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OIL-BASED

DRILLING FLUIDS
Islamabad, Pakistan
April, 2001

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS AN INVERT
EMULSION?
 An INVERT EMULSION is a drilling fluid
composed of an EXTERNAL OIL or
SYNTHETIC phase and an INTERNAL brine
phase.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT DO WE MEAN BY
“OIL” AND “SYNTHETIC”?
 The word “OIL” refers to any petroleum-
based fluid, known as BASE OIL:
– Diesel, usually No. 2
– Low-toxicity, low-aromatic content mineral oil
– Crude Oil
 The word “SYNTHETIC” refers to a man-made
fluid. We call these BASE FLUIDS.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHY TWO DIFFERENT
TYPES?
 Drilling fluids based on OIL are harmful to the
environment, and have been either banned or
severely restricted in many operating areas.
 Drilling fluids based on SYNTHETICS are less
harmful, are bio-degradable and are
environmentally acceptable.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT DO WE CALL OUR
INVERTS?

 Our OIL based family of INVERT systems is


called:
– CARBO-DRILL
– It is based on DIESEL OIL
 Our SYNTHETIC based INVERT is called:
– SYN-TEQ
– It is based on PARA-TEQ (linear paraffin) or ISO-TEQ
(isomerized olefin)

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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CARBO-DRILL SYSTEMS

 The CARBO-DRILL family of INVERT


systems comprises:
– CARBO-TEC
• A harsh environment complete invert.
– CARBO-FAST
• A low colloid, relaxed filtrate system.
– CARBO-CORE
• An all oil system for coring or drilling.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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THE CARBO-TEC
PRODUCTS
 CARBO-TEC  CARBO-GEL
 CARBO-MUL HT  MIL-LIME
 CARBO-TROL  DIESEL OIL
 CARBO-TROL A9  WATER
 CARBO-TROL HT  CALCIUM CHLORIDE
 CARBO-VIS  BARITE

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-TEC?
 CARBO-TEC
– An ANIONIC LIQUID EMULSIFIER.
– Must be used with LIME to activate the emulsification
mechanism.
– Treatment levels vary from 0.6 to 1.7 gallons per
barrel.
– Lime is added at the rate of 5.0 pounds per gallon of
CARBO-TEC.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-MUL HT?
 CARBO-MUL HT
– A NONIONIC TO SLIGHTLY CATIONIC EMULSIFIER.
– Does not require lime.
– Provides emulsion stability.
– Primary oil wetting agent.
– Treatment levels vary from 0.1 to 1.0 gallons per
barrel.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-TROL?

 CARBO-TROL
– A powdered ASPHALT filtration control additive.
– Also viscosifies at high concentrations (above 40.0
pounds per barrel).
– Functions effectively above 4000F.
– Treatment levels are normally 2.0 to 10.0 pounds per
barrel.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-TROL A9?

 CARBO-TROL A9
– An AMINE-TREATED LIGNITE used for filtration
control in place of CARBO-TROL.
– Functions effectively above 3000F.
– Treatment levels normally vary from 5.0 to 10.0
pounds per barrel.
– DO NOT USE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES IN ACID GAS
(H2S, CO2) SITUATIONS!

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-TROL HT?

 CARBO-TROL HT
– A high-temperature softening-point GILSONITE.
– Improves filtration control.
– Treatment levels normally vary from 2.0 to 10.0
pounds per barrel.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-VIS?

 CARBO-VIS
– An ORGANOPHILIC BENTONITE.
– Used to modify rheological properties.
– Improves gel strengths.
– Effective to temperatures above 3500F.
– Treatment levels normally vary from 1.0 to 5.0
pounds per barrel, but depend on the type of oil.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
CARBO-GEL?

