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# PVD and Surcharging

## Harry Tan Siew Ann

Director Centre for Soft Ground Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
The National University of Singapore
Theory of Consolidation

Barron’s Theory (1948)
Vertical Drain - Hansbo
Theory (1981)
Combined Flow -
Carillo’s Theorem (1942)
Radial Consolidation - Barron’s Theory (1948)

## 3 - D Governing Equation in radial coords :

u   2 u 1 u   2u
 ch  2    c v 2
t  r r r  z
where
kh kv
ch  , cv 
mvw mvw

u   2 u 1 u 
 ch  2  
t  r r r 
Bondary Conditions :
1. u  u 0 at t  0
2. u(rw )  0 for t  0
u(re )
3.  0 (imperviou s due to symmetry)
r
ur ur 4U α e 2  4 α 2 n 2Th
Ur  1   2 2
 
1
;
u0 u0 α (n  1 ) n 2U 02 αn  U 12 α 
de ch t
where : n  and Th  2 ; U 0 and U 1 are Bessel Functions
dw de
Note :
Free  strain means
non - uniform
settlement as soil
closest to drain
settle fastest

U r is a function
of n and Th only
The average degree of radial consolidation U r coincides
with the local degree of consolidation Ur at ½(D-d) point
of soil cylinder, best place for piezometer to monitor
progress of consolidation
Like U r
Solution for Equal  Strain Condition (Ideal Drain) :
8 Th 8T
 ur  h
Ur  1  e f (n )
;  e f (n )
u0
n2 3n 2  1
where : f (n )  2 ln( n ) 
n 1 4n 2 Comparison
show very small
differences
between free-
strain and
equal-strain,
esp for n>10
For n=5,
significant
difference in
first 50% of
consolidation
What is size of Influence Diameter de or D

## Square spacing : Traingular spacing :

s 
2 D2
4
 
6 * 1/2 * s/2 * s/2 * 2/ 3 
D2
4
D  1.13s D  1.05s
Hansbo (1981) Ideal Vertical Drain :
 8Th c t
U r  1  exp ; Th  h2
 D

where :   2
n2 
ln( n ) 

3n 2  1
n 1 4n 2
Effect of Smear and Drain Resistance :
 8Th ct
U rz  1  exp ; Th  h2
s D

ln( m)   z 2L  z  c
n kc 3 k
where :  s  ln 
m k'c 4 qw
Effects of Smear and Drain Resistance
Combined Flow - Carillo’s Theorem (1942)
u   2 u 1 u 
If u1  f1 r , t  is a solution to  ch  2  
t  r r r 
u  2u
and u 2  f 2 z , t  is a solution to  cv 2
t z
then u1u 2 is a solutionof teh combined flow problem
u
Pr oof : Substitute u  u1u 2 into
t
 u1u 2    2 u1u 2  1  u1u 2    2 u1u 2 
 ch     cv
t   r 2
r  r   z 2
 
u 2  u1  u1 u 2    2 u1  1  u1    2 u 2 
  u 2 ch     u1c v
t t  r
2
r r  z 2
This means that :
 u1    2 u1  1  u1    u 2   2 u 2 
 c h    and  cv QED
t  r
2
r r  t z 2
Combined Flow - Carillo’s Theorem (1942)

## The previous discussion lead to :

u uh u v

u0 u0 u0
That means :
1 - U  1  U 1  U 
h v

## U v from Terzaghi' s theory

U h from Barron' s or Hansbo' s theory
Application to PVD
 Design
How does it work?
Estimate Clay Settlement
Example
Properties of Singapore Marine Clay
Sand Drains and PVD
Sand Drains and PVD
Sand Drains and PVD
Design
Design: without PVD
Design: without PVD
Design: Figs 12.15
Design: without PVD example
Design: with PVD
Design: with PVD
Other Design Considerations
Example
Observational methods to monitor PVD progress
Observational methods to monitor PVD progress
Observational methods to monitor PVD progress
Observational methods to monitor PVD progress
Observational methods to monitor PVD progress
Observational methods to monitor PVD progress