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LESSON 1:

DEFINITION,
CHARACTERISTICS, AND TYPES
OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 MODULE 1
GUIDE QUESTIONS

What are the varied definition of quantitative research?


What are the characteristics of quantitative research?
What are its different types/kinds?
What are the criteria for choosing or preferring one
particular type/kind over another?
PRETEST
KNOWING THE DIFFERENCE

Instructions: Each of the statements below describes


either quantitative or qualitative research. Write if the
following statements is a QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH OR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH.
PRETEST
KNOWING THE DIFFERENCE

1. Places more emphasis on the study of


phenomena from the perspective of those who
experience it.
2. Interested not only in examining the
phenomenon but also its causes.
PRETEST
KNOWING THE DIFFERENCE

3. Immerses oneself and views meaning as more


context and time-specific, and in most cases not
generalizable
4. Attempts to remain independent or detached
from the phenomena that one studies
PRETEST
KNOWING THE DIFFERENCE

5. Uses interpretive frameworks


6. Concerned about findings that can be
generalized
7. Applies the deductive method
8. Applies the inductive method
PRETEST
KNOWING THE DIFFERENCE

9. Concerned about in-depth understanding of the


situation
10. Concerned about numerical data
DEFINING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Rappler news revealed that “Camarines Sur


Representative Leni Robredo is the biggest gainer
among vice presidential candidates in a
commissioned survey by Pulse Asia Research, Inc.,
released on March 15”
DEFINING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

1. It is “either descriptive, wherein subjects are


measured once, or experimental, wherein
subjects are measured before and after”
(Babbie 2010).
DEFINING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

2. Data is “gathered using structured instruments.


The results are based on large sample sizes that
are representative of the population and can be
replicated” (Babbie 2010)
DEFINING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

3. It has “clearly defined research questions to


which objective answers are sought”
(Babbie 2010)
DEFINING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

4. It aims “to classify features, count them, and


construct statistical models in an attempt to
explain what is observed” (Babbie 2010)
QUANTITATIVE PARADIGM

Question Answer
1. What is the nature of Reality is objective, singular,
reality? and separate from the
researcher

2. What is the relationship of Researcher is independent


the researcher to the subject from the subject for
of research? research
QUANTITATIVE PARADIGM

Question Answer
3. What is the role of values? Research is value-free and
unbiased

4. What is the language of Formal, based on set of


research? definitions, impersonal voice,
and uses accepted
quantitative words
QUANTITATIVE PARADIGM

Question Answer
5. What is the process of  Deductive process
research?  Cause and Effect
 Static design – categories
isolated before study
 Generalizations leading to
prediction, explanation, and
understanding
 Accurate and reliable
through validity and
reliability
DIFFERENTIATING THE QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGMS

Qualitative Research – an inquiry process of


understanding a social or human problem based
on building a complex, holistic picture formed
with words, reporting detailed view of informants
and conducted in a natural setting.
(Cresswell 1994, 2)
DIFFERENTIATING THE QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGMS
Quantitative Research – an inquiry into a social or
human problem based on testing a theory
composed of variables, measured with numbers,
and analyzed with statistical procedures in order
to determine whether the predictive
generalizations of the theory hold true.
(Creswell 1994, 2)
CAUSE = INDEPENDENT
AND EFFECT =
DEPENDENT
THE EFFECTS OF VITAMINS ON THE SLEEPING HABITS OF
SENIOR CITIZENS
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
1. Paradigm Positivism Positivism –
(Assumption about epistemological
the world) position that
advocates the
application of the
methods of the
natural sciences to
the study of social
reality and beyond
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
1. Paradigm Realism Realism – an
(Assumption about epistemological
the world) position that
acknowledge a
reality independent
of the senses that is
accessible to the
researcher’s tools
and theoretical
speculations.
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
2. Research Purpose Numerical This refers to
(rationale) Description frequency
distribution,
percentage, and
measures of central
tendencies like
mode, median and
mean
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
2. Research Purpose Causal explanation Relates to the
(rationale) meaning of
causality, which
refers to a concern
with establishing
causal connections
rather than mere
relationships
(Bryman 2008, 691)
THE EFFECTS OF VITAMINS ON THE
SLEEPING HABITS OF SENIOR CITIZENS
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
2. Research Purpose Prediction Is a statement
(rationale) about future based
on facts
(https://www.vocubo
lary.com/dictionary/
prediction).
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
3. Ontology (nature Nature of Social This refers to “what
of reality) Reality can be known and
how.” For example: “Is
the social world
patterned and
predictable or is the
social world continually
being constructed
through human
perspectives?”
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
4. Epistemology Objectivist Objectivist refers to the
(theory of notion that reality is
knowledge) “objective”, “out
there”, singular, and
apart from the
researcher, and it can
be measured
objectively using a
questionnaire or
instrument. (Creswell
1994)
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
5. Methodology Experimental/Man Refers to a type of
(aims of scientific ipulative quantitative research
investigation) where the researchers
manipulate one
variable and
control/randomize the
rest of the variables. It
has a control group and
subjects have been
randomly assigned
between groups.
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
6. Research Empirical Empirical Explanation is
Methods examination generally referred to as
(techniques and information that derived
tools) through observation or
experiment.This may also be
linked with empiricism, which
is an approach to the study of
reality that suggests that only
one knowledge gained
through experience and the
senses is acceptable.
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Orientation Characteristics Description
6. Research Measurement Measurement procedure for
Methods assigning symbols, letters, or
(techniques and numbers to empirical
tools) properties of variables
according to rules
(web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa6
96/696meas.htm). It is also the
process of observing and
recording the observations
collected as part of research
effort. (Trochim 2006)
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Orientation Characteristics Description


