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Necessity of Cooling System
- Relative motion between two parts / mediums generates
heat due to ° 
.
- Similarly electric current flowing in a conducting medium/
material, generates heat due to
 
(I2R) 
.
- Unless heat so generated is effectively removed from the
affected parts/ medium, temperature of these parts/ medium
may rise beyond
 
  .
- Hence the necessity of having proper cooling arrangements
which essentially involves   °
°
°  
°°


 

 which could be gaseous,
liquid or solid form.
aptimizing Cooling Requirements /
Arrangements
Cooling Process has to be tackled in following three distinct stages:

: Minimization of Losses,
: Using Materials which can withstand higher temperatures µ
: Deploying effective and efficient cooling arrangements.

!     

Î Increase generation Voltage to reduce 


j  
Î As 
 (I) is a constant parameter for a specified MW rating and
generation Voltage, 
 
(R) can be reduced to lessen heat losses.
For this purpose, multiple conductors having very low specific
resistance per phase are used, to enhance the current carrying capacity.
Standards specify limiting 

  (A/mm2 ) for conductors.
!     



Î Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at
extremely low temperatures, characterized by exactly zero electrical
resistance and the exclusion of the interior magnetic field.The use of
such superconducting materials as conductors in machines would result
large savings in size of equipment, amount of conductor use, heating
losses and energy required for cooling.

Î The Iron Losses in the Generator Stator and Rotor Core is reduced by
selecting material with low reluctance.
The eddy currents formed by the changing magnetic flux in the core is
also minimized by fabricating the core with stampings coated with
insulating varnish etc.
ane of the commonly used material for stampings is Silicon Steel.
aptimizing Cooling Requirements /
Arrangements

!     

Î The Bearing Surface is made of Babbit, a lining with very low


coefficient of Friction ( ). Lower results in lower frictional losses,
and therefore requires less cooling.

Î PTFE (Poly tetra flouro ethylene), commonly known as teflon, has


been selected in countries like China and Russia for bearing surface.
aptimizing Cooling Requirements /
Arrangements

—
  

 

Insulating Material - Materials which withstand higher


temperatures are selected for insulation. Class F insulation
is normally used in the Stator Windings.

Bearing Material - PTFE (Poly tetra flouro ethylene),


commonly known as teflon has been selected in countries
like China and Russia for bearing surface.
aptimizing Cooling Requirements /
Arrangements

@
     


The heat is generated in the components even after using


optimized design, proper material selection and
manufacturing. The same is required to be transferred
effectively and efficiently from the affected Components to
the Cooling medium to ensure safe operation of the Plant.

For this purpose, various cooling arrangements for such


components have been adopted.
Principle of aperation of Cooling Arrangements
- Work on the Principle of heat transfer by maintaining
appropriate temperature gradient between the affected (hot)
component and the cooling medium.

- In Hydro-Stations primary cooling medium could be air,


oil, water etc. As of now air and oil are primary cooling
medium which in turn are cooled by water.

- The arrangements for maintaining various components


within safe working temperatures constitute Cooling Water
System.
Cooling in Generators
Source of Heat Generation in Electric Generators are:

- Winding (Stator and Rotor)

- Bearings (Thrust and Guide)

- Iron Losses.

- Resistance to Air Flow in the Generator ( Windage


Losses)
Cooling of Generators
      

Most Generators work with conventional air cooling. Heat


produced during operation is removed by air circulated
through ducts in the stator core. This air in turn is cooled by
cold water flowing in Air Coolers mounted on the Stator.
However, higher capacity / performance plants require more
efficient mode of water cooling. anly 5% of Generators
worldwide are equipped with water cooling.
Cooling of Generators
       —



Some Manufacturers produce cooling system with 





 Resorting to this quality material


instead of conventional hollow copper conductors resulting in
whole range of decisive advantages.

- Smaller number of hollow conductors for cooling


- Higher Flow Speed
- Faster heat removal
- No increased losses
Cooling in Generators
(Cross Sectional View depicting Air Flow)
Cooling in Generators

  
° 
The hollow conductors used for cooling are fully integrated
into the bars and run parallel to the copper conductors.
Chemically clean water is used as coolant, which as we know
is electrically non-conductive.
Cooling of Generators
V 

Hydro Generators have two kinds of Bearings namely:


ë   
  w This transfers the load of the Rotor,
Shaft/s and the runner through upper/ lower brackets to
the Generator Foundation.
 !

  w As the name suggests, it guide the shaft
to rotate in the pre-determined shaft axis.

Cooling of these bearings is important for restricting the


working temperature to the safe permissible limits,
beyond which material deterioration, deformation and
consequently unit outage would result.
Cooling of Bearings
Lube ail acts as a lubricant between the stationary and the
moving part of the machine, the lube oil is re-circulated after
cooling with air/ water. This in turn, helps to reduce the
temperature of the Bearing.

PTFE w j
 " #

is being used widely in
bearing surfaces in Russia and China, as it has high thermal
capability, lower coefficient of friction and longer life.
Thrust Bearing Section
Cooling Tubes in Bearings
Cooling in Turbine Parts
 
!