 CARBO-GEL
– An ORGANOPHILIC HECTORITE.
– Used to provide rheological structure.
– Provides gel strengths.
– Provides filtration control.
– Effective to temperatures above 4000F.
– Treatment levels normally vary from 1.0 to 5.0
pounds per barrel, but depend on the type of oil.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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THE OTHER PRODUCTS

 MIL-LIME
– Used for alkalinity control.
 DIESEL OIL
– The EXTERNAL phase.
 WATER
– The INTERNAL phase.
 CALCIUM CHLORIDE
– Provides salinity.
 BARITE
© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001
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SYN-TEQ SYSTEM
PRODUCTS
 ISO-TEQ  CARBO-GEL
 PARA-TEQ  MIL-LIME
 OMNI-TEC  OMNI-COTE
 OMNI-MUL  OMNI-PLEX
 OMNI-MIX  WATER
 OMNI-TROL HT  CALCIUM CHLORIDE
 OMNI-TROL  BARITE

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
OMNI-TEC?
 OMNI-TEC
– An ANIONIC LIQUID EMULSIFIER.
– Must be used with LIME to activate the emulsification
mechanism.
– Treatment levels vary from 0.25 to 0.5 gallons per
barrel.
– Lime is added at the rate of 5.0 pounds per gallon of
CARBO-TEC.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
OMNI-MUL?
 OMNI-MUL
– A NONIONIC TO SLIGHTLY CATIONIC EMULSIFIER.
– Does not require lime.
– Provides emulsion stability.
– Primary oil wetting agent.
– Treatment levels vary from 1.0 to 3.0 gallons per
barrel.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
OMNI-MIX?
 OMNI-MIX
– A SUPPLEMENTAL ANIONIC EMULSIFIER.
– Does not require lime.
– Provides additional filtration control.
– Prevents water-wet solids.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
OMNI-COTE?

 OMNI-COTE
– Controls rheological properties caused by drill
solids.
– Facilitates the oil-wetting of solids.
– Concentrations vary between 0.1 to 0.25 gallons per
barrel.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHAT IS
OMNI-PLEX?

 OMNI-PLEX
– An ELASTOMERIC VISCOSIFIER.
– Supplements CARBO-GEL and CARBO-VIS
additions.
– Can be used to increase low rpm readings and
overall rheological properties at temperatures
greater than 4500F.
– Treatment levels between 0.25 to 0.75 gallons per
barrel.
© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001
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MIXING PROCEDURES

 The MIXING PROCEDURE for the CARBO-


TEC and SYN-TEQ systems is essentially the
same.
 No formulations are outlined due to regional
variations, legislation and local operational
problems.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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GENERAL METHOD

 Perform ALL  Add ORGANOPHILIC


CALCULATIONS to CLAY and LIME.
determine quantities.  Add EMULSIFIERS.
 Clean all pits and lines  Add BRINE water.
and flush with oil/base  Add FILTRATION
fluid. CONTROL additives.
 Add OIL to the pits.  Add BARITE.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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PERSONAL SAFETY

 It is very important to remember that many of


the products used can be harmful if exposure
is prolonged.
 WEAR YOUR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT!

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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ADVANTAGES and
DISADVANTAGES
 Advantages:  Disadvantages:
– Shale stability and – High initial cost/bbl.
inhibition. – Requires mechanical shear.
– Temperature stability. – Reduced kick detection.
– Lubricity – Environmental concerns.
– Resistance to chemical – High cost of lost circulation.
contamination. – Disposal problems.
– Gauge hole in evaporites. – Limited solids control
– Solids tolerance. equipment.
– Less skin damage.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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ADVANTAGES and
DISADVANTAGES
 Advantages:  Disadvantages:
– Reduced tendency for stuck – Hole cleaning.
pipe. – Rig cleanliness.
– Reduced fluid density – Special skin care for
drilling. personnel may be required.
– Re-use. – Hazardous vapors.
– Reduced cementing costs. – Effect on rubber.
– High ROP. – Fire hazard.
– Flexibility – Requires special logging
– Reduced corrosion. tools.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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TESTING INVERT SYSTEMS

 All density, rheology and retort tests are the


same as for water base systems.
 The CHEMICAL analysis are different.
 The CALCULATIONS are different.
 And, there are some NEW tests!

