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Learning Progressions- Week 2 Assignment 2A

ITL 518 -National University

Professor Dobrinen

By: Rebecca Hustedde & Michael Muniz

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent a commitment
to integrate engineering design into the structure of science education by
raising engineering design to the same level as scientific inquiry. Providing
students a foundation in engineering design allows them to better engage in
and aspire to solve the major societal and environmental challenges they
will face in the decades ahead.
K-2nd Grade
Learning Progressions
Core Ideas
K-2-ETS1.A: Defining and delimiting engineering problems

★ A situation that people want to

change or create can be
approached as a problem to be
solved through engineering
★ Asking questions, making
observations, and gathering
information are helpful in
thinking about problems
★ Before beginning to design a
solution, it is important to clearly
understand the problem
K-2-ETS1.B: Developing possible solutions
★ Designs can be conveyed through
sketches, drawings or physical
models. These representations are
useful in communicating ideas for
a problem’s solution to other
K-2-ETS1.C: Optimizing the design solution
★ Because there is always more
than one possible solution to a
problem, it is useful to compare
and test designs.
Structure and Function

The shape and stability of structures

of natural and designed objects are
related to the functions.
Science and
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
★ Ask questions based on
observations to find more
information about the natural
and/or designed world(s)
★ Define a simple problem that can
be solved through the
development of a new or
improved object or tool
Developing and Using Models
★ Develop a simple model based on
evidence to represent a proposed
object or tool
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
★ Analyze data from tests of an
object or tool to determine if it
works as intended
Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Define a simple design problem reflecting a need
or a want that includes specified criteria for
success and constraints on materials, time, or


3rd-5th Grade Generate and compare multiple possible

solutions to a problem based on how well each
is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of
the problem.
Learning Progressions
NGSS 3-5-ETS1-3.
Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables
are controlled and failure points are considered
to identify aspects of a model or prototype that
can be improved.
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Asking questions and defining problems in 3–5 builds on grades K–2
experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.
Define a simple design problem that can be solved through the
development of an object, tool, process, or system and includes
several criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or
cost. (3-5-ETS1-1)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test

3rd-5th Grade solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to
include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to
support explanations or design solutions.
Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data
to serve as the basis for evidence, using fair tests in which
Science and Engineering variables are controlled and the number of trials considered. (3-5-
Practices Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2
experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing
explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena
and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.
Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on
how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design
problem. (3-5-ETS1-2)
3rd Grade-5th Grade
Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Questions are the engine that drive science and engineering.

Science asks
• What exists and what happens?
• Why does it happen?
• How does one know?

Engineering asks
• What can be done to address a particular human need or want?
• How can the need be better specified?
• What tools and technologies are available, or could be developed, for addressing this need?

Both science and engineering ask

• How does one communicate about phenomena, evidence, explanations, and design solutions?
3rd Grade-5th Grade
We consider eight practices to be essential elements of the K-12
science and engineering curriculum:

1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for

2. Developing and using models
3. Planning and carrying out investigations
4. Analyzing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions
(for engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
3rd Grade-5th Grade
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Because science seeks to enhance human understanding of the world, scientific

theories are developed to provide explanations aimed at illuminating the nature of
particular phenomena, predicting future events, or making inferences about past
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available
materials and resources (constraints). The success of a
designed solution is determined by considering the desired
features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for
solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each
one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each
takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
Research on a problem should be carried out before

3rd-5th Grade beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves

investigating how well it performs under a range of likely
conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2)
At whatever stage, communicating with peers about
proposed solutions is an important part of the design
Core Ideas process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3-
Tests are often designed to identify failure points or
difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that
need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution
Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine
which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and
the constraints. (3-5-ETS1-3)
3rd Grade-5th Grade
Engineering Design

How do engineers solve problems?

The design process—engineers’ basic approach to problem solving—involves many different

practices. They include problem definition, model development and use, investigation,
analysis and interpretation of data, application of mathematics and computational thinking,
and determination of solutions. These engineering practices incorporate specialized
knowledge about criteria and constraints, modeling and analysis, and optimization and
3rd Grade-5th Grade

What is the process for developing potential design solutions?

The creative process of developing a new design to solve a problem is a central element of
engineering. This process may begin with a relatively open-ended phase during which new
ideas are generated both by individuals and by group processes such as brainstorming.
3rd Grade-5th Grade
By the end of grade 5. Research on a problem should be carried out—for example, through
Internet searches, market research, or field observations—before beginning to design a
solution. An often productive way to generate ideas is for people to work together to
brainstorm, test, and refine possible solutions. Testing a solution involves investigating how
well it performs under a range of likely conditions.

There are many types of models, ranging from simple physical models to computer models.
They can be used to investigate how a design might work, communicate the design to others,
and compare different designs.
Influence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology on Society and the Natural World

People’s needs and wants change over time,

as do their demands for new and improved
technologies. (3-5-ETS1-1)

3rd-5th Grade Engineers improve existing technologies or

develop new ones to increase their benefits,
decrease known risks, and meet societal
demands. (3-5-ETS1-2)
Crosscutting Concepts
3rd Grade-5th Grade

How do science, engineering, and the technologies that result from them affect the ways in which people live? How do they affect the natural

Science and engineering affect diverse domains—agriculture, medicine, housing, transportation,

energy production, water availability, and land use, among others. The results often entail deep
impacts on society and the environment, including some that may not have been anticipated when
they were introduced or that may build up over time to levels that require attention.
Students in kindergarten through fifth grade begin to develop an understanding of the
four disciplinary core ideas: physical sciences; life sciences; earth and space sciences; and
engineering, technology, and applications of science. In the earlier grades, students begin
by recognizing patterns and formulating answers to questions about the world around
them. By the end of fifth grade, students are able to demonstrate grade-appropriate
proficiency in gathering, describing, and using information about the natural and designed
world(s). The performance expectations in elementary school grade bands develop ideas
and skills that will allow students to explain more complex phenomena in the four
disciplines as they progress to middle school and high school. While the performance
expectations shown in kindergarten through fifth grade couple particular practices with
specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many
practices that lead to the performance expectations.
Fairy Tale STEM Activities - STEM Tales JUMBO BUNDLE. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Ice Cube Challenge: NGSS Engineering Standards K-2. (n.d.). Retrieved from

K-2-ETS1 Engineering Design. (n.d.). Retrieved from

NGSS Kindergarten Poster Set. (n.d.). Retrieved from


STEM Engineering Challenge Pack ~ Oregon Trail Challenges ~ Set of Five! (n.d.). Retrieved from

The Cat House Challenge: NGSS Engineering Standards K-2-ETS. (n.d.). Retrieved from
References Continued.

3-5-ETSI. (2019) Retrieved from

SEM. (2019) A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Retrieved