  $
Similar to the Generator Guide Bearing, the Turbine
Guide Bearing also serves the purpose of guiding the
shaft in a pre-desired axis.

 
°
 $
In case of Reaction Turbines, Shaft Seals are
provided to prevent water leakages from the Turbine
Pit. Shaft Seals are provided with clean water under
pressure, which in turn prevents leakage of water
from Turbine to Top Cover / Turbine Guide Bearing.
Material of Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Cu-Ni 90:10, Titanium, incoloy
and others.
Generator Coolers w Material CS, SS, Cu-Ni, Brass/ Tubes
can be of Copper, Cu-Ni, SS, titanium and others.
Bearing ail Coolers w Tube, fittings and headers can be of
Cu-Ni, SS, admiralty brass, CS, Copper or any other as
required.
Cooling of Transformers
AN Air Natural Cooled a  

  
 
aNAN ail Natural and Air Natural
aFAF Coolers comes complete
With motor and fan assembly mounted and wired
in a fan cabinet.
aFWF (Shell & tube type design)
aNAF (Normal convection design/ Tubes of Copper or
Cupro-Nickel (Cu-Ni) etc.
HVAC
Equipment that are air cooled e.g.

-Excitation Equipment and ather Electronic Panels


-Dry Type Transformers
-Motors for various Auxiliaries

They increase the air temperature by their cooling action. To


maintain a safe and comfortable air temperature for the
personnel and equipment in the Powerhouse, HVAC System
is installed.
Types of Water Cooling Schemes

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Single Loop Cooling Water Scheme
Double Loop Cooling Water Scheme
Cooling Water Scheme adopted for Malana II
HEP
apen Loop Cooling Water Scheme
In this scheme, the Cooling Water consists of a single
Loop of Circulating CW.
Water from the Source is pumped into the heat
exchangers, and thereafter, the hot water is disposed in
the tail race or river.
Advantages:
- Simple Scheme with Least Components.
Disadvantages:
- Erosion due to silt present in the water reduces the life of
equipment.
Closed Loop Cooling Water Scheme
In this scheme, the Cooling Water consists of two Circuits
of Circulating CW.
1. j    w The water from the penstock or
tail race is fed to a heat exchanger (which cools
the Secondary Circuit Water) and is disposed in
the tail race.
2. —    w De-mineralized Water, is the
working fluid of this system which is fed to the
heat exchangers of Generator, Unit Bearings and
Transformers and its cooling is done by the
Primary Circuit.
Closed Loop Cooling Water Scheme


- The Scheme provides higher reliability from silt damage,
as Primary Circuits are made redundant by connecting
multiple unit Tail Race.
 

- Higher aperational Costs, as pumps for both the circuits
are required.
- Make up water tank is required to compensate the loss of
DM Water due to leakage etc.
- averall System Efficiency is Lower.
Silt Removal through 

 
Cyclone separators are devices that utilize centrifugal forces
and low pressure caused by spinning motion to separate
materials of differing density, size, and shape.
Axial & Tangential Cyclone Separators
Heat Exchangers for Cooling Water System
Malana w II HEP
Pumps for Cooling Water System
Malana w II HEP
Drainage System
Drainage System comprise of two types:
ë  
w The Leakage water from the
bushings of guide vanes, Shaft seals, MIV flanges, CW
System etc. has to be evacuated out of the Powerhouse.

  
 
w This is the seepage water from
rocks / soil which enters the cavities such as an
underground powerhouse due to gravity and high
pressure of rock mass.
Drainage System
The Drainage System comprises of the following
components:
1. Drainage Water Sump/ Pit w May be located at different
Levels.
2. Drainage Water Pumps (Vertical Turbine or
Submersible) with Starters.
3. Valves
4. Pipes and Fittings
5. Level Sensors.
Leakages in Turbine Pit
Three Methods of removing leaked water from Shaft Seal,
Guide Vane Bushes etc in Turbine Pit:
ë 


 : Leakage water is lead through
embedded pipes by gravity drainage sump. This water is
then pumped out to the tail race.
 @ 

 : The water is made to pass through a
nozzle, which creates a low pressure area, thereby
sucking the leaked water to Drainage sump, from where,
it is pumped to the tail race.
! —  j "
: In case leakage water is not
controllable with above said means, submersible pump
sets are sometimes deployed for draining Turbine Top
Cover.
Reaction Turbine Cross Section
Dewatering System

  —
 is of very high importance in respect to
the Powerhouses equipped with 
 
% as the
Runner Centerline is below the Tail Water Level.
The Water present in the draft tube is removed by directing
the water into a Dewatering Pit, from where it is pumped out
to the downstream of the Tail Race Gate, to avoid back flow.
Dewatering System
The Dewatering System comprises of the following
components:
1. Dewatering Sump/ Pit w Is located at the lower most
level of the draft tube/ turbine pit.
2. Dewatering Pumps (Choice as per Silt Content in Water)
3. Hand aperated Valves
4. Pipes and Fittings
5. Level Sensors.
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