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v Ocean energy is replenished by the sun and through
tidal influences of the moon and sun gravitational forces
v Near-surface winds induce wave action and cause wind-
blown currents at about 3% of the wind speed
v Tides cause strong currents into and out of coastal
basins and rivers
v Ocean surface heating by some 70% of the incoming
sunlight adds to the surface water thermal energy,
causing expansion and flow
v Wind energy is stronger over the ocean due to less drag,
although technically, only seabreezes are from ocean
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v enewable energy systems transform incoming solar energy and its
alternate forms (wind and river flow, etc.), usually without pollution-
causing combustion
v This energy is ³renewed´ by the sun and is ³sustainable´
v enewable energy is sustainable indefinitely, unlike long-stored,
depleting energy from fossil fuels
v enewable energy from wind, solar, and water power emits no
pollution or carbon dioxide
v enewable energy is ³nonpolluting´ since no combustion occurs
(although the building of the components does in making steel, etc.,
for conversion machines does pollute during manufacture)

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v ÷uel combustion produces ³greenhouse gases´ that are believed to

lead to climate change (global warming), thus combustion of
biomass is not as desirable as other forms
v Biomass combustion is also renewable, but emits CO2 and
v Biomass can be heated with water under pressure to create
synthetic fuel gas; but burning biomass creates pollution and
v Nonrenewable energy comes from fossil fuels and nuclear
radioactivity (process of fossilization still occurring but trivial)
v Nuclear energy is not renewable, but sometimes is treated as
though it were because of the long depletion period

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v `illions of years of incoming solar energy were captured

in the form of coal, oil, and natural gas; current usage
thus exceeds the rate of original production
v Coal may last 250 to 400 years; estimates vary greatly;
not as useful for transportation due to losses in
converting to liquid ³synfuel´
v We can conserve energy by reducing loads and through
increased efficiency in generating, transmitting, and
using energy
v Efficiency and conservation will delay an energy crisis,
but will not prevent it
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v rotential Energy: rE = mh
v Kinetic Energy: KE = ½ mv2 or ½ mu2

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v Cost of installation, operation, removal and restoration

v Compare cost/watt & cost/watt-hour vs. other sources
v elative total costs compared to other sources
v Externality costs aren¶t included in most assessments
v Cost of money (inflation) must be included (2 to 5%/year)
v Life of energy plant varies and treated as linear depreciation to zero
v Tax incentives or credits offset the hidden subsidies to fossil fuel
and nuclear industry
v Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) require early funding to
justify permitting

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v Over or in proximity to the ocean surface, the wind

moves at higher speeds over water than over land

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v Wind energy results from uneven heating of the atmosphere

v Wind resources vary greatly worldwide; strong over oceans
v rower is proportional to the cube of the wind speed


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v Long fetch (distance) of unhindered wind increases

speed and available energy beyond land installations
v Offshore wind turbines diminish public outcry against
wind turbines (low visibility, monopod supports)
v Turbines are typically placed on concrete supports in
groups; rotors are often 80 m in diameter
v Turbines are also placed along a coast on the foreshore
area to intercept the prevailing wind from over the ocean
v `ust avoid bird migration routes; turbine ~20 to 30 rpm

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v rresent and planned offshore wind energy plants will

supply significant consumer demand and reduce need
for coal- and oil-fired plants and resultant pollution
v `iddlegrunden near Denmark
v Oil-drilling platforms
v Small auxiliary turbine
v rlatform design can be modified to support large
wind turbine

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v mssume a ³tube´ of air the diameter, D, of the rotor

v m = ʌ D2/4
v m length, L, of air moves through the turbine in t seconds
v L = u·t, where u is the wind speed
v The tube volume is V = m·L = m·u·t
v mir density, ȡ, is 1.225 kg/m3 (water density ~1000
v `ass, m = ȡ·V = ȡ·m·u·t, where V is volume
v Kinetic energy = KE = ½ mu2

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v Substituting ȡ·m·u·t for mass, and

m = ʌ D2/4 , KE = ½·ʌ/4·ȡ·D2·u3·t
v Theoretical power, rt = ½·ʌ/4·ȡ·D2·u3·t/t = 0.3927·ȡa·D2·u3,
ȡ (rho) is the density, D is the diameter swept by the rotor blades, and u is the speed
parallel to the rotor axis
v Betz Law shows 59.3% of power can be extracted
v re = rt·59.3%·Ȓr·Ȓt·Ȓg, where re is the extracted power, Ȓr is rotor
efficiency, Ȓt is transmission efficiency, and Ȓg is generator
v ÷or example, 59.3%·90%·98%·80% = 42% extraction of theoretical

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v Energy trade-offs required to
make rational decisions
v rV is expensive ($4 to 5 per    

watt for hardware + $5 per watt  

for shipping and installation =

$10 per watt)
compared to wind energy

v mre Compact ÷luorescent 
Lamps (C÷Ls) always better  !
to use than incandescent? " 
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v enewable energy is often intermittent, and storage

allows alignment with time of use.
v Compressed air, flywheels, weight-shifting (pumped
water storage at Niagara ÷alls)
v Batteries are traditional for small systems and electric
vehicles; first cars (1908) were electric
v >ydrogen can be made by electrolysis
v Energy is best stored as a financial credit through
³net metering´
v Net metering requires a utility to bill at the
same rate for buying or selling energy

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v Electricity and hydrogen are energy carriers, not natural fuels

v Electric transmission lines lose energy in heat (~2% to 5%); trades
loss vs. cost
v Line flow directional analysis can show where new energy plants are
required to reduce energy transmission
v >ydrogen is made by electrolysis of water, cracking of natural gas, or
from bacterial action (lab experiment level)
v Oil and gas pipelines carry storable energy
v ripelines (3ï´ or larger) can transport hydrogen without appreciable
energy loss due to low density and viscosity
v `ore efficient than 500 kV transmission line and is out of view

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v r rm: rublic tility egulatory rolicy mct of 1978. tility

purchase from and sale of power to qualified facilities; avoided
costs offsetting basis of purchases
v Energy rolicy mct of 1992 leads to deregulation
v ³NI`BYs´ rally to shrilly insist ³Not In `y Backyard´!
v Investment taxes and subsidies favor fossil and nuclear power
v >igh initial cost dissuades potential users; future is uncertain
v Lack of uniform state-level net metering hinders offsetting costs
v Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) require extensive and
expensive research and trade studies
v Numerous ³public interest´ advocacy groups are well-funded and
ready to sue to stop projects

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v enewable energy offers a
long-term approach to the
World¶s energy needs
v Economics drives the energy
selection process and short-
term (first cost) thinking leads
to disregard of long-term,
overall cost
v Increasing oil, gas, and coal
prices will ensure that the
transition to renewable energy
v Offshore and shoreline wind
energy plants offer a logical
approach to part of future
energy supplies

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v eneral:
v Sørensen, Bent.     
  San Diego: mcademic rress, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN 0-
v >enry, J. lenn and ary W. >einke.         Englewood Cliffs: rrentice-
>all, 728pp., 1989. 0-13-283177-5, TD14ï.>45, ï20.8-dc19
v Brower, `ichael. D 
 Cambridge `m: The `IT rress, 1992. 0-2ï2-02349-0, TJ807.9. ïB7ï,
v Di Lavore, rhilip. Energy: M 
 NY: John Wiley & Sons, 414pp., 1984. 0-471-89ï83-7l,
TJ1ï3.2.D54, ï21.042.
v Bowditch, Nathaniel. m      Washington: SrO, >.O. rub. No. 9.
v >arder, Edwin L. ÷   
  NY: John Wiley & Sons, 3ï8pp., 1982. 0-471-0835ï-
9, TJ1ï3.9.>37, 333.79. Tidal Energy, pp. 111-129.
v Wind:
v ratel, `ukund . m  
  Boca aton: CC rress, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN 0-8493-
1ï05-7, TK1541.r38 1999, ï21.31¶213ï
v ipe, raul. m 
    White iver Junction, VT: Chelsea reen rub. Co., 1993.
0-930031-ï4-4, TJ820.57, ï21.4¶5
v Johnson, ary L, Wind Energy Systems. Englewood Cliffs NJ: rrentice->all, Inc. TK 1541.Jï4 1985.
ï21.4¶5; 0-13-957754-8.
v Waves:
v Smith, Douglas J. ³Big rlans for Ocean rower >inges on ÷unding and mdditional &D´.     , Nov.
2001, p. 91.
v Kotch, William J., ear mdmiral, SN, etired. Weather for the `ariner. mnnapolis: Naval Institute rress, 1983.
551.5, QC994.Kï4, Chap. 11, Wind, Waves, and Swell.
v Solar:
v Duffie, John and William m. Beckman.        NY: John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 920 pp., 1991.

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v eneral:
v ÷ederal Energy egulatory Commission
v Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon population

v Tidal:

v Waves:

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v á  
v on OTEC systems

v Wind Energy elist
v Wind energy home powersite elist

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U  5  
v nits:
v rower in watts (joules/second)
v Energy (power x time) in watt-hours
v Constants:
v 1 m = 0.3048 ft exactly by definition
v 1 mile = 1.ï09 km; 1m/s = 2.204 mi/h (mph)
v 1 mile2 = 27878400 ft2 = 2589988.11 m2
v 1 ft2 = 0.09290304 m2; 1 m2 = 10.7ï391042 ft2
v 1 ft3 = 28.32 L = 7.34 gallon = 0.02832 m3; 1 m3 = 2ï4.17 S gallons
v 1 m3/s = 15850.32 S gallons/minute
v g = 32.2 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2; 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
v mir density, ȡ (rho), is 1.225 kg/m3 or 0.0158 pounds/ft3 at 20ºC at sea level
v Solar Constant: 13ï8 W/m2 exoatmospheric or 342 W/m2 surface (80 to 240
v 1 >r = 550 ft-lbs/s = 42.42 BT /min = = 74ï W (J/s)
v 1 BT = 252 cal = 0.293 Wh = 1.055 kJ
v 1 atmosphere = 14.ï9ï psi = 33.9 ft water = 101.325 kra = 7ï cm >g =1013.25
v 1 boe (42- gallon barrel of oil equivalent) = 1700 kWh
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v Electricity:
v E=I; r=I2 ; r=E2/, where  is resistance in ohms, E is volts,
I is current in amperes, and r is power in watts
v Energy = r t, where t is time in hours
v Turbines:
v ra = ½ ȡ m2 u3, where ȡ (rho) is the fluid density, m = rotor area
in m2, and u is wind speed in m/s
v r =  ȡ T, where r = pressure (Nm-2 = rascal)
v Torque, T = r/Ȧ, in Nm/rad, where r = mechanical power in
watts, Ȧ is angular velocity in rad/sec
v rumps:
v rm = gQmh/Ȓp W, where g=9.81 N/kg, Qm is mass capacity in
kg/s, h is head in m, and Ȓp is pump mechanical efficiency

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