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(REGD NO. 312206831013)

Under the Guidance of


Department Of Instrument Technology
A.U. College of Engineering (A)
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

 Water heating is a thermodynamic process where a

source of energy is used to heat water.
 In normal geysers we are facing a trouble due to
insufficient water level and temperature in the geyser.
 In many cases these geysers are damaged due to
excessive heating of the coil in absence of water and
using water from before it reaches sufficient temperature.
 When we want to draw water from the geyser the water
comes out irrespective of the temperature and water level
in it.

 Controlling based on the water temperature and

water level in geyser would improve the energy
efficiency of the geyser and there by heat loss can be
 Electric geyser is automated in such a way, that the
outlet valve will open only when the required amount of
water and temperature present in the geyser.

 Volume of hot water

 Initial water temperature
 Temperature of hot water used for bathing
 A simplified solution to calculate electricity units is
 Power required for heating = Volume of Water x
Temperature Difference (kcal/hour)
 1 kcal/hour = 0.0012 kW = 0.0012 units
 The power required to heat 10 liters of water from 25°C to 40°C
is 180 watts.
 The power required to heat 10 liters of water from25°C to 60°C
is 420 watts. So, to increase 20oC temperature the power
required is 240 watts.
 For every 5°C rise in temperature the heater consumes 60 watts
 Human body can’t handle water with temperature above 40°C.
 If we allow to heat water above 40°C it cause to wastage of
power and water.
 If water temperature reaches 40°C the Micro-controller
automatically turns off the heater there by we can save the
 If the water in tank is heated up to 60oC we cannot use this water.
o o
 To reduce the temperature of water from 60 C to 40 C we must add
normal water which is at room temperature 25oC.
 The amount of water required to bring temperature from 60 C to 40 C
The energy amount going out of the warm water is equal to the energy
amount going into the cool water
Volume * temperature difference * Cp = volume * temperature difference
10 * (60-40) * 4.186 = X * (40-25) * 4.186
X = 13.33 L
o o
 To reduce the temperature of 10 liters water from 60 C to 40 C, extra
13.33 liters of water must be added. There by a lot of water can be
 In household and commercial usage, most water heaters have
traditionally been the tank type.
 These consist of a cylindrical vessel or container that keeps water
continuously hot and ready to use.
 These may use electricity, natural gas, propane, heating oil, solar,
or other energy sources.
 INLET TUBE : Cold water enters the tank through this tube.
 OUTLET TUBE : Hot water goes out of the tank through this tube.
 HEATING ELEMENT: This element helps in heating the cold water.
 STEEL TANK: Should be constructed in such a way that it should
be able to withstand the pressure of water inside the tank.
heater from explosion during abnormal conditions like high
pressure and temperature.
 DRAIN VALVE: The drain valve is used for cleaning and

 Gas Water Heaters

 Tank less water Heaters

 Solar Water Heaters

 Gas water heaters are less energy efficient than
electric heaters.
 The cost of electricity itself makes the running costs
of an electric heater higher.
 Gas water heaters also have a much faster
recovery rate, which makes them a convenient
option for larger families.
 Tank less water heaters have no tank for storage purposes.
 The tank less system is heating water only as and when we need
it instead of continuously heating the water stored in a tank.
 By using tank less system effectively, money can be saved along
with saving energy such as gas and electricity.
 A tank less water heater has a better life time than the
conventional tank systems.
 The costs of various parts of a tank less system is very costly and
the actual cost of buying a tank less system is very high when
comparing to tank systems.
 Gas powered tank less systems results in the production of
greenhouse gases.
3.Solar water heaters
 A solar water heater consists of a collector to collect solar energy and
an insulated storage tank to store hot water.
 The solar energy incident on the absorber panel coated with selected
coating transfers the heat to the riser pipes underneath the absorber
 The water passing through the riser get heated up and is delivered the
storage tank.
 Around 60-80oC temperatures can be attained depending on solar
radiation, weather conditions and solar collector system efficiency.
 SWH system generates hot water on clear sunny days (maximum),
partially clouded (moderate) but not in rainy or heavy overcast day.

 A sensor is a device that detect and measures a physical quantity.

 The sensors used in this project are

1) LM35 temperature sensor

2) Conductivity type Level sensor

LM 35 Temperature sensor
 The LM35 is an integrated circuit sensor that can be used to
measure temperature with an electrical output proportional to the
temperature (in °C).

 Many IC temperature sensors can be connected directly to a

microcontroller because of the extensive signal processing
circuitry that is included in the sensor package
Advantages of LM35

 The output voltage of LM35 is higher than other sensors (such as

thermocouples) and therefore an amplifier circuit is not necessary.
 Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
 Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
 Easy integration with other devices
 Low cost
 Compact size

 Limited temperature range (usually -55ºC to 150ºC)

 External power supply is required

Conductivity type Level sensor
 The conductance method of liquid level measurement is based on
the electrical conductance of the measured material.
 which is usually a liquid that can conduct a current with a low-
voltage source (normally <20 V). Hence the method is also
referred to as a conductivity system.
 Conductance is a relatively low-cost, simple method to detect and
control level in a vessel.
 They are very simple to install and safe to use.
Block diagram
Circuit diagram
 This system mainly consists of following components
1) Micro – controller
2) Level sensor
3) Temperature sensor
4) Liquid Crystal Display
5) Relays
6) Power supply
7) Valve
 When we need to draw water from the geyser the Micro-
Controller determines the water level in the tank and temperature
of water in the geyser.
 When water level in the geyser is high that means required
amount of water is in geyser and also temperature of water is
sufficient then only the output valve will open by Micro-Controller
through energizing the relay.
 If the water level in the geyser is low and temperature of water is
not sufficient the output valve will not open.
 The status of water levels in tank and also temperature of water
in the geyser can be displayed on LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY.
 Micro controller can operate the output valve by energizing and
de-energizing the relay.
 The above figure shows the basic relay driver circuit.
 An NPN transistor BC547 is being used to control the relay.
 The transistor is driven into saturation(turned ON) when a LOGIC
1 is written on the PORT PIN thus turning ON the relay.
 The relay is turned OFF by writing LOGIC 0 on the port pin.
 A diode (1N4007/1N4148) is connected across the relay coil;
this is done so as to protect the transistor from damage due to
the BACK EMF generated in the relay's inductive coil when the
transistor is turned OFF.
PIC Micro Controller
 PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontroller made by
Microchip Technology. The name PIC initially referred to
"Peripheral Interface Controller“ .
 PIC microcontrollers were the first RISC microcontroller.
 Most popular by industry developers and hobbyists
 Low cost

 Availability

 Extensive application notes

 Serial programming
 Why PIC16F877A is very popular?
 This is because PIC16F877A is very cheap. Apart from that it is
also very easy to be assembled. Additional components that you
need to make this IC work is just a 5V power supply adapter, a
20MHz crystal oscillator and 2 units of 22pF capacitors.
 What is the advantages of PIC16F877A?
 This IC can be reprogrammed and erased up to 10,000 times.
Therefore it is very good for new product development phase.
 What is the disadvantages of PIC16F877A?
 This IC has no internal oscillator so you will need an external
crystal of other clock source.
Pin diagram
 A relay is an electrically operating switch.
 Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field
which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts.

 There are two types of relays

1) NO- The contacts are open until the coil of the relay is energized.
2) NC- The contacts are closed until the coil of the relay is energized
 Advantages of relays:
1) Relays can switch AC and DC.
2) Relays can switch high voltages.
3) Relays are a better choice for switching large currents(> 5A)
4) Relays can switch many contacts at once.
 Disadvantages of relays:
1) Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.
2) Relays cannot switch rapidly.
3) Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their
 By providing intelligence to the water heating system it overcome
the problems raised in normal water heating systems.
 Normal water heaters may damage due to excessive heating of
the coil in absence of water and also using water from heater
before it reaches the sufficient temperature.
 From the above problems the power and water is wasted.
 For 1oC rise in temperature heater consumes 12W power.
 In this water heating system we are not allowing to draw water
from the tank before it reaches to sufficient temperature and also
we are not allowing heater to heat water if the water level is