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The Enthalpy Chart

Presented to CBE 317


Sept – 2003
Dick Hawrelak
A Typical Enthalpy Chart
The Liquid Line

Tc,Pc

*
PSIA

Liquid at its Bubble Point

BTU/LB
The Vapor Line

Tc,Pc

* Vapor at its Dew Point

PSIA

BTU/LB
The Latent Heat Line

Tc,Pc
*
PSIA

Latent Heat = Hv - HL
HL Hv

BTU/LB
Enthalpy Chart Zones
Dense Fluid Zone (Dense Vapor or a Light Liquid)
Pc, Tc
* Non - Ideal

PSIA The Liquid


The Two The Vapor Zone
Zone
Phase
Zone
Ideal
14.7 psia
Vacuum
Zone

BTU/LB
Equation of State
• At low pressure (14.7 psia, 101.3 kPa)
the Ideal Gas Law applies where
PV = (z)(n)(R)(T) and Z = 1.0
• At high pressure, the Gas Law is non-ideal
and Z is less than 1.0
• Vapor Density = (MW)(P) / [(Z)(R)(T)]
• More mistakes are made with vapor
density than any other physical property.
Super-Critical Region
• Above the Pc and the Tc which design equations
apply?
• Given temperature and pressure above the
criticals, a compressor vendor will treat the data
as a dense vapor and use vapor correlations.
• Given the same data, a pump vendor may treat
the data as a light liquid and use liquid
correlations (Dow Cochin Pipeline system).
Pump power required will be much lower than
compressor power required.
Just below the Pc and the Tc
• This is a critical zone for distillation
because the latent heat approaches zero
as the Pc and Tc are approached.
• Hence, Vapor flow = (BTU / hr) / (LH)
becomes very high.
• Design equations at conditions near the
criticals are very complicated and many
errors are made in this region.
Low Pressures
• Vacuum condition below 14.7 psia.
• Low vapor densities mean high vapor
flows by (cf / hr) = (lb / hr) / (lb / cf).
• Compared with high pressure, pressure
drop calculations in the vacuum zone have
very little margin for error.
• Hence, equipment such as exchangers
and distillation towers and lines can be
severely under-sized.
Constant Entropy Line
HP = (lb/hr)(BTU/lb) / 2547
Pc, Tc
*
P2, T2, S1, H2
PSIA

P1, T1, S1, H1

A Reciprocating
Compressor

BTU/LB
A Centrifugal Compressor
HP = (lb/hr)(BTU/lb) / 2547
Pc, Tc
* P2, T2, S2, H2

PSIA

P1, T1, S1, H1

A Centrifugal
Compressor

BTU/LB
A Refrigeration PFS
Refrigeration on Enthalpy Chart

Pc, Tc
* P2, T2, S2

PSIA

P1, T1, S1

A Refridgeration
Cycle

BTU/LB
Flashing

Pc, Tc
*
P1, F,
PSIA

P2, L P2, V

BTU/LB
Flashing Around E-3
to KO Pot
PIC

LC

Level Control Valve


Solve the % Flash
De-Superheating a Vapor

Pc, Tc
*
P1, T2 P1, T1
PSIA

BTU/LB
Condensing the Vapor

Pc, Tc
*
P1, T1, L P1, T1, V
PSIA

BTU/LB
Sub-Cooling The Liquid

Pc, Tc

P1, T2, L
*
P1, T1, L
PSIA

BTU/LB
Steam Expansion To
Generate Power

12,435 lb/hr 95 deg F 120 deg F Air To Atm


650 psia 1.6927 psia
750 deg F Vacuum Pump

75 deg F Horrizontal KO Pot


C-1 ST-1 120 deg F
To BFW system
HP = 1716.9 Eff'y = 77%
Steam Expansion
Which Route To Get From A to B?
Summary
• The Enthalpy Chart is one of the most useful
tools for solving chemical engineering
problems.
• Learn to communicate with it as shown in this
demonstration. If done properly, you’ll make
fewer mistakes in your design work.
• An internet web site that allows you to draw
enthalpy charts from a large chemical
database can be found at:
• http://www.questconsult.com/~jrm/enthpres.ht
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