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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TESTING INVERT SYSTEMS

 The tests you will perform are:


– Density - measured with a pressure balance ideally!
– Rheology at 1200 F.
– Retort Analysis - using a 50 ml retort ideally!
– Whole mud alkalinity
– Whole mud chloride
– Whole mud calcium

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHOLE MUD ALKALINITY

 Add 100 ml ARCOSOLV PNP to a 400 ml


beaker.
 Add 2 ml whole mud and mix well.
 Add 200 ml distilled water.
 Add 15 drops PHENOLPTHALEIN.
 While mixing rapidly on a magnetic stirrer,
titrate with 0.1N SULFURIC ACID until pink
color JUST dissappears.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHOLE MUD ALKALINITY

 Continue stirring. If no pink color reappears


within 1 minute, stop stirring.
 Let sample stand for 5 minutes. If no color
has returned, record the volume of acid
used.
 If color returns, repeat titration procedure
until no color is present. Record the TOTAL
amount of acid used.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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CALCULATE THE WHOLE
MUD ALKALINITY

 The formula used is:


– Pom = Va (ml) / Vs (ml)
• Where:
–Va = Volume ACID
–Vs = Volume SAMPLE
 To convert this value to LIMEppb MULTIPLY by
1.295

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHOLE MUD CHLORIDE

 Follow the same procedure as outlined for


the WHOLE MUD ALKALINITY.
 Ensure the mixture is ACIDIC by adding 1-2
drops, or more, of ACID.
 Add 10-15 drops of POTASSIUM CHROMATE
indicator.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHOLE MUD CHLORIDE

 While mixing rapidly, titrate with 0.282


SILVER NITRATE to a SALMON PINK color
that remains stable for at least one minute.
 Allow phases to separate if you are unsure
of the end point.
 Calculate the WHOLE MUD CHLORIDE as
follows:

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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CALCULATE THE WHOLE
MUD CHLORIDE

 The formula used is:


– CLom = ( 10000 * AGNO ) / Vs
• Where:
–AGNO = Volume 0.282 SILVER NITRATE
–Vs = Volume SAMPLE
 The value derived is the WHOLE MUD
CHLORIDE!

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHOLE MUD CALCIUM

 Add 100 ml ARCOSOLV PNP to a 400 ml


beaker.
 Add 2 ml whole mud and mix well.
 Add 200 ml distilled water.
 Add 3.0 ml 1N SODIUM HYDROXIDE buffer.
 Add 0.1-0.25 g CALVER II indicator.
 Mix well, then allow to rest.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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WHOLE MUD CALCIUM

 If a “REDDISH” color appears in the lower


phase, CALCIUM is present. Continue the
test.
 Using a magnetic stirrer, stir without mixing
the two phases.
 Titrate slowly, using EDTA (Versenate
solution) to a BLUE-GREEN color.
 Record the volume of EDTA used.

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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CALCULATE THE WHOLE
MUD CALCIUM

 The formula used is:


– CAom = ( 4000 * EDTA ) / Vs
• Where:
–EDTA = Volume 0.1 EDTA
–Vs = Volume SAMPLE
 The value derived is the WHOLE MUD
CALCIUM!

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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CALCULATIONS

 TOTAL LIME CONTENT (ppb)


– LIME = Pom * 1.295
 CHLORIDE FROM CaCl2 BRINE (mg/)
– CLCaCl2 = 1.77 * Caom

• NOTE: If CLCaCl2 <= Caom assume only CaCL2 is


present.
 We will assume, for this example, that no
NaCl is present.
© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001
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CALCULATIONS

 CALCIUM CHLORIDE (mg/l of whole mud)


 CALCIUM CHLORIDE (ppb)
 CALCIUM CHLORIDE (wt%)

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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UNDERSTANDING THE
FLUID/WATER RATIO

 Expressed as a percent of the liquid retort


fraction. For Example:
• RW = 20%
• RO = 65%
– WR = (( 100 * RW ) / ( RO + RW ))
– WR = (( 100 * 20 ) / ( 65 + 20 ))
– WR = (( 2000 ) / ( 85 ))
– WR = 23.53
– WR = 24

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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UNDERSTANDING THE
FLUID/WATER RATIO

 If the WATER RATIO (RW) is 76, then we can


easily solve for the FLUID RATIO (FW). For
example:
– FW = 100 - RW
– FW = 100 - 24
– FW = 75
 Therefore, the FLUID/WATER ratio is 76/24

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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UNDERSTANDING THE
FLUID/BRINE RATIO

 If the WATER RATIO (Rw) is 76, then we can


easily solve for the FLUID RATIO (Fw). For
example:
– Fw = 100 - Rw
– Fw = 100 - 24
– Fw = 75
 Therefore, the FLUID/BRINE ratio is 76/24

© 2001 Baker Hughes Incorporated Oil-based Drilling Fluids – April, 2001


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