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• What makes a work of creative nonfiction?
• What are the different kinds of creative nonfiction?

It is a major genre of literature. It refers to

narratives of real events told in a literary
• Memoir - This account is narrowly focused on a single event in a person’s life.
• Biography - This is a detailed account of a person’s life written by another
• Autobiography - This is a written account of the life of a person written by the
subject himself or herself.
• Diary - This is a collection of discrete accounts of a person’s experiences and
thoughts each day.
• Essay - This writing features any subject that the writer personally comments
about or describes.

• The American Occupation (1898–1940)

The essay in English proved to be an influential medium.
The first volume of essays was Life and Success (1921) by
Zoilo Galang. The earliest travel writing was Notas de
Viaje (1930) by Maria Paz Mendoza-Guazon. The essay
“Literature and Society” by Salvador Lopez sparked a debate
on socially relevant literature versus aesthetic value. It won
in the first Commonwealth Literary Awards in 1940.

• The Japanese Occupation (1941–1945)

Because of censorship, only a few essays in English
were published. Horizons from My Nipa Hut,
published in 1941, is a collection of humorous essays
by Francisco B. Icasiano. I Am a Filipino, the most
famous essay of Carlos P. Romulo, was published the
same year.
1960’S AND 1970’S
• Literary journalism came into its own. It
appeared in some publications like
the Philippines Free Press and the Philippine
Graphic. It attracted some of the best Filipino
writers. Nick Joaquin, who sometimes used
the pen name Quijano de Manila, was the
most prolific among those writers.
• A few autobiographies and memoirs were published
like Memory’s Fictions: A Personal History (1993)
and Postscript to a Saintly Life(1994) by Bienvenido Santos.
Also, there were works on wars like Living With the Enemy: A
Diary of the Japanese Occupation (1999) by Pacita Pestaño-
Jacinto, and Breaking the Silence (1996) by Lourdes Reyes
• Also, published in this period were travel writings by Filipino
women like Sylvia Mayuga’s Earth, Fire & Air (1992) and
Kerima Polotan’s Adventures in a Forgotten Country (1999).

• This period saw the publication of collections of

short essays and narratives of young writers. Their
works were Wala Lang (2004) by Bud Tomas; Love,
Desire, Children, Etc.: Reflections of a Young
Wife (2005) by Rica Bolipata-Santos; The King of
Nothing To Do(2006) by Luis Katigbak; and Stressed
in the City (2007) by April T. Yap.

• It refers to narratives of real events told using

a literary style of writing. Some of its forms are
the memoir, the biography, the autobiography,
the diary, and the essay. In Philippine
Literature, the essay is the most common form
of creative nonfiction.
What makes this/these
book/s interesting for
the readers?
• What makes a piece of fiction popular?
• What are the different genres of the popular
• popular fiction and three of its genres, namely, the science fiction,
chick literature, and ghost stories.
• Popular fiction, also called genre fiction, refers to works of
literature that are intended for the masses or large audience. Its
main purpose is to appeal to the general public. Below are a few
features of popular fiction:
• Its story is plot-driven.
• Its characters are mostly stock figures.
• Its setting is either familiar or exotic.
• Its language is closer to everyday spoken language.
• It contains a lot of dialogues.
• Science fiction, also called sci-fi, at its core,
deals with science and technology. It is often
lumped with the fantasy and horror genres
under the broader term “speculative fiction.”
As this term suggests, sci-fi writers are often
preoccupied by the question “what if.”
• Pocholo Goitia’s short story “An Introduction to the
Luminescent” is an example of science fiction. It was
published in Philippine Speculative Fiction volume 1 in
2005. The story is set in the year 2105 in a mall described
as an “ultrasaur,” a massive structure that towers at two
kilometers and stretches at half kilometer. Magenta, one
of the characters, is a member of La Luminosa, a group of
biogenetically engineered people that live in the mall. This
mall is protected by “clone warriors” that hover in the air
using devices called gravity disruptors.
• Chick lit, is written by women who write
for women. The usual target readers are
young and single women, especially in
their 20s or 30s. The stories deal with real
life, usually love and relationships, and
they are written in a light-hearted tone.
• Tara Sering’s Getting Better is an example of chick
literature. The novella was published in the October
2002 issue of Cosmopolitan Philippines, a magazine
that targets contemporary women and that mostly
features topics regarding relationships, beauty,
fashion, and health. Told in the second person point
of view, the story tackles the life of a single woman
named Karen—how she was as a girlfriend, how she
dealt with cheating, and how she moved on.
• Ghost stories are part of Filipino pop
culture. They are a specific kind of stories
in the horror fiction genre. As the name
suggests, a ghost story features a ghost as
one of its characters. Like any story in the
horror fiction genre, a ghost story is
meant to scare its reader.
• Joel P. Salud’s “The Haunting at Concha
Cruz Drive” is an example of a ghost story.
It was published in True Philippine Ghost
Stories Book 1 in 2002. It tells the story of
three friends driving along a road named
Concha Cruz Drive which is known to be
haunted by ghosts of a young couple who
were victims of drag racing accident.
•Popular fiction refers to works of
literature whose main purpose is
to appeal to the general public. It
includes the science fiction genre,
chick literature, and ghost stories.