6. Research Hypothesis Hypothesis is an informed
Methods Testing speculation, which is set up to
(techniques and be tested, about the possible
tools) relationship between two or
more variables (Bryman 2008,
694). Hypothesis testing,
therefore, is checking if the
independent variable have a
relationship.
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Orientation Characteristics Description


6. Research Randomization Randomization is related to
Methods random assignment, a term
(techniques and used in connection with
tools) experiments to refer to the
random allocation of research
participants to the
experimental group and
control group.
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Orientation Characteristics Description


6. Research Research Is the sequence of
Methods protocol manipulations and
(techniques and measurement procedures
tools) that make up the experiment.
Its description should follow
exact sequence of how the
procedures were executed.
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Orientation Characteristics Description


6. Research Questionnaire A questionnaire is a collection
Methods of questions administered to
(techniques and respondents (Bryman 2008,
tools) 697)
DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Orientation Characteristics Description


7. Scientific Deductive An approach to the
Method (role of approach/testing relationship between theory
theory) of theory and research in which the
latter is conducted with
reference to hypotheses and
ideas inferred from the
former.
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
1. Measurement – is an important factor in
quantitative research, which is why reliability and
validity are embedded in its methodology.
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
Preoccupation Category Factors
Measurement Reliability – Stability – This means there is
speaks of “very little variation over time in
consistency the results obtained if it is
of a measure administered to a group and re-
of a concept. administered again.”
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
Preoccupation Category Factors
Measurement Reliability – Internal Reliability – This means
speaks of “consistency of the scale of index,
consistency whether respondents’ score on
of a measure any one indicator tend to be
of a concept. related to their scores on the
other indicators.”
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
Preoccupation Category Factors
Measurement Reliability – Inter-observer consistency – This
speaks of means “being cautious of the
consistency possibility of the inconsistency of
of a measure observers when a great deal of
of a concept. subjective judgement is involved,
such as recording of observations
or translating of data into
categories and when more than
one observer is involved.
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
Preoccupation Category Factors
Measurement Validity – Face Validity – the measure
refers to the reflects the content of the concept
issue question.
whether an Concurrent Validity – employs a
indicator criterion on which cases are
that is known to differ and that is
developed to relevant to the concepts in
measure question
concept
really gauges
that concept
Face Validity Example - People with expertise or
experience in a certain field might be asked to act as
judge to determine whether on the face of it, the measure
seems to reflect the concept in question.
Concurrent Validity Example – A new criterion measure of
job satisfaction can be absenteeism. To establish the
concurrent validity of this measure of job satisfaction, we
might look into how people who are satisfied with their
job are less likely to absent from work.
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
Preoccupation Category Factors
Measurement Validity – Predictive validity – uses future
refers to the criterion measure rather than a
issue contemporary one.
whether an Construct validity – deduces
indicator hypothesis from a theory that is
that is relevant to the concept.
developed to Convergent validity – the validity
measure of a measure ought to be gauged
concept by comparing it to measures of
really gauges the same concept developed
that concept through other measures.
• Predictive validity Example – The researcher would
take future levels of absenteeism as the criterion
against which that validity or a new measure of job
satisfaction would be examined.
• Construct validity example – Drawing upon the
impact of technology on the experience of work, the
researcher anticipate that people who are satisfied
with their job are less likely to work on routine jobs.
The relationship of job satisfaction and job routine.
• Convergent validity example – If we develop a
questionnaire measure of how much time managers
spend on various activities, we might examine its
validity by tracking a number of managers and using
a structured observation schedule to record how
much time is spent in various activities and their
frequency
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
2. Causality – Most quantitative research is
concerned about explanation.They are strong on
explaining why things happen in certain ways.
Hence, they are interested not only about the
phenomenon of things but also the causes of it.
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
3. Generalization – They pursue findings that can
be generalized beyond the margins of a certain
context in which the research was undertaken.
This area of concern reveals itself in social survey
research, in the attention that is often given to
the question of how one can create a
representative sample.
FOUR PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCHERS
4. Replication – the ability to repeat an important
component of an activity. The attempt to make
the procedures highly explicit is an intervention
to make an experiment capable of replication.
POST TEST: OPERATIONALIZE THE FIVE WAYS OF
ESTABLISHING VALIDITY BY GIVING EACH AN EXAMPLE
ONE WHOLE PAD

Ways of Establishing Examples


Validity
1. Face Validity
2. Concurrent Validity
3. Predictive Validity
4. Construct Validity
5. Convergent Validity