , i.e.
reusing the exhaust gases to use the
unburnt fuel.
 SCR - Selective Catalytic reduction ,i.e.
urea reacts with Nox to form N2 and
Bharat Stage 4  BS 4 also implemented newer fuel
specifications ,mainly with lower
sulphur content. This required oil
producer and manufactures to make
changes to the engines so that the
vehicles can be operated on the stage
4 fuel.
Fuel requirements for BS 4
 Supreme court passed the ruling that no
BS 3 cars would be sold in in India post
April 2017. This imposed several
challenges for automobile manufacturers
 The Auto Industry had been ready with
BS4 manufacturing since 2010. However,
the sale of BS4 vehicles was not possible,
Challenges nationwide, due to lack of BS4 fuel.
 The ban on BS3 vehicles was imposed on a
with BS4 short notice, leaving a relatively small
amount of time for the manufacturers to
sell the current inventory of BS3 cars.
 “An over of 8.24 lakh BS-III vehicles
remained unsold till date because of
which many automakers will have to
suffer a major loss.” –
 “Reports suggest that as of March 20th
2017 Ashok Leyland had an inventory of
about 17,500 units of BS-III vehicles.”
 “Few reports suggest that Hero
Motocorp has an inventory of over 3.28
lakh two-wheelers which are BS-III
compliant whose value is estimated to
Challenges over Rs 1,000 crore.”
 With the implementation of BS4 , the
with BS4 manufacturers were required to fit new
electronics, bigger catalytic convertors
and tweak the engines. This meant an
increase in the price of the cars.
 The price of the diesel cars increased
even more than petrol cars, which
made the sale of slow moving models
even more difficult.
Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) will bring much-needed
changes in the Indian automobile industry in terms of
pollutant emissions.

Bharat Stage 6
With this emission norm coming into effect, India will
come at par with the US, European countries and
other advanced automotive markets across the globe.

The Supreme Court has announced that the Indian

automotive industry will transit from the Bharat Stage
(BS)-IV emission norms to the BS-VI emission norms on
April 1, 2020. From this date onwards, only BS-VI
compliant vehicles will be sold in the country.
 The extent of sulphur is the major
difference between Bharat Stage IV
and Bharat Stage VI norms. BS-IV fuels
contain 50 parts per million (ppm)
sulphur, the BS-VI grade fuel only has
10 ppm sulphur .
 NOx emission will come down by
approximately 25% for the petrol
engine and 68% for the diesel engines.
Bharat Stage 6  The PM emission will see a substantial
decrease of 80% in diesel engines.
 OBD will become mandatory for every
vehicle and it will help monitor the
pollution caused by the vehicle in real
 RDE (Real Driving Emission) will be
introduced for the first time that will
measure the emission in real-world
conditions and not just under test
 Bharat Stage VI norms will also change
the way particulate matter is
measured. It will now be measured by
number standard instead of mass
standard thereby, regulating the fine
Bharat Stage 6 particulate matter as well.
 The reason behind making OBD
mandatory is to make sure that the
emission control component work at its
optimum efficiency at all times. OBD
port will help to detect the
malfunction with the help of the error
codes sent by the malfunctioning
Technology Challenges in Shifting from BS

 To keep both PM and NOx level under check, the OEMs would require diverse
technologies to work in tandem. A Diesel particulate filter (DPF) will be fitted
in the automobile to expel particulate matters from the exhaust gas.
Technology Challenges in Shifting from BS IV to BS

 Similarly, for NOx

reduction, selective
catalytic reduction
(SCR) and exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR) will
be used. In a nutshell,
the engine will now a
have a purification
plant built into them.
Technology Challenges in Shifting from BS

 These components and standards will have to be calibrated, tested and validated.
 The process will be akin to an extensive R&D and will require revamping the
automotive product development processes.
 The cost involved in such a transition is estimated to be huge and some of this cost
may have to be passed on to the end-users.
 The increase in weight resulting from the inclusion of these devices has also to be
kept at its minimum in order not to affect the fuel-efficiency of the engine which
is one of the major deciding factors for the car buyers.
 Apart from the emission-related changes, major tweaking of the electronics of the
vehicle will also be required.
 Automotive OEMs, suppliers and automotive embedded software and hardware
providers will have to work together to develop and update ECUs for continuous
monitoring of the engine’s increased complexity as well as real-time emission.
Effect of Emission Standards
Effect of Emission